Natural gas supply statistics

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Data from September 2020.

Planned article update: October 2021.

Highlights
In 2019, gross inland consumption of natural gas in the EU increased by 4.2 % compared with 2018 to a level not seen since 2010.
Natural gas dependency in EU reached an all-time high of 89.5 % in 2019, up from 83.8 % in 2018.
EU natural gas production continued its decreasing trend, falling by 11.0 % in 2019 compared with 2018.

This article looks at monthly cumulated data on natural gas in the European Union (EU) for 2018 and 2019, as well as trends between these two years. It covers all aspects of the supply side - primary production, imports (entries) and exports (exits), stock changes, gross inland consumption - as well as natural gas energy dependency data by Member State and for the European aggregates EU and euro area.

Figure 1: Gross inland consumption in EU
in thousand terajoules (gross calorific value)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_cb_gasm), (nrg_cb_gas)


Full article

Consumption trends

In 2019, gross inland consumption of natural gas in the EU increased by 4.2 % compared with 2018, to reach 15 591 thousand terajoules. EA-19 consumption decreased by 6.5 %, to 11 824 thousand terajoules. The most significant increases in consumption were recorded in Spain (14.1 %), Greece (9.0 %) and Germany (7.7 %), while the largest falls were noticed in Latvia (-8.4 %), Estonia (-8.0 %) and Denmark (-6.7 %) (see Table 1 and 2 and Figure 2).

In Table 1 and Table 2 as well as in Figure 6, a negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter country. Positive values over 100 % indicate stocks build-up during the reference period.

Table 1: Provisional natural gas balance sheet in thousand terajoules (GCV)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_103m), (nrg_124m), (nrg_134m)


Table 2: Provisional natural gas balance sheet in thousand terajoules (GCV)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_103m), (nrg_124m), (nrg_134m)


Figure 2: Gross inland consumption in thousand terajoules(GCV)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_103m), (nrg_124m), (nrg_134m)

Supply structure

Natural gas production

EU natural gas production continued its decreasing trend, falling by 11.0 % in 2019 compared with 2018, to total 2 445 thousand terajoules. For the Euro area, a decrease of 19.5 % was recorded and production amounted to 1 522 thousand terajoules. The main EU natural gas producer, the Netherlands, registered a drop in production of -13.5 %. Notable decreases were also observed for Denmark (-25.4 %), Ireland (-22.2 %), Croatia (-16.3 %), Italy (-11.0 %), Hungary (-9.2 %) and Austria (-9.2 %). In contrast, there was an increase of 0.5 % in natural gas production in Poland. With a natural gas production of 1 122 thousand terajoules in 2019, the Netherlands was the first producer of natural gas in the EU, followed by Romania, whose primary production was of 386 thousand terajoules and Germany, whose primary production was of 202 thousand terajoules (see Figure 3).

Figure 3: Primary production in thousand terajoules(GCV)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_103m)

Natural gas imports

Total EU imports (entries) of natural gas increased by 4.2 % to reach 26 730 thousand terajoules. The most significant increase in 2019 compared with 2018 in the main net importers, i.e. countries importing at least 1 000 thousand terajoules, was observed in the Netherlands (+17.6 %), followed by Slovakia (+17.4 %) and France (+11.1 %). In the EA, imports of natural gas decreased by 3.4 % to 20 257 thousand terajoules in 2019 (see Figure 4).

Figure 4: Total imports (entries) and exports (exits) in thousand terajoules (GCV)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_124m), (nrg_134m)

It is important to remember that following the change in methodology in reporting monthly natural gas trade, introduced starting with reference month January 2013, monthly data concerning imports by country of origin are no longer completely comparable with previous years' figures or with the more detailed annually collected data. The new monthly reporting provides import figures as entries from last transit country (mostly neighbouring countries) instead of by country of primary / indigenous production and export figures as exits from the reporting country (thus including all gas transiting its national territory).

As regards the origin of imports, Norway was the source of 24.0 % of the natural gas entering the EU (intra-EU trade and entries from Switzerland both excluded), followed by Ukraine (19.0 %), Russia (19.0 %) and Belarus (9.9 %) (see Figure 5). However, considering that most gas entering the EU from Ukraine and Belarus initially comes from Russia, the dependency on gas imports from this country is in practice higher than on gas from Norway.

Figure 5: Percentage of extra-EU imports (entries) of natural gas by country of origin
Source: Eurostat (nrg_124m)

Natural gas dependency in EU increased reaching 89.5 % in 2019, up from 83.8 % in 2018. Denmark is the only net exporter in the EU, as the Netherlands became a net importer in 2018. In 19 Member States natural gas dependency was higher than 90 %.

Figure 6: Natural gas import dependency, by country, 2018-2019 (%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_103m)


Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

All data used in this article correspond to cumulative monthly figures and may differ from the annual data (except for Figure 1, where both are used, mainly to illustrate the level of accuracy of the monthly data compared to the annual data).

The reporting is based on Energy statistics Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008.

Context

Timely data are essential to all stakeholders for an efficient monitoring of the market evolutions, especially in the energy domain. Therefore, Eurostat not only collects detailed annual statistics but also complements them with a reduced number of data points which are collected on a monthly basis and published within two to three months after the reference month. In this framework, the natural gas monthly data covers the supply – and to a limited extent consumption – of this fuel, providing thus very early information about the developments in the natural gas market both in the EU as in each Member State.

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Energy Statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)
Gross available energy by product (ten00121)
Final energy consumption by product (ten00123)
Energy dependence (t2020_rd320)



Energy Statistics - quantities, monthly data (nrg_quant)
Energy Statistics - supply, transformation, consumption (nrg_10m)
Supply - gas - monthly data (nrg_103m)
Energy statistics - imports (by country of origin) (nrg_12m)
Imports (by country of origin) - gas - monthly data (nrg_124m)
Energy statistics - exports (by country of destination) (nrg_13m)
Exports (by country of destination) - gas - monthly data (nrg_134m)