Migrant integration statistics - regional labour market indicators


Data from June 2018

Planned article update: June 2019

Highlights
Activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States were higher than those for nationals in a majority of the EU’s regions in 2017.
The highest employment rates across the EU for citizens of other EU Member States and non-EU citizens were recorded in several regions of the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom in 2017.
The employment rates for people with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities were systematically lower among non-EU citizens than for nationals or for citizens of other Member States in 2017.
Activity rates by broad groups of citizenship and NUTS 2 regions, 2017
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the host countries in which they settle, with their participation gaining importance in the various European Union (EU) Member States over recent years. Migrant integration has become a key area for policy focus in recent years.

The information presented here for regional labour market indicators supplements a more general article that provides a range of migrant integration statistics at the national level. This article goes into more detail by analysing statistics for NUTS level 2 regions[1] and statistics by degree of urbanisation. The information shown contrasts the situation of migrants — both citizens of other EU Member States and non-EU citizens — with that of nationals (in other words citizens of the country of residence); the article is divided into two main parts, covering two key indicators: the activity rate and the employment rate. [2]

All of the statistics shown relate to the working-age population — defined here as people aged 20-64 years. This age group has been selected because it is relevant to one of the targets included within the Europe 2020 strategy, namely, that the EU-28 employment rate for persons aged 20-64 should be at least 75 % by 2020.

This article forms part of an online Eurostat publication — Migrant integration statistics.


Full article


Regional activity rates for migrants

Labour market participation may be measured through the activity rate, which provides information on the number of economically active persons (also known as the labour force) aged 20-64, expressed as a percentage of the total population (in the same age group); this indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators for measuring migrant integration.

The activity rate of the EU-28 working-age population living in the EU varied according to citizenship (as illustrated in Maps 1-3; note that identical classes have been used for the shading in all three maps so they may be more easily compared). In 2017, the EU-28 activity rate for nationals was 78.3 %, while the rate for citizens of other EU Member States was higher (82.5 %) and that for non-EU citizens was lower (68.5 %).

Maps 1 to 3: Activity rates by broad groups of citizenship and NUTS 2 regions, 2017
For full-size maps please see the Excel file attached.
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

Map 1 shows that the highest regional activity rates for nationals were often recorded in the Nordic Member States, Germany and the United Kingdom. In 2017, the highest regional activity rate for nationals in the EU was recorded in the Finish archipelago of Åland (90.6 %); there were 21 other NUTS level 2 regions that recorded activity rates for nationals that were higher than 85.0 %, including ten regions from Germany, all eight regions from Sweden, three regions from the United Kingdom. By contrast, the 10 lowest regional activity rates for nationals were largely concentrated in southern Italy — seven regions, including the lowest rate of 55.4 % for the island region of Sicilia — with two regions in Romania and one region in Belgium. The difference between the highest and lowest regional activity rates for nationals (recorded respectively in the Finish archipelago of Åland and the Italian island region of Sicilia) was 35.2 percentage points.

Activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States were higher than those for national citizens in a majority of the EU’s regions

A similar analysis of regional activity rates is presented in Map 2, with its focus on citizens of other EU Member States. In 2017, the highest regional activity rate for this part of the population was recorded in the Czech region of Strední Cechy (95.6 %), while shares of more than 90.0 % were also recorded in nine regions of the United Kingdom (with the highest regional activity rate of 94.1 % observed for Shropshire and Staffordshire), three other regions from the Czech Republic, one region from Spain (La Rioja; 92.7 %), one from the Netherlands (Zeeland; 92.1 %) and one from Sweden (Stockholm; 90.7 %). By contrast, activity rates for citizens of other Member States were less than 60.0 % in a Greek region (Voreia Ellada; NUTS level 1), a Hungarian region (Alföld és Észak; NUTS level 1), in Croatia (information only available at the national level), in a Dutch region (Friesland) and in an Italian region (Calabria); in Calabria 53.5 % of all citizens from other Member States were in employment or actively seeking work, the lowest rate in the EU. Therefore, the difference between the highest and lowest regional activity rates for citizens from other Member States (recorded respectively in the Czech region of Strední Cechy and Italian region of Calabria) was 42.1 percentage points.

As noted above, in 2017 foreign citizens aged 20-64 from other EU Member States were more likely to be part of the EU-28 labour force (82.5 %) than nationals of the same age (78.3 %). A more detailed analysis reveals that this pattern was repeated in 57.5 % of the 221 regions for which data are available across the EU. Among these regions, the largest differences between activity rates for these two parts of the population — in percentage point terms — were recorded in the Czech region of Severozápad (15.7 percentage points) and the southern Italian region, Puglia (15.3 percentage points), while gaps within the range of 13.0-14.0  percentage points were also observed in: the Czech region of Strední Cechy, the French island region of Corse and in Lincolnshire in the east central part of the United Kingdom (see Figure 1).

Among the regions where nationals recorded higher activity rates in 2017 than citizens from other EU Member States, the largest difference — in percentage point terms — was recorded in the Dutch region of Friesland, where the activity rate for nationals was 24.8 percentage points higher than that recorded for citizens from other EU Member States. There were only five other regions in the EU where the activity rate for nationals was more than 10 percentage points higher than the rate for citizens from other EU Member States: Latvija (one region at this level of detail), two Hungarian regions of Alföld és Észak (NUTS 1 level) and Közép-Magyarország (NUTS 1 level), the Greek region of Voreia Ellada (NUTS 1 level) and Croatia (national data).[3]

Figure 1: Largest gaps in regional activity rates for national citizens and foreign citizens from other EU Member States, 2017
(percentage points difference; based on population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

The focus of Map 3 is again the activity rate, but this time for non-EU citizens. The highest activity rate for this part of the population was recorded in the Highlands and Islands region (the United Kingdom; 2016 data), where almost all foreign citizens from outside the EU aged 20-64 formed part of the labour force (97.0 %); the next highest activity rates (more than 90.0 %) were recorded in the Czech region of Moravskoslezsko and the Greek region of Voreio Aigaio. At the other end of the range, the lowest regional activity rates for non-EU citizens — all below 45.0 % — were recorded in the two German regions: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Sachsen-Anhalt, the French overseas island region of La Réunion, Croatia (national data) and Overijssel (the Netherlands), which had the lowest rate in the EU (40.7 %). As such, the difference between the highest and lowest regional activity rates for non-EU citizens (recorded respectively in the Highlands and Islands region and Overijssel) was 56.3 percentage points, larger than the range for either national citizens or citizens of other EU Member States.

Overall, non-EU citizens (68.5 %) were less likely to form part of the EU-28 labour force than nationals (78.3 %). In 2017, approximately one fifth (18.5 %) of the 238 regions for which data are available reported a higher activity rate for non-EU citizens than for nationals. Among these 44 regions, the largest differences between activity rates for these two parts of the population — in percentage point terms — were recorded in the Czech region of Moravskoslezsko (16.6 percentage points) and the Italian region of Campania (16.5 percentage points), while double-digit gaps were also observed in: Romania (national data), the southern Italian regions of Sicilia, Puglia and Sardegna, Highlands and Islands in the United Kingdom (2016 data), two Polish regions of Makroregion Pólnocno-Zachodni (NUTS 1 level) and Makroregion Pólnocny (NUTS 1 level), the Greek regions of Voreio Aigaio, Ipeiros and Kentriki Makedonia, as well as the Spanish region of Cantabria (see Figure 2). At the other end of the range, there were 13 regions across the EU where activity rates for nationals were more than 30.0 percentage points higher than for non-EU citizens. Eight of these were German regions (including the region with the largest gap and the lowest rate for non-EU citizens, Sachsen-Anhalt; 42.8 percentage points), four were Dutch regions (including the region with the second largest gap, Overijssel; 41.9 percentage points) and one region in France (Languedoc-Roussillon).

Figure 2: Largest gaps in regional activity rates for national citizens and foreign citizens from outside the EU, 2017
(percentage points difference; based on population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

Figure 3 confirms that in 2017 regional activity rates for non-EU citizens were generally more dispersed than regional activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States. It also shows that regional activity rates for citizens of other Member States were generally higher than regional activity rates for non-EU citizens; at an aggregated level this pattern could be observed for national data in all of the Member States, except for Greece, Latvia, Hungary, Portugal and Slovenia. A third pattern that is apparent when analysing the information presented in Figure 3 is that activity rates for capital regions were usually higher than the national average. This was generally the case for both migrant groups of the population and was repeated in each of the Member States for which data are available, with the exceptions of: the Czech capital region of Praha, where both the activity rates for non-EU citizens and for citizens of other EU Member States were lower than their respective national averages; the German capital region of Berlin, where the activity rate for citizens of other Member States was lower than the national average for citizens of other Member States; and the Austrian capital region of Wien, where also the activity rate for non-EU citizens was lower than the national average for non-EU citizens.


Figure 3: Regional disparities in activity rates, by citizenship and NUTS 2 regions, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

The information presented in Figure 4 also confirms the differences in 2017 between activity rates for migrants who were citizens of other EU Member States and migrants who were non-EU citizens. Some of the most pronounced differences were recorded in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Austria, Finland and Sweden where the lowermost regional activity rate for citizens of other EU Member States was at a higher level than the uppermost regional activity rate for non-EU citizens, while this pattern was very nearly repeated in Belgium; and was also observed for Norwegian and Swiss regions. By contrast, the Czech Republic, Greece, Portugal, Slovenia and the United Kingdom were the only EU Member States to report that their uppermost regional activity rate for non-EU citizens was higher than the uppermost regional activity rate for citizens of other EU Member States.

Figure 4: Highest and lowest regional activity rates, by citizenship, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfp2actrtn)

Activity rates for migrants by degree of urbanisation

The highest activity rates tended to be in cities

In 2017, EU-28 activity rates for people aged 20-64 were somewhat higher in cities than they were in towns and suburbs or rural areas. This pattern was repeated for all three parts of the population shown in Figure 5, as activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States peaked at 83.4 % in cities, while the highest activity rates for national citizens (78.8 %) and for non-EU citizens (69.4 %) were also recorded for those subpopulations living in the most-densely populated areas.

The three separate charts that make-up Figure 5 confirm some of the results already presented at a regional level, insofar as activity rates tended to be higher for migrants from other EU Member States and for nationals than they were for non-EU citizens. It is interesting to note that the distribution of activity rates by degree or urbanisation fluctuated more for foreign citizens than for nationals.

There was a particularly large range between the activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States when analysed by degree of urbanisation, with the most pronounced difference observed in Slovenia, where the highest activity rates for citizens of other EU Member States were recorded in towns and suburbs, while the lowest activity rates were recorded in rural areas.

A similar analysis for non-EU citizens reveals that the biggest differences in activity rates by degree of urbanisation were recorded in Cyprus and the United Kingdom (where the highest rates were observed in rural areas) and Luxembourg, Italy, Malta, Denmark and the Netherlands (where the highest rates were observed in cities).

In cities, the lowest activity rates tended to be recorded among non-EU citizens

In 2017 and subject to data availability, there were 19 EU Member States where the highest activity rates in cities were recorded for citizens of other EU Member States. Two Member States - Germany and Hungary - reported that nationals had the highest activity rates; while, in Greece, the highest activity rates were recorded among non-EU citizens. Additionally, in Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain the activity rates for cities were higher for non-EU citizens and for citizens of other Member States than they were for nationals.

A similar analysis for towns and suburbs reveals that there were 13 EU Member States where migrants from other Member States recorded the highest activity rates, while there were five Member States where nationals recorded the highest activity rates. However, activity rates among non-EU citizens living in Greek towns and suburbs were higher than the rates recorded for nationals or for citizens of other Member States. In the Czech Republic, Italy and Slovenia the activity rates for towns and suburbs were higher for non-EU citizens and for citizens of other Member States than they were for nationals.

In rural areas, the highest activity rates for migrants from other Member States were recorded in ten Member States, while there were four Member States where the highest activity rates were observed for nationals. Activity rates among non-EU citizens living in Greek, Cypriot and Slovenian rural areas were higher than the rates recorded for nationals or for citizens of other Member States.

Figure 5: Activity rates by citizenship and degree of urbanisation, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_arednu)

Regional employment rates for migrants

The employment rate is defined as the share of the working-age population (defined here as people aged 20-64 years) who have a job (i.e. are in employment). In 2017, the EU-28 employment rate for nationals was 72.8 %, which was 3.3 percentage points lower than the rate recorded for citizens from other EU Member States. By contrast, the EU-28 employment rate for working-age migrants who were non-EU citizens was 57.3 % (some 15.5 percentage points lower than the average for nationals).

Maps 4-6 present regional employment rates for: nationals, citizens from other EU Member States and non-EU citizens (note that identical classes have been used for the shading in all three maps so they may be more easily compared).

Maps 4 to 6: Employment rates by broad groups of citizenship and NUTS 2 regions, 2017
For full-size maps please see the Excel file attached.
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfe2emprtn)

In 2017, the highest regional employment rates for nationals were in the Nordic Member States, Germany and the United Kingdom (see Map 4). As was the case for activity rates, the highest regional employment rate for nationals of 88.4 % was recorded in Åland (Finland). It was followed by two Swedish regions of Stockholm and Småland med öarna, three regions in the south of Germany — Oberbayern, Tübingen and Stuttgart — and by Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, a region to the west of London in the United Kingdom. Those top regions recorded employment rates that were equal or higher than 85.0 %.

At the other end of the range, there were four regions in the south of Italy — Puglia, Campania, Calabria and Sicilia — where the employment rate for nationals was less than 50.0 %. In other words, it was most usual for working-age adults to not have a job. This reflected a more general pattern, as many of the lowest regional employment rates for nationals were recorded in southern Europe, in particular, for Italian, Spanish or Greek regions.

The highest regional employment rates for citizens of other Member States and non-EU citizens were recorded in the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

Map 5 reveals that across the EU the highest regional employment rates for citizens of other EU Member States were recorded in the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom. In 2017, the highest rate was registered in the Czech region of Strední Cechy (94.2 %), while shares of more than 90.0 % were also observed in the another Czech region of Strední Morava and two regions from the United Kingdom: Highlands and Islands, and Cumbria.

Looking in more detail, the top 20 regions in the EU with the highest employment rates for citizens of other Member States were composed of 12 regions from the United Kingdom, five regions from the Czech Republic, as well as the French region of Corse, the Dutch region of Zeeland and the Swedish region of Mellersta Norrland.

The focus of Map 6 is again the employment rate, but this time for non-EU citizens. The highest employment rate for this part of the population was recorded in the Highlands and Islands region (the United Kingdom; 2016 data), where more than 9 out of 10 foreign citizens aged 20-64 from outside the EU were in employment (92.3 %); the next highest employment rate (85.1 %) was recorded also in the United Kingdom in the region of North Yorkshire. The top 20 regions with the highest employment rates for non-EU citizens was completed by a further 18 regions where employment rates were within the range of 74.5-84.5 %: several of these were also located in the United Kingdom (seven more regions), the Czech Republic (five more regions), Poland (two regions at NUTS 1 level) or Portugal (two more regions), while the remainder included the region of Zahodna Slovenija (western Slovenia) and the Greek region of Voreio Aigaio.

Figure 6 summarises the information concerning the highest and lowest regional employment rates in 2017. It confirms that the lowest regional employment rates for citizens of other EU Member States were often in southern Europe, with the lowest rates in the two southern Italian regions of Sicilia and Calabria, and the region of Voreia Ellada (NUTS 1 level) in northern Greece. A similar analysis reveals that the lowest regional employment rates for non-EU citizens were in the French overseas regions. Indeed, four of the bottom five rates were recorded for French regions — Guadeloupe, La Réunion, Guyane and Martinique (which had the lowest rate of any region in the EU, at 20.8 %) — while the fifth lowest rate was recorded in the German region of Sachsen-Anhalt.

Figure 6: Employment rates by citizenship for selected NUTS 2 regions, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfe2emprtn)


Migrant employment rates in capital regions were generally higher than national averages for migrant employment rates

In 2017, it was usually the case that migrant employment rates for capital regions were higher than national averages for migrant employment rates (see Figure 7). Subject to data availability, this pattern was repeated in a majority of the EU Member States, with the only exceptions in: Belgium, where national employment rates for non-EU citizens were higher than in the respective capital regions; Germany, where the average employment rate for citizens of other Member States was higher than in the capital region; the Czech Republic and Austria, where both national employment rates for citizens of other Member States and non-EU citizens were higher than those recorded in Praha and Wien.

Figure 7: Regional disparities in employment rates, by citizenship and NUTS 2 regions, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfe2emprtn)

Figure 8 confirms that regional employment rates for citizens of other Member States were generally higher than those recorded for non-EU citizens, while inter-regional differences were usually greater for non-EU citizens than they were for citizens of other Member States. In 2017, such inter-regional differences were particularly pronounced in the United Kingdom, as employment rates for non-EU citizens ranged from a high of 92.3 % in Highlands and Islands (2016 data) down to a low of 43.8 % in South Yorkshire, a gap of 48.5 percentage points. This pattern was repeated in Germany, as the uppermost employment rates among non-EU citizens were recorded in Oberbayern (70.1 %), while the lowermost rates were recorded in Sachsen-Anhalt (25.2 %), with a gap of 44.9 percentage points.

A similar analysis of employment rates for citizens of other Member States reveals that the greatest inter-regional differences were in Italy, with the gap between the highest rate in Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Bozen and the lowest rate in Calabria equal to 38.2 percentage points. As such, the range between the upper and lowermost regional employment rates was wider in Italy for citizens of other Member States than it was for non-EU citizens; this pattern was repeated in Belgium, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands.


Figure 8: Highest and lowest regional employment rates, by citizenship, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfe2emprtn)


Employment rates for migrants by degree of urbanisation

Employment rates for people with high education (tertiary level of educational attainment) living in cities were systematically lower among non-EU citizens than for nationals or for citizens of other Member States

Figure 9 is composed of three separate parts that provide information on employment rates for nationals, citizens of other EU Member States and non-EU citizens; each part presents an analysis by degree of urbanisation. In 2017, the highest EU-28 employment rates for citizens of other EU Member States and non-EU citizens were recorded in cities (respectively 77.3  % and 58.5 %), whereas for nationals there was almost no difference between the rates observed in cities, towns and suburbs and rural areas (respectively 72.8 %, 72.7 %, 72.9 %).

In 2017 and subject to data availability, there were 19 EU Member States where the highest employment rates in cities were recorded for citizens of other EU Member States; while four Member States – Denmark, Germany, Greece and Hungary - reported that nationals had the highest employment rates.

A similar analysis for towns and suburbs reveals that there were ten EU Member States where migrants from other Member States recorded the highest employment rates, while there were nine Member States where employment rates among nationals living in towns and suburbs were higher than the rates recorded for non-EU citizens or for citizens of other Member States.

In rural areas, the highest employment rates for migrants from other Member States were recorded in nine Member States, while there were eight Member States where nationals recorded the highest employment rates. Only in Cyprus the employment rate among non-EU citizens living in rural areas was higher than the rates recorded for nationals or for citizens of other Member States.


Figure 9: Employment rates by citizenship and degree of urbanisation, 2017
(% share of population aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_erednu)


The information presented in this article has confirmed that there were often gaps in employment rates between nationals and citizens of other EU Member States on the one hand, and non-EU citizens on the other. The final analysis shown in Figures 10 and 11 is restricted to data covering people living in cities and shows employment rates for the working-age population who possessed a tertiary level of educational attainment. In 2017, EU-28 employment rates for people with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities were higher among nationals (85.0 %) and citizens from other Member States (84.5 %) than they were for non-EU citizens (66.4 %).

Figure 10 reveals that, subject to data availability, employment rates for people with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities were systematically lower among non-EU citizens than for nationals or for citizens of other Member States. Nationals of working-age with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities generally recorded the highest employment rates in 2017, although in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Hungary, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Austria, Luxembourg and Greece the highest employment rates were recorded for citizens of other Member States.


Figure 10: Employment rates for people with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities, by citizenship, 2017
(% share of subpopulation aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_erednu)


An additional analysis by sex (see Figure 11) reveals that just over half (57.9 %) of all working-age women in the EU-28 who were non-EU citizens in possession of a tertiary education degree and living in cities were employed, while the share for the same cohort of men was over three quarters (76.3 %). An analogous comparison for citizens from other EU Member States reveals a smaller gender gap, as the employment rate for men in possession of a tertiary education degree and living in cities was 90.5 %, some 11.1 percentage points higher than the corresponding figure for women (79.4 %). Both of these gender gaps for foreign citizens were higher than the gap recorded among nationals, as the employment rate for men with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities was 88.1 %, some 5.8 percentage points higher than the corresponding rate for women (82.3 %).

Among the 19 EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 11 for coverage), gender gap in employment rates for non-EU citizens with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities was particularly pronounced in Greece (36.9 percentage points), while large gaps — in the range of 20-30 percentage points — were also recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Belgium, Slovenia, Sweden, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, France and Italy.

Figure 11: Employment rates for foreign citizens with a tertiary level of educational attainment living in cities, by sex, 2017
(% share of subpopulation aged 20-64)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_erednu)

Data sources

The main data source for labour market statistics is the EU labour force survey (LFS). The LFS is a large quarterly sample survey that covers the resident population aged 15 and above in private households. It covers the EU Member States, EFTA and candidate countries; note that regional analyses are not always available for non-EU Member States. The LFS is designed to provide population estimates for a set of main labour market characteristics, covering areas such as employment, unemployment, economic inactivity and hours of work, as well as providing analyses for a range of socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, educational attainment, occupation, household characteristics and region of residence.

This article presents two key indicators:

  • the activity rate — defined as the proportion of active persons aged 20-64 in relation to the total population aged 20-64; the economically active population, also referred to as the labour force, comprises both employed and unemployed persons;
  • the employment rate — defined as the proportion of employed persons aged 20-64 in relation to the total population aged 20-64; as such, while the denominator is the same as that used for the activity rate the numerator excludes unemployed persons.

A set of Council, European Parliament and European Commission Regulations define how the LFS is carried out, while some countries have their own national legislation for the implementation of the survey. The key advantage of LFS data is that they come from a survey which is highly harmonised and optimised for comparability. However, there are some limitations when considering the coverage of the LFS for migrant populations, as the survey was designed to target the whole resident population and not specific subgroups. The following issues should be noted when analysing migrant integration statistics:

  • recently arrived migrants — this group of migrants is missing from the sampling frame in every host EU Member State, which results in under-coverage of the actual migrant population for LFS statistics;
  • non-response — one disadvantage of the LFS is the high proportion of non-response among migrants;
  • sample size — given that the LFS is a sample survey, it is possible that some of the results presented for labour market characteristics of migrants are unrepresentative or of low reliability, especially in those EU Member States with small migrant populations; note that in those cases where data are considered to be of particularly low reliability, statistics are not published.

Migrant indicators are calculated for two broad groups: the foreign population determined by place of birth and the foreign population determined by citizenship; this article presents information for the latter. It focuses on comparisons between national and migrant populations, with the latter subdivided into migrants who are citizens of another EU Member State and non-EU citizens. Note that while the analyses presented here are shown according to citizenship, regional labour market statistics are also available by place of birth (as published on Eurostat’s website).

In order to concentrate on people of core working-age, thereby minimising the effect of migration related to non-economic factors (for example, family reunification or retirement), the analyses focuses on people aged 20-64 years. This is also the age group used for one of the Europe 2020 targets, namely, that the employment rate for persons aged 20-64 in the EU-28 should be at least 75 %.

Most of the regional statistics presented in the article refer to NUTS level 2 regions, but, due to the limitations of data availability, some presented maps, tables and figures include information at NUTS level 1 (more aggregated geographical information) or NUTS level 0 (national data). This approach has an impact on the analysis and statistical findings provided in the article. All these specific cases, where particular regions are presented using a different NUTS level in the same map, table or figure, are documented in footnotes. This approach serves to improve data coverage. Where little or no regional data exist for a particular EU Member State, national data have been used; these exceptions are documented in the footnotes.

It should be also noted that some EU Member States have a relatively small population and may therefore not be subdivided at some (or even all) of the different levels of the NUTS classification. For example, six of the Member States — Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Malta — are each composed of a single NUTS level 2 region according to the 2013 version of the NUTS classification.

For more information in relation to the collection of regional labour market statistics, please refer to this file.

For more information in relation to methodological aspects of the LFS, please refer to this file.

Context

Successful integration of migrants into society in the host country is the key to maximising the opportunities of legal migration and making the most of the contributions that immigration can make to EU development.

The continued development and integration of the European migration policy remains a key priority in order to meet the challenges and harness the opportunities that migration represents globally. The integration of nationals of non-member countries legally living in the EU Member States has gained increasing importance in the European agenda in recent years.

There is a strong link between integration and migration policies since successful integration is necessary for maximising the economic and social benefits of immigration for individuals as well as societies. EU legislation provides a common legal framework regarding the conditions of entry and stay and a common set of rights for certain categories of migrants.

For more details pertaining to policy and legislative background information, please refer to this article.

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Employment - regional series (mii_emp_r)
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2014. Migration and labour market (lfso_14)
2008. Labour market situation of migrants (lfso_08)

Notes

  1. Most of the regional statistics presented in the article refer to NUTS level 2 regions, but, due to the limitations of data availability, some presented maps, tables and figures include information at NUTS level 1 (more aggregated geographical information) or NUTS level 0 (national data). This approach has an impact on the analysis and statistical findings provided in the article.
    All these specific cases, where particular regions are presented using a different NUTS level in the same map, table or figure, are documented in footnotes. This approach serves to improve data coverage. Where little or no regional data exist for a particular EU Member State, national data have been used; these exceptions are documented in the footnotes.
    It should be also noted that some EU Member States have a relatively small population and may therefore not be subdivided at some (or even all) of the different levels of the NUTS classification. For example, six of the Member States — Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Malta — are each composed of a single NUTS level 2 region according to the 2013 version of the NUTS classification.
  2. Both indicators are based on: a set of Council conclusions from 2010 on migrant integration (the list of Zaragoza indicators that were agreed by EU Member States in Zaragoza (Spain) during April 2010); a subsequent study Indicators of immigrant integration — a pilot study from 2011; a report Using EU indicators of immigrant integration from 2013 and more recent data collection exercises.
  3. Please refer to the footnote 1.