Migrant integration statistics - at risk of poverty and social exclusion


Data extracted in January 2021.

Planned article update: January 2022.

Highlights


Among people living in the EU-27, 20 % of national citizens, 26 % of citizens of other EU Member States and 45 % of non-EU citizens living in the EU faced the risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2019.

The risk of monetary poverty in the EU-27 in 2019 was approximately twice as high for foreign citizens (32 %) as it was for national citizens (15 %), and was particularly concentrated among non-EU citizens (38 %).

The incidence of severe material deprivation in the EU-27 in 2019 was more than twice as high among non-EU citizens (12 %) as it was among citizens of other EU Member States (5 %) or national citizens (also 5 %).

Across the EU-27, a lower share of citizens of other EU Member States (7 %) lived in households with very low work intensity in 2019 than the share observed for national citizens (9 %).

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People aged 20-64 at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by citizenship, EU-27, 2010-2019

This article presents European Union (EU) statistics on the risk of poverty and/or social exclusion among working-age communities in the EU, with an analysis according to people’s country of citizenship. The information presented generally refers to people aged 20-64 years. In addition, there is a section on child poverty and a section with information on the share of people living in households with very low work intensity (where the age class 18-59 years is used). Although they are not presented in this article, Eurostat also collects data on migrants analysed according to their country of birth — as opposed to their citizenship — and these data may be found on Eurostat’s website.

The fight against poverty and social exclusion is considered an important element for the well-being of individuals and more generally society at large. This article explores a set of so-called Zaragoza indicators [1], together with additional information. It presents statistics covering the risk of poverty and social exclusion, median incomes, material deprivation and the share of people living in households with very low work intensity. This article forms part of an online publication on migrant integration statistics.

It should be noted that some of the data analysed in this article are affected by low reliability due to a small sample size or high non-response rates; these values are noted in the commentary that follows and they are also identified in the tables (in bold) and figures (see specific footnotes).

Full article

People at risk of poverty or social exclusion

In 2019, there were 91 million people at risk of poverty or social exclusion across the whole of the EU-27; this equated to 20.9 % of the population. Approximately three fifths of these people at risk of poverty or social exclusion — some 55 million — were of working-age (aged 20-64 years)[2].

There are three groups of people that are combined in order to calculate the share of the population that is at risk of poverty or social exclusion, namely: persons who are at risk of poverty, those facing severe material deprivation, and those living in households with very low work intensity. These groups can overlap, with some people belonging to just one of the groups, some to two of them and some to all three.

Figure 1 indicates that the risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU-27 was lower among national citizens than it was among migrants throughout the period from 2010 to 2019. In 2019, around one fifth (19.9 %) of all national citizens living in the EU-27 faced such a risk, while the share for citizens of other EU Member States was somewhat higher (26.0 %; note this value is of low reliability). However, by far the highest risk was experienced by migrants who were non-EU citizens, as close to half (44.8 %) of this subpopulation were at risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2019.

During the period 2010-2019, the share of the EU-27 population that was at risk of poverty or social exclusion rose from 23.9 % to a peak of 24.9 % in 2012 before declining to 20.9 % by 2019[3]. For national citizens aged 20-64 years, it started at a level of 22.7 % in 2010, reached an intermediate peak of 24.4 % in 2012, was more or less unchanged through to 2014, before falling for five consecutive years. For citizens of other EU Member States, the risk of poverty or social exclusion had a somewhat larger variation, starting from a low of 31.2 % in 2010 and peaking at 33.9 % in 2014 before fluctuating during the next five years (all of this time series is of low reliability). For non-EU citizens, from a low of 47.0 % in 2010 (low reliability), the risk of poverty or social exclusion climbed to 51.3 % in 2014, after which it generally followed a downward path, with a particularly notable fall in 2018.

Figure 1: People aged 20-64 years at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by citizenship, EU-27, 2010-2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_peps05)

An analysis across the EU Member States between national citizens and foreign citizens reveals that, generally, a higher share of foreign citizens were at risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2019; the only exceptions among the 26 Member States for which data are available (incomplete information for Romania) were Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechia and Poland, while in Ireland the shares were almost identical. At the other end of the range, foreign citizens living in Sweden were 3.8 times as likely as national citizens to be at risk of poverty or social exclusion, while the risk of poverty or social exclusion was 2.9 times as high for foreign citizens in France, 2.5 times as high in Slovakia and Austria, 2.2 times as high in Slovenia and Spain, and 2.0 times as high in Belgium.

A comparison between the sexes for the EU-27 reveals that in 2019 the share of foreign citizens that were at risk of poverty or social exclusion was slightly higher among women (37.8 %) than among men (37.4 %). This gender gap was relatively small across most of the EU Member States. Nevertheless, the risk of poverty or social exclusion stood at 33.9 % for female foreign citizens living in Portugal, compared with 19.9 % for the corresponding ratio for men, while the gender gap (with a higher rate for women) was also relatively large in Latvia and Estonia. By contrast, the share of male foreign citizens at risk of poverty or social exclusion and living in Croatia was 10.6 percentage points higher than the corresponding ratio for women (both values are of low reliability); there were five other Member States — Malta, Spain, Germany, Czechia and France — where the gender gap resulted from a higher rate for men. Note that data are not available for this comparison for Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania or Slovakia.

A more detailed analysis of the results for 2019 for the two subpopulations of foreign citizens reveals that across the EU-27 a higher share of women (rather than men) were at risk of poverty or social exclusion when considering citizens of other EU Member States (low reliability), while among non-EU citizens there was almost no gender gap (0.1 percentage points higher for men, based on data of low reliability).

Table 1: People aged 20-64 years at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by citizenship and by sex, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_peps05)

In 2019, the risk of poverty or social exclusion was 1.7 times as high for non-EU citizens living in the EU-27 as it was for citizens of other EU Member States living in the EU-27 (44.8 % compared with 26.0 %; low reliability for the latter). A higher risk for non-EU citizens was observed in all of the 20 EU Member States for which data are available (see Table 1 for coverage). Close to one third (31.4 %) of non-EU citizens living in Portugal were at risk of poverty or social exclusion, which was 2.5 times as high as the corresponding share recorded for citizens of other EU Member States (12.4 %). In the Netherlands and Germany, the risk of poverty or social exclusion experienced by non-EU citizens was also more than twice as high as that experienced by citizens of other EU Member States.

In 2019, the risk of poverty or social exclusion was higher for national citizens than it was for citizens of other EU Member States living in Portugal, Germany, Ireland and Czechia.

Figure 2: People aged 20-64 years at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_peps05)

Table 2 provides similar information, but with an analysis for three age groups: 20-64 years, 25-54 years and 55 years and over. In 2019, there was no clear pattern apparent as to the impact of age on the risk of poverty or social exclusion. Among the 23 EU Member States for which data are available for all three age categories for foreign citizens, there were 14 where the risk of poverty or social exclusion among foreign citizens was highest for people aged 55 years and over, whereas there were eight where the risk of poverty or social exclusion among foreign citizens was highest for those aged 20-64 years, and there was one where the highest risk of poverty or social exclusion was recorded for foreign citizens aged 25-54 years.

Table 2: People at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by citizenship and by age, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_peps05)

Income distribution and monetary poverty

Median income

The information presented in this section concerns median equivalised incomes. In 2019, the median income within the EU-27 of national citizens was EUR 18 495 (see Figure 3). This could be contrasted with a median income for citizens of other EU Member States of EUR 19 664 (low reliability), while that for non-EU citizens was EUR 13 224.

An analysis of developments during the period 2010-2019 reveals that the gap in income levels between citizens of other EU Member States (most of this time series is of low reliability) and national citizens grew each year until 2013, was relatively stable in 2014 and 2015. Thereafter, the change in the gap alternated between narrowing and widening for four years. In 2010, there had been almost no difference (EUR 67) in median levels of income between these two groups. However, both in 2017 and in 2019 the gap exceeded EUR 1 000 in favour of citizens of other EU Member States.

Median incomes of citizens of other EU Member States living in the EU-27 rose, on average, by 2.6 % per annum (low reliability) during the period 2010-2019, while the median income of non-EU citizens rose by 1.7 % per annum (low reliability) and that for national citizens also by 1.9 % per annum.

Figure 3: Median equivalised income of the population aged 20-64 years, by citizenship, EU-27, 2010-2019
(EUR)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_di15)

Figure 4 shows that the median income of national citizens in 2019 was higher than the median income of foreign citizens in nearly all of the EU Member States. The biggest gap in favour of national citizens was recorded in Sweden (EUR 12 249), followed by France, Luxembourg and Austria. By contrast, the median income of foreign citizens living in Czechia, Poland, Hungary (low reliability) or Bulgaria (low reliability) was higher than the median income of national citizens.

In relative terms, the largest differences were observed in Sweden and Spain, where the median income of national citizens in 2019 was around three quarters more than the median income for foreign citizens. In France, the median income of national citizens was also more than 50 % above that of foreign citizens, while the difference was more than 40 % in Italy, Greece, Croatia and Cyprus. Aside from the four Member States noted above as having a higher median income for foreign citizens than for national citizens, the smallest relative differences were observed in Germany and Ireland.

Figure 4: Difference in the median equivalised income of the population aged 20-64 years according to citizenship, 2019
Source: Eurostat (ilc_di15)

Based on a comparison between median income levels for national citizens and citizens of other EU Member States in 2019, there were four EU Member States (out of 20 for which data are available; see Figure 5 for coverage) where citizens of other EU Member States recorded higher levels of income: Czechia, Germany, Latvia (low reliability) and Portugal.

Figure 5: Median equivalised income of the population aged 20-64 years, by citizenship, 2019
(EUR)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_di15)

Figure 6 provides an analysis of median income by age. Across the EU-27, the income of national citizens aged 25-54 years was 7.5 % higher than that recorded for national citizens aged 55 years and over. Among citizens of other EU Member States, the median income of people aged 25-54 years was 5.9 % higher than that recorded for people aged 55 years and over (low reliability), while a similar comparison for non-EU citizens reveals that the median income of people aged 25-54 years was 9.7 % higher than that recorded for people aged 55 years and over (also low reliability).

Figure 6: Median equivalised income, by citizenship and by age,
EU-27, 2019
(EUR)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_di15)

At-risk-of-poverty rate

The at-risk-of-poverty rate is defined as the proportion of people that have an equivalised disposable income (after social transfers) below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers). It should be noted that this indicator does not measure absolute poverty: rather, it shows the proportion of people who have low incomes in comparison with other residents.

In 2019, more than one seventh (14.6 %) of national citizens (aged 20-64 years) living in the EU-27 were at risk of poverty. At 31.6 %, the risk of poverty was more than twice as high for foreign citizens living in the EU-27. A closer analysis reveals that the risk of poverty was particularly concentrated among non-EU citizens (37.9 %) when compared with the risk for citizens of other EU Member States (21.4 %; low reliability).

Looking in more detail at the situation in each of the EU Member States, the share of foreign citizens who were at risk of poverty was usually higher than the share of national citizens facing a similar risk. In 2019, Hungary and Czechia were the only exceptions to this rule, recording lower shares of foreign citizens at risk of poverty (the difference was 1.2 percentage points in Czechia and 6.6 points in Hungary (low reliability)). By contrast, in Sweden, foreign citizens were 4.2 times as likely as national citizens to be at risk of poverty, while there were also relatively large differences recorded in France (where foreign citizens were 3.6 times as likely to be at risk of poverty), Cyprus (3.2 times as likely), Austria (2.8 times as likely), Spain (2.7 times as likely), Belgium, Slovenia (both 2.6 times as likely) and Slovakia (2.5 times as likely; low reliability).

Figure 7: People aged 20-64 years at risk of poverty, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_li31)

In 2019, the risk of poverty across the EU-27 was higher among national citizens aged 55 years and over (15.5 %) than it was for national citizens aged 25-54 years (13.6 %). This pattern was the same for foreign citizens. The gap was largest (5.6 percentage points) among non-EU citizens, as 42.5 % (low reliability) of those aged 55 years and over were at risk of poverty compared with 36.9 % for people of core working age.

Figure 8: People at risk of poverty, by citizenship and by age, EU-27, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_li31)

Child poverty

While the vast majority of this article is based on information for people aged 20-64 years, this next section covers child poverty, as defined in relation to people aged 0-17 years. The analysis that follows compares child poverty rates between children whose parents are both national citizens and children who have at least one parent who is a foreign citizen; no distinction is made between parents who are citizens of other EU Member States and parents who are non-EU citizens.

Across the EU-27, around one in six (15.9 %) children whose parents were national citizens were at risk of poverty in 2019, while this share was more than twice as high (35.8 %) for children who had at least one parent who was a foreign citizen. This pattern — a higher share among children with at least one parent who was a foreign citizen — was repeated in all but two of the EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 9 for coverage); the exceptions were Czechia and Lithuania (low reliability). By contrast, in Denmark and Sweden children with at least one parent who was a foreign citizen were 5.8 and 5.1 times respectively as likely to be at risk of poverty as children whose parents were national citizens; there were also relatively large differences recorded in Slovenia (3.7 times as likely), Cyprus (3.3 times) and France (3.2 times).

In 2019, the highest risk of child poverty for children with at least one parent who was a foreign citizen was recorded in Spain (58.6 %). Sweden (57.5 %) also reported that more than half of all children with at least one parent who was a foreign citizen were at risk of poverty in 2019. The lowest risks of poverty for children with at least one parent who was a foreign citizen were recorded in Lithuania (low reliability) and Czechia, with shares of 11.0 % and 8.2 %.

Figure 9: Children aged 0-17 years at risk of poverty, by citizenship of their parents, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_li33)

In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate

In 2019, 8.1 % of EU-27 national citizens were at risk of in-work poverty, while the share among foreign citizens was more than twice as high, at 18.0 %.

There were four EU Member States where the share of the national population at risk of in-work poverty in 2019 was in double-digits: three —Italy, Spain and Portugal — had shares in the range of 10-11 %, while a peak of 15.3 % was recorded in Romania. By contrast, in a majority of the Member States (18 out of the 25 for which data are available; no information for Romania or Slovakia) the risk of in-work poverty among foreign citizens reached double-digits, with six of these recording shares that were above 20.0 %. The highest risk of in-work poverty among foreign citizens was recorded in Spain (35.8 %), while Sweden, France and Italy all recorded shares around one quarter. Czechia and Hungary (low reliability) were the only Member States where the risk of in-work poverty was higher for national citizens than it was for foreign citizens. By contrast, the risk of in-work poverty was between three and four times as high for foreign citizens in the Netherlands, Finland, Belgium, Spain and France, was 4.2 and 4.5 times as high in Slovenia and Sweden, and peaked at 5.2 times as high in Cyprus.

Figure 10: People aged 20-64 years at risk of in-work poverty, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_iw15)

A comparison between citizens of other EU Member States and non-EU citizens reveals that the latter faced a higher risk of in-work poverty. In fact, there was a gap of 10.7 percentage points between these two migrant subpopulations in the EU-27 in 2019: the risk of in-work poverty affected 12.3 % of citizens of other EU Member States (low reliability) compared with 23.0 % of non-EU citizens. Among the 20 EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 11 for coverage), the exceptions to this pattern in 2019 were Ireland, Finland, Austria and Latvia (low reliability) which observed somewhat higher risks of in-work poverty for citizens of other EU Member States. By contrast, non-EU citizens living in Czechia, France, Greece, Portugal, Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg were approximately twice as likely to be at risk of in-work poverty as citizens of other EU Member States.

Figure 11 confirms that in 2019 it was commonplace to find the lowest risk of in-work poverty among national citizens. Across the EU Member States (excluding incomplete information for seven Member States), there were three where national citizens did not have the lowest risk of in-work poverty: in Czechia, Germany and Portugal, this risk was lowest for citizens of other EU Member States.

Figure 11: People aged 20-64 years at risk of in-work poverty, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_iw15)

Figures 12 and 13 show the risk of in-work poverty with an analysis by age for two subpopulations: national citizens and foreign citizens. Among national citizens (see Figure 12), 13 out of 27 EU Member States observed a lower share of in-work poverty among older people (aged 55 years and over) than among the core working age group (aged 25-54 years), with the largest gaps (in percentage point terms) in Bulgaria, Italy, Spain and Lithuania. Equally, another 13 Member States observed a lower share among the core working age group, with the largest gaps in Romania and Greece. Austria recorded the same share for both age groups.

Among foreign citizens (see Figure 13), a majority of EU Member States — 13 out of 20 — recorded a lower risk of in-work poverty among older people, most notably in Sweden (low reliability) and Cyprus. There were seven Member States where the risk of in-work poverty among foreign citizens was higher for the older subpopulation, with the largest differences in France, Slovenia (low reliability), Malta (low reliability) and Italy.

Figure 12: National citizens at risk of in-work poverty, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_iw15)
Figure 13: Foreign citizens at risk of in-work poverty, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_iw15)

Material deprivation

Material deprivation is the second of the three different reasons for someone to be considered to be at risk of poverty or social exclusion. The material deprivation rate is defined as the share of the population unable to afford at least three out of nine specified items, while persons who are unable to afford at least four items are considered to be severely materially deprived (see Data sources for a list of the specific items). In contrast to the risk of poverty — which details monetary poverty in relative terms — the information presented in this section concerns non-monetary components and provides an analysis of poverty in absolute terms, detailing the share of the population who are unable to access/afford a selection of goods and services that are considered to be necessary or desirable to have an acceptable standard of living.

Figure 14 shows the development of the severe material deprivation rate in the EU-27 with an analysis by citizenship. Across the EU-27, some 12.3 % of non-EU citizens were affected by severe material deprivation in 2019 compared with 5.4 % of citizens of other EU Member States (low reliability) and 5.3 % of national citizens.

The analysis over time shows that severe material deprivation rates tended to rise in the aftermath of the global financial and economic crisis, peaking in either 2012 or 2013, before they started to decline. The fall in the EU-27 severe material deprivation rate for national citizens started a year earlier than for citizens of other EU Member States (all of this time series is of low reliability) and was at a faster pace, such that the difference between these two rates narrowed and equal rates (8.2 %) were recorded in 2015, while the severe material deprivation rate was lower for national citizens than for citizens of other EU Member States in both 2016, 2018 and 2019. The EU-27 severe material deprivation rate for non-EU citizens, which was consistently at a higher level throughout the period 2010-2019, fell in absolute terms at a faster pace (down 4.8 percentage points) than the rates observed for either of the other two subpopulations (down 3.2 points for national citizens and 0.4 points for citizens of other EU Member States).

Figure 14: Severe material deprivation rate among people aged 20-64 years, by citizenship, EU-27, 2010-2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_mddd15)

In 2019, among the EU Member States the highest share of foreign citizens facing severe material deprivation was recorded in Greece, with more than one third (35.0 %) of all foreign citizens affected. This rate was noticeably higher than in any of the other Member States, as the next highest shares were recorded in Cyprus (13.8 %), Spain (13.7 %) and Italy (13.5 %). At the other end of the range, the lowest severe material deprivation rates for foreign citizens were recorded in Luxembourg (1.8 %), Czechia (2.5 %) and Malta (2.8 %).

Figure 15: Severe material deprivation rate among people aged 20-64 years, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_mddd15)

As noted above, across the whole of the EU-27 some 5.3 % of national citizens and 5.4 % (low reliability) of citizens of other EU Member States were affected by severe material deprivation in 2019. An analysis for 20 of the EU Member States (see Figure 16 for coverage) reveals that in 12 of these it was more common for citizens of other EU Member States to experience severe material deprivation than national citizens, while the reverse was true in seven Member States; in Slovenia the rates were the same for national citizens and citizens of other EU Member States. Citizens of other EU Member States living in Sweden were 3.4 times as likely as national citizens to be severely materially deprived, while in Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and France they were between two and three times as likely to face severe material deprivation.

In 2019, severe material deprivation in the EU-27 was more widespread among non-EU citizens (12.3 %) than it was among citizens of other EU Member States (5.4 %; low reliability). Across the EU Member States, it was relatively common to find that the share of non-EU citizens suffering from severe material deprivation was at least twice as high as the share for citizens of other EU Member States, with particularly large absolute differences in Greece and Belgium.

Figure 16: Severe material deprivation rate among people aged 20-64 years, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_mddd15)

Figure 17 indicates that, in the EU-27, the severe material deprivation rate was lower for older foreign citizens than for foreign citizens of core working age, while it was the same for national citizens. In 2019, some 5.1 % of national citizens aged 55 years and over in the EU-27 experienced severe material deprivation, the same share as recorded for people aged 25-54 years. For citizens of other EU Member States the share for older people was clearly lower, as 3.9 % of those aged 55 years and over were severely materially deprived compared with 5.3 % of people of core working-age (both values are of low reliability). The reverse situation was observed for non-EU citizens, as the share of people aged 55 years and over who faced severe material deprivation (13.5 %; low reliability) was higher than the average for those of core working-age (11.8 %).

Figure 17: Severe material deprivation rate, by citizenship and by age, EU-27, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_mddd15)

People living in households with very low work intensity

The final situation that contributes towards defining people as being at risk of poverty or social exclusion is the share of people living in households with very low work intensity; note that the age coverage of this indicator — persons aged 18-59 years — differs from that used in most of the remainder of the article. People living in households with very low work intensity are defined as those living in households where the adults collectively worked less than 20 % of their total work potential during the previous year.

In 2019, just under one tenth (8.9 %) of all EU-27 working-age national citizens were living in households with very low work intensity; this share was higher than the corresponding figure for citizens of other EU Member States which stood at 7.3 % (low reliability). By contrast, the highest share of people living in households with very low work intensity was recorded among non-EU citizens, at 13.6 %.

Figure 18: People aged 18-59 years living in households with very low work intensity, by citizenship, EU-27, 2010-2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_lvhl15)

In 2019, Greece and Belgium recorded the highest shares of citizens of other EU Member States living in households with very low work intensity, at 16.3 % and 12.4 % respectively. At the other end of the range, the share of citizens of other EU Member States living in households with very low work intensity was 2.3 % in Czechia, while shares below 5.0 % were also recorded in Portugal, Latvia (low reliability) and Slovenia.

The highest shares of non-EU citizens living in households with very low work intensity in 2019 were recorded in Sweden and the Netherlands, 31.7 % and 29.4 % respectively. By contrast, there were 10 EU Member States where fewer than 1 in 10 non-EU citizens lived in households with very low work intensity: Luxembourg, Estonia, Lithuania (low reliability), Portugal, Italy, Malta, Bulgaria (low reliability), Slovenia, Poland and Czechia (which had the lowest share, at 1.1 %).

As already noted, across the EU-27 a lower share of citizens of other EU Member States (than national citizens) lived in households with very low work intensity in 2019. This pattern was repeated in 14 out of the 20 EU Member States for which data are available (see Figure 19 for coverage). This was most apparent in Latvia (low reliability), Portugal, Ireland and Czechia, where national citizens were at least 2.0 times as likely to live in a household with very low work intensity as citizens of other EU Member States. By contrast, in Estonia the share of citizens of other EU Member States living in households with very low work intensity was 1.7 (low reliability) times as high as the share recorded among national citizens.

Among the 20 EU Member States for which a complete data set was available (see Figure 19 for coverage), Italy, Slovenia, Czechia and Luxembourg all recorded a higher share of national citizens — than citizens of other EU Member States or non-EU citizens — living in households with very low work intensity in 2019.

Figure 19: People aged 18-59 years living in households with very low work intensity, by citizenship, 2019
(%)
Source: Eurostat (ilc_lvhl15)

Data sources

The main data source for comparative statistics on income and living conditions, including poverty and social exclusion, is EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC). The information presented generally refers to persons of working-age, defined here as people aged 20-64 years; an exception is the section on the share of people living in households with very low work intensity, where the standard age category covers people aged 18-59 years. Note that the age coverage used in this article may not be the same as that used by Eurostat in the area of social inclusion statistics and for this reason results may differ slightly from information that is published elsewhere.

The population that is at risk of poverty or social exclusion refers to people who are at risk of poverty, and/or severely materially deprived and/or living in a household with a very low work intensity: in other words, people in at least one (and possibly two or all three) of these situations. The share of the population at risk of poverty or social exclusion was a headline indicator for monitoring the Europe 2020 strategy.

The at-risk-of-poverty rate is the share of people with an equivalised disposable income (after social transfers) that is below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Material deprivation relates to enforced inability (rather than the choice not to do so) to:

  • face unexpected financial expenses;
  • afford one week’s annual holiday away from home;
  • afford a meal with meat, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day;
  • keep (one’s) home adequately warm;
  • buy a washing machine;
  • buy a colour television;
  • buy a telephone (including a mobile phone);
  • buy a car; or
  • not be in arrears on mortgage or rent, utility bills, hire purchase instalments or other loan payments.

The material deprivation rate concerns the share of people who cannot afford to pay for at least three out of nine specified items (see the list above) that are considered to be necessary or desirable, while people who are unable to afford four or more items are considered to be severely materially deprived.

The share of people living in households with very low work intensity is defined as the share of people who are living in a household where the members of working-age (defined here as 18-59 years, other than students in the age group 18-24 years) worked less than 20 % of their total potential during the previous 12 months. The work intensity of a household is the ratio of the total number of months that all working-age household members have worked during the income reference year and the total number of months the same household members theoretically could have worked in the same period. Households composed only of children, of students aged less than 25 years and/or of people aged 60 years and over are excluded from the calculation.

For more information on the data sources used, please consult migrant integration statistics introduced.

Tables in this article use the following notation:

Value in italics    estimate or provisional data;
Value in bold  value is of low reliability (due to small sample size);
Value is :  not available.

Context

The EU’s active inclusion strategy aims to ensure that every citizen, including the most disadvantaged, may fully participate in society, through the provision of adequate income support, inclusive labour markets and access to quality services. Since the signature of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, European institutions have the mandate to ‘provide incentives and support for the action of Member States with a view to promoting the integration of third-country nationals.’ In June 2016, the European Commission published an Action plan on the integration of third country nationals (COM(2016) 377 final) which set out a range of goals, providing a comprehensive framework to support EU Member States’ efforts in developing and strengthening their integration policies, for example, in the fields of education, employment and vocational training, access to basic services such as housing and healthcare, as well as active participation and social inclusion. The latter includes initiatives, among others, to promote the use of EU funds for: intercultural dialogue, cultural diversity and common values; active participation of third country nationals in political, social and cultural life; activities dedicated to ensuring the integration of refugees and asylum seekers; preventing and combating discrimination, racism and xenophobia.

Building on progress made since 2016, a new pact on migration and asylum was presented by the European Commission in September 2020. This sought to provide new tools for faster and more integrated procedures, a better management of Schengen and borders, as well as flexibility and crisis resilience. The new pact on migration and asylum, sets out a fairer, more European approach to managing migration and asylum. It aims to put in place a comprehensive and sustainable policy, providing a humane and effective long-term response to the current challenges of irregular migration, developing legal migration pathways, better integrating refugees and other newcomers, and deepening migration partnerships with countries of origin and transit for mutual benefit.

In November 2020, an Action plan on Integration and Inclusion 2021-2027 (COM(2016) 377 final) was adopted. It seeks to detail targeted and tailored support to reflect the individual characteristics that may present specific challenges to people with a migrant background, such as gender or religious background.

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Social inclusion (mii_soinc)
Income distribution and monetary poverty (mii_ip)
People at risk of poverty and social exclusion (mii_pe)
Living condition (mii_lc)
Material deprivation (mii_md)

Notes

  1. A set of common indicators agreed by EU Member States. See the declaration of the
    European ministerial conference on integration, Zaragoza, 15-16 April 2010.
  2. The respective data can be consulted here: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/bookmark/e6548157-3b8c-454f-af75-7714c3baab27?lang=en
  3. The respective time series can be consulted here: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/bookmark/6fa295be-5da9-4d9a-a7eb-c53faa736646?lang=en