Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics

Data from May 2019.

Planned update: January 2020.

Highlights


4 billion tonnes of freight were handled in EU ports in 2017.

The Netherlands remained the largest maritime freight transport country in Europe in 2017.

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg maintained their positions as Europe's top 3 ports in 2017.

The total number of passengers in EU ports was 415 million in 2017, a rise of 4.6 % from the previous year.

Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in all ports in 2017 (in tonnes per inhabitant)

This article presents the latest statistical data on freight handling and passenger traffic in ports in the European Union (EU), the EFTA countries Iceland and Norway and the candidate countries Montenegro and Turkey. It also covers maritime transport flows with the main partner geographical areas, as well as individual results for major European ports. This article contains data for 2017.



Full article


Increase in seaborne goods and passengers in EU ports

The total gross weight of goods handled in EU ports is estimated at close to 4.0 billion tonnes in 2017, an increase of 2.6 % from 2016. According to the latest figures, the EU port freight activity seems to have resumed on a slight path towards recovery in 2014, a trend that was sustained in the three last quarters of 2016 and all quarters of 2017 (Figure 1). The gross weight of goods handled in EU ports in 2017 were very close to the volumes handled in the years immediately preceding the economic downturn in Europe in 2009, only 4 million tonnes (0.1 %) less than in the peak reached in 2007.

Figure 1: Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in all ports, EU-28, 2002-2017
(million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwh) and (mar_go_qm)

The Netherlands remained the largest maritime freight transport country in Europe in 2017, while Rotterdam, Antwerpen, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Algeciras maintained their positions as the five largest freight ports.

Among the EU member states, the seaborne freight-per-capita ratio varied from 34.8 tonnes per inhabitant in the Netherlands to 2.1 tonnes per inhabitant in Poland in 2017. The EU average was 7.7 tonnes per inhabitant. However, Norway recorded the highest ratio of the countries reporting maritime data to Eurostat, with 39.9 tonnes of seaborne goods handled per inhabitant in 2017 (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in all ports, 2017
(tonnes per inhabitant)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwh)

The number of passengers passing through EU ports increased by 4.6 % between 2016 and 2017, to almost 415 million passengers (Figure 6). In contrast, the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports has fallen by 5.5 % over the last decade.

With almost 74 million passengers passing through its ports, Italy was the major seaborne passenger country in Europe in 2017, followed by Greece with 70 million passengers. These two leading seaborne passenger countries had a combined share of more than one third of the total number of seaborne passengers embarking and disembarking in the EU countries (Table 4).

The number of vessels calling in the main EU ports in 2017 is estimated at above 2.1 million, an increase of 1.7 % from the previous year. In the same period, the estimated gross tonnage (GT) of the vessels calling in EU ports grew by 3.3 % to 17.8 billion GT (Tables 7 and 8). During the same period, the average size of vessels calling in the main EU ports increased by 1.5 % to almost 8 300 GT in 2017 (Figure 7).

The Netherlands is EU’s largest maritime freight transport country

The Netherlands has reported the largest volumes of seaborne freight handling in Europe every year since overtaking the United Kingdom in 2010. At 596 million tonnes, the volume of seaborne goods handled in Dutch ports represented 15.0 % of the EU total in 2017. The Netherlands was followed by Spain which surpassed the United Kingdom and Italy for the first time. Their respective shares were 12.3 %, 12.2 % and 12.0 % of the EU total (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in all ports, 2007, 2016 and 2017
(million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwh)

Behind these four countries, France regained its fifth place among the EU countries overtaking Germany in 2017. Among other countries reporting maritime freight data to Eurostat, the candidate country Turkey handled 466 million tonnes of goods in 2017, placing Turkey between Italy and France in terms of total tonnage of seaborne goods handled.

Compared with 2016, the largest relative increases in port freight activity among the EU Member States were recorded by Croatia (+12.1 %), Malta (+8.6 % from a low base), Bulgaria (+7.9 %), Lithuania (+7.8 %) and Spain (+7.7 %). The candidate countries Montenegro and Turkey (+29.6 % from a low base and +9.4 %, respectively). Only five countries registered a decrease in port freight activity: Cyprus (-23.4 %), Latvia (-3.7 %), Denmark (-1.2 %), the United Kingdom (-0.5 %) and Romania (-0.2 %).

Twelve Member States recorded decreases in port freight activity in the ten-year period between 2007 and 2017. The highest relative falls were observed for Croatia (-30.9 %), Estonia (-22.6 %), the United Kingdom (-17.1 %), Denmark (-13.7 %), France (-12.7 %) and Italy (-11.6 %). In contrast, Lithuania registered the largest relative increase (+70.4 %), followed by Poland (+48.9 %), Slovenia (+40.7 %), Portugal (+36.8 %), Malta (+27.4 % from low base) and Bulgaria (+24.3 %). Iceland also reported a high increase by +24.8 %.

Inward movements of goods to the EU countries increased by 2.9 % to almost 2.4 billion tonnes in 2017 compared with 2016, while outwards movements increased by 2.1 % to 1.6 billion tonnes. Nonetheless, inward movements still accounted for more than 59 % of the total tonnes of goods handled in the EU ports (Figure 4). Liquid bulk goods, such as crude oil and oil products, made up a substantial proportion of the inward tonnage.

Figure 4: Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in all ports by direction, 2017
(% share based on tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwhd)

More seaborne goods are unloaded from than loaded onto vessels in the majority of EU countries. Malta and Croatia had the highest shares of unloaded goods in 2017, with respective shares of 89 % and 70 % of the total tonnes of seaborne goods recorded as inward movements to their ports. Iceland also had a high share of 72 %. In contrast, the three Baltic countries, Bulgaria, Romania, Finland, the EEA country Norway and the candidate country Montenegro all had high shares of outward movements of goods.

Liquid bulk made up 37.4 % of the total cargo handled

Liquid bulk goods accounted for 37.4 % of the total cargo handled in the main EU ports in 2017 (Figure 5), followed by dry bulk goods (22.6 %), containerised goods (22.0 %) and goods transported on Ro-Ro mobile units (12.3 %). The largest volumes of liquid bulk goods were handled in the Netherlands (273 million tonnes), followed by Italy (194 million tonnes) and the United Kingdom (189 million tonnes). Croatia recorded the highest share of liquid bulk goods as a percentage of the total tonnages passing through its main ports in 2017 (60.6 %), mainly reflecting large volumes of inward movements of crude oil from Russia and Turkey.

Figure 5: Gross weight of seaborne freight handled in main ports by type of cargo, 2017
(% share based on tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_cwhc)

With 140 million tonnes, Dutch ports also handled the largest volumes of dry bulk goods in the EU in 2017, followed by Spain with 108 million tonnes. Even so, the tonnages of dry bulk goods handled in both the Netherlands and Spain in 2017 were lower than the 183 million tonnes reported by Turkey. Latvia had the highest share of dry bulk goods as a percentage of the total tonnages in 2017 (55.7 %), mainly reflecting large volumes of outward movements of coal from its ports.

Containers were the dominant type of cargo handled in German and Belgian ports in 2017, with shares of 41.7 % and 40.0 % respectively of the total cargo passing through the ports of the two countries. The largest volumes of containerised goods, however, were handled in Spanish and German ports, with 149 million tonnes and 125 million tonnes, respectively. The two top container countries were followed by the Netherlands with 124 million tonnes and Belgium with 103 million tonnes of containerised goods.

The share of Ro-Ro units in the total tonnage of goods was the highest for Ireland (30.3 %), Denmark (28.2 %) and Sweden (27.4 %), reflecting the importance of Ro-Ro ferry traffic in the seaborne transport of these countries. In tonnage terms, the United Kingdom (107 million tonnes) and Italy (86 million tonnes) recorded the largest EU volumes of goods transported on Ro-Ro mobile units in 2017.

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg stayed top ports

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg, all located on the North Sea coast, maintained their positions as Europe's top three ports in 2017, both in terms of the gross weight of goods handled and in terms of the volume of containers handled in the ports. The 20 largest cargo ports accounted for close to 39 % of the total tonnage of goods handled in the main ports of the reporting countries in 2017, a slight decrease compared with 2016. The largest port in Europe, Rotterdam in the Netherlands, on its own accounted for just above 9 % of the total tonnage handled in the countries reporting maritime freight data to Eurostat (Table 1).

Among the five largest cargo ports in Europe, only Hamburg recorded a decrease of 1.3 % in the tonnes of goods handled in 2017 compared with 2016 . In contrast, Amsterdam and Antwerpen recorded increases of 2.3 % and 1.3 % from 2016, respectively, while Rotterdam and Algeciras slightly increased by 0.3 % and 0.1 % compared with 2016, respectively.

Table 1: Top 20 ports handling freight, 2012-2017
(million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_pwhd)

Among the other top 20 cargo ports, the Turkish port Iskenderun- Hatay recorded the largest growth with 38.3 % compared with 2016. The port of Barcelona also reported a substantial increase in the total tonnage of goods handled in 2017 (+27.1 %) and entered the top 20 cargo ports as the 17th largest European port in terms of gross weight of goods handled in 2017. On the other hand, the ports of Botas (-9.6 %), Bremerhaven and Sines (-5.7 % and -3.3 %, respectively), reported decreases in port activity in 2017.

With close to 12.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) handled, Rotterdam was Europe’s largest container port in 2017 (Table 2). Rotterdam was followed by Antwerpen with 10.0 million TEUs and Hamburg with 8.9 million TEUs handled in total. All in all, eight of the top 20 container ports recorded decreases in the number of TEUs handled compared with 2016. In relative terms, the largest decreases were seen by Gioia Tauro (-10.7 %), Algeciras (-8.0 %) and London (-7.9 %). The largest relative increases were recorded by Barcelona (+34.7 %), Le Havre (+12.9 %), Ambarli (+12.3 %), Mersin (+10.5 %), Rotterdam (+10.4 %), Piraeus and Sines (both +10.3 %).

Table 2: Top 20 ports handling containers, 2007-2017
(thousand TEUs)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_pvh)

The most specialised of the top 20 cargo ports in handling containers were Bremerhaven and Valencia; the most specialised in handling liquid bulk goods were Bergen, Botas and Trieste. While inward activity was prevalent in most of the top 20 ports, the ports of Bergen and Botas handled substantial outward movements of crude oil. In addition, Bremerhaven and Valencia recorded slightly more outward than inward movements of containerised goods (Table 1).

Ten of the top 20 cargo ports in 2017 were located on the Mediterranean, eight on the North Sea coast of Europe and the remaining two ports on the Atlantic coast (Map 1). The composition of the national port infrastructure will sometimes determine whether a country is represented on the top 20 list of cargo ports or not. Denmark and Finland, for instance, are countries with a large number of medium-sized ports, all handling volumes of goods lower than the 46 million annual tonnes required to make the top 20 list.

Map 1: Main cargo ports by gross weight of freight handled, 2017
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_pwhd)

Most EU maritime freight transport is with extra-EU partners

Unlike statistics presented earlier in this article, the figures in Table 3 do not present the total handling of goods in ports (inward movements plus outward movements in the ports), but estimate the seaborne transport of goods between the main European ports and their partner ports. As far as possible, double-counting of the same goods being reported as outward transport in one port and inward transport in another port is excluded in these figures (see data sources).

Table 3: Seaborne transport of freight between main ports in the reporting country and their partner ports grouped by main geographical areas, 2016-2017
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_cwt) and (mar_mg_am_cwtt)

At 3.2 billion tonnes, the EU seaborne transport of goods increased by 2.8 % from 2016 to 2017. The majority of these goods (62 %) were transported to or from ports outside the EU (international extra EU-28 transport), making maritime transport the most important mode for long distance transport of goods to or from the EU, in tonnage terms. Cross-border transport between ports in the EU (international intra EU-28 transport) made up 25 % of the maritime transport of goods in 2017, while transport of goods between national ports made up 9 % of the total EU maritime transport.

In countries with long shorelines or a large number of islands, like Italy, Greece, Denmark as well as Norway, the share of national seaborne transport tend to be relatively high (from 15 % to 27 %). Countries like Ireland, Latvia, Sweden, Finland, Malta and Estonia, on the other hand, have high shares of international intra-EU transport (above 60 %), because their main maritime freight transport partners are found within the EU. Other countries, like Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, France, Greece, Germany, Lithuania, Spain, Italy, Poland, as well as Turkey have high shares of extra-EU transport (above 50 %), based on their geographical position or the "deep sea" nature of the transport activities prevailing in their main ports.

Map 2 illustrates the largest maritime transport flows between the EU and the main international partners. As shown in the map, all of the EU’s top eight maritime flows of goods in 2017 were inward flows. In declining order, these were the inward flows of goods from the Baltic Sea area of Russia (6.6 % of the total EU seaborne transport), Norway (4.9 %), Brazil (4.4 %), the East Coast of the USA (4.3 %), the Black Sea area of Russia (3.9 %), China (3.3 %), Turkey (3.2%) and Egypt (2.8 %). In comparison, the ninth and tenth largest seaborne transport flows in 2017 were the outward flow of goods from the EU to China (2.6 %, not illustrated in the map) and Turkey (2.5 %, not illustrated in the map).

Map 2: Main extra-EU-28 maritime transport flows by gross weight of freight handled, 2017
Source: Eurostat - Maritime transport - Goods (mar_go)

Increase in number of seaborne passengers

The total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports is estimated at almost 415 million in 2017, a rise of 4.6 % from the previous year (Figure 6). Over the last ten years, however, the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports has fallen by 5.5 % (Table 4).

Unlike goods movements, where broadly 60 % of goods are unloaded and 40 % loaded in the EU ports, the difference between the number of passengers disembarking ("inwards") and embarking ("outwards") in EU ports is generally small. This reflects the fact that seaborne passenger transport in Europe is mainly carried by national or intra-EU ferry services, with the same passengers being counted twice in the port throughput statistics (once when they embark the ferry in one EU port and once when they disembark the same ferry in another EU port).

Figure 6: Seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports, EU-28, 2002-2017
(million)
Source: [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=mar_mp_aa_cph&language=en&mode=view Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_cph)

At close to 74 million and 70 million seaborne passengers, respectively, Italian and Greek ports handled a combined share of 35 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports in 2017. As a consequence, Italy and Greece remained the main countries in terms of EU seaborne passenger transport. Both countries recording substantial increases in passengers embarking and disembarking compared with 2016 (+9.8 % and +7.3 %, respectively). The two leading countries were followed by Denmark with close to 43 million passengers embarking and disembarking in 2017, an increase by 3.1 % from 2016.

Table 4: Seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports, 2007-2017
(thousand)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_cph) and (mar_mp_aa_cphd)

Compared with the previous year, the largest relative increases in seaborne passengers transport were recorded by Latvia (+37.5 %), Slovenia (+33.0 %), Romania (+25.0 % from a low base), Cyprus (+22.8 %) and Belgium (+13.7 %) as well as Iceland (+68.4 %), in 2017. In contrast, only five countries reported a fall in 2017 compared with the previous year. The largest relative decreases were recorded in Bulgaria (-28.0 %, from low base).

Compared with the seaborne passenger volumes in 2007, 11 Member States recorded decreases in 2017. The highest relative falls were observed for Romania (-90.8 % from low base), Bulgaria (-75.9 % from a low base), Cyprus (-58.5 %), Slovenia (-26.5 %), Greece (-24.2 %) and Italy (-15.1 %). In contrast, Latvia registered the largest relative increase (+139.2 %). The neighbouring countries of Estonia and Lithuania also reported a substantial rise in seaborne passengers of 71.4 % and 40.5 %, respectively, over the last decade.

Although cruise passengers made up only 3.4 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports in 2017, these passengers play an important role in the ports and countries where the cruise traffic is concentrated. Close to 80 % of the total number of cruise passengers embarking and disembarking in European ports in 2017 did so in the ports of one of the four countries Italy, Spain, Germany and the United Kingdom. Cruise passengers on day excursions in EU ports are not included in these figures.

Helsinki was the largest European passenger port in 2017

The top 20 passenger ports accounted for just above 36 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in the reporting countries in 2017, an increase of 4.6 % from 2016 (Table 5). The port of Dover lost its position as the largest European passenger port to the benefit of Helsinki, after registering a 2.8 % decrease in the number of passengers embarking and disembarking from 2016 to 2017. The port of Stockholm recorded the largest relative decrease in the number of passengers between 2016 and 2017 (-13.5 %), while the ports of Reggio Di Calabria and Messina recorded the largest increases in the same period (+54.5 % and +50.7 %, respectively). The port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife also registered a large increase by 11.9 %.

Table 5: Top 20 ports embarking and disembarking passengers, 2017
(thousand)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_pphd)

The time series in Tables 4 and 5 show that some countries and ports have experienced substantial decreases in the number of seaborne passengers over time. These sudden drops are typically caused by structural changes, such as openings of new bridge or tunnel connections and subsequent closure of ferry links. The rapid growth in low cost flights in recent years might be another cause behind the declining trend in the number of seaborne passengers over time.

Most EU seaborne passenger transport is within national borders

Table 6 shows the breakdown of seaborne passenger transport between national, international intra-EU and international extra-EU transport for each reporting country (excluding cruise passengers). Unlike the statistics presented in tables 4 and 5, these figures do not reflect the sum of embarkation and disembarkation of passengers in ports, but estimate the transport of passengers between ports. As far as possible, double-counting of the same passengers being reported as embarking in one port and disembarking in another port within the same statistical aggregate is excluded in these figures (see data sources and availability).

Table 6: Seaborne transport of passengers (excluding cruise passengers) between main ports in the reporting country and their partner ports grouped by main geographical areas, 2016-2017
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_am_cft) and (mar_mp_am_cftt)

Estimated at more than above 213 million passengers, the seaborne passenger transport to and from the main EU ports slightly increased by 4.4 % from 2016 to 2017 (Table 6). Both of the main EU seaborne passenger countries, Italy and Greece, saw increases in the estimated number of seaborne passengers transported to or from their main ports compared with 2016 (+10.6 % and +8.6 %, respectively). These two countries registered the largest relative increases in maritime passenger transport after Latvia (+86.8 %). The candidate country Turkey also registered a substantial increase of 14.5 %. In contrast, the estimated number of seaborne passengers transported to or from the main ports of Spain fall substantially in the same period (-15.1 %).

The majority of the seaborne passenger transport in the EU is carried out between ports situated in the same country (61 %), reflecting the dominant role of national ferry services in the EU seaborne passenger transport. In general, countries with busy ferry connections to and from well-populated islands will have both a large volume of seaborne passenger transport and a high share of national maritime passenger transport. This applies to the two leading maritime passenger countries, Italy and Greece, as well as countries like Portugal, Croatia and Spain.

Countries with ferry connections to other EU countries, such as Belgium, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Finland, Poland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Estonia, France and Denmark, naturally have high shares of international intra-EU transport. As in previous years, Spain and Denmark recorded the highest shares of extra-EU seaborne passenger transport in 2017, with Spain having ferry links with Morocco and Denmark with Norway.

Vessels calling in the main EU ports

The number of vessels calling in main EU ports in 2017 is estimated at above 2.1 million, an increase of 1.7 % from the previous year (Table 7). In the same period, the estimated gross tonnage (GT) of the vessels calling in EU ports grew by 3.3 % to above 17.8 billion GT (Table 8). During the same period, the average size of vessels calling in the main EU ports increased by 1.5 % to about 8 300 GT in 2017 (Figure 7).

Greece had the highest number of port calls in 2017 (470 000 vessels), followed by Italy (390 000 vessels), Denmark (269 000 vessels) and Croatia (254 000 vessels). On the other hand, Italy recorded the largest gross tonnage of vessels calling at its main ports in 2017 (2.5 billion GT), followed by the United Kingdom (2.3 billion GT) and Spain (2.2 billion GT).

Table 7: Vessels in main ports by type of vessel, 2012-2017
(number)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)

Vessels in the category “Cargo, non-specialised” (which includes Ro-Ro vessels) made the highest share of calls in main EU ports in 2017, followed by passenger vessels, liquid bulk vessels and container vessels. The non-specialised cargo vessels also had the highest share of the combined gross tonnage of the vessels calling in main EU ports, followed by container vessels and liquid bulk vessels. However, cruise ships had by far the largest average gross tonnage per vessels (60 500 GT) calling in EU main ports in 2017, followed by container vessels (38 000 GT) and specialised cargo vessels (24 500 GT).

Table 8: Gross Tonnage of vessels in main ports by type of vessel
(thousand)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)

For passenger vessels, there are substantial differences in the average size of vessels making port calls in various countries, with some countries, like Germany, Croatia and Italy, having a large number of small passenger vessels calling in their main ports. A similar variation is found for container vessels. Due to a dominance of feeder services, some countries, like Ireland, have a low gross tonnage for container vessels even though the number of vessels is quite high. In other countries, like Bulgaria, Germany, France, Malta and the Netherlands, the average size of container vessels calling in the main ports is much higher, reflecting a higher share of deep-sea oriented container transport or the presence of hub ports.

Figure 7: Average size of vessels calling at main ports, EU-28, 2002-2017
(gross tonnage per vessel)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)


Data sources

This article presents the trends in freight and passenger transport in European Union (EU) ports and also includes figures for Iceland, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. The content is based on data collected within the legal framework for EU maritime transport statistics, i.e. Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea and later amendments. Directive 2009/42/EC is a recast of the original Council Directive 95/64/EC of 8 December 1995.

The EU-28 aggregates in the statistics refer to the total of 23 maritime Member States. The Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Hungary, Austria and Slovakia have no maritime ports. Norway and Iceland provide Eurostat with data as members of the European Economic Area (EEA). The EEA country Liechtenstein has no maritime ports. Montenegro and Turkey provide data as candidate countries.

“Main ports” are ports handling more than 1 million tonnes of goods or more than 200 000 passengers annually (however, data for some smaller ports may be included in the published results). Data are presented at level of “statistical ports”. A statistical port consists of one or more ports, normally controlled by a single port authority, able to record ship and cargo movements.

Explanatory notes for tables:

Basic results and derived indicators (such as growth rates and shares in % of total) in the tables are rounded. However, the figures are based on the non-rounded original data. As a result, the sum of shares in % of total, as shown in the tables, is not necessarily equal to 100%. A special aggregate EEA+ME+TR is used in some tables to show the total sum of all ports in the countries reporting maritime data to Eurostat.

Explanatory notes for countries are available in the metadata on the Eurostat website.

Figure 1 and Figure 3: Starting from 2011, the figures for Spain include data for a number of minor regional ports outside the state-controlled port system. Turkey started to report data on seaborne transport in 2008 and Montenegro in 2012. Data have been partially estimated by Eurostat for a number of French ports for the period 2009-2016.

Figure 5, Tables 1 and 2:

  • Liquid bulk: liquefied gas, crude oil, oil products, other liquid bulk goods.
  • Dry bulk: ores, coal, agricultural products (e.g. grain, soya, tapioca), other dry bulk goods.
  • Large containers: 20 ft freight units, 40 ft freight units, freight units > 20 ft and < 40 ft, freight units > 40 ft.
  • Ro-Ro mobile units:

a) Mobile self-propelled units: road goods vehicles and accompanying trailers, passenger cars, motorcycles and accompanying trailers/caravans, passenger buses, trade vehicles (including import/export motor vehicles), live animals on the hoof, other mobile self-propelled units.

b) Mobile non-self-propelled units: unaccompanied road goods trailers and semi-trailers, unaccompanied caravans and other road, agricultural and industrial vehicles, rail wagons, shipborne port-to-port trailers and shipborne barges engaged in goods transport, other mobile non-self-propelled units

  • Other cargo: forestry products, iron and steel products, other general cargo.

The category “large containers” includes containers having a length of 20 feet or more. Smaller containers are included in the category “other cargo”. As a general rule, the container figures are limited to lift-on lift-off containers (Lo-Lo).

Data are not available for Iceland and Montenegro.

Tables 3 and 6: Data are not available for Iceland and Montenegro. Gross weight of freight figures for France in 2016 contain Eurostat estimates. 2016 data have been used for Cyprus when calculating EU-28 for 2017. Please note that the recording of unknown port of loading or unloading may have influenced the transport figure calculations, as well as the shares of maritime transport allocated to intra-EU, extra-EU and National maritime transport. In order to estimate maritime transport of goods/passengers between ports, the issue of "double counting" (the transport of the same goods or passengers being declared by both the port of loading/embarking (as outward movements) and the port of unloading/ disembarking (as inward movements) has to be addressed. Generally, when both the port of loading/embarkation and the port of unloading/disembarkation are situated within the same statistical aggregate, only the incoming flows of goods/passengers declared by ports are summed up to determine the total maritime transport within the aggregate ("elimination of double counting"). The algorithm for the elimination of double counting is applied at statistical port level. Thus, the total maritime transport per country excludes the double counting of maritime transport within the country. Similarly, the total maritime transport for the EU-28 excludes the double counting of national and international intra-EU maritime transport (see metadata on the Eurostat website for more information).

Figure 6 and Table 4: Data include (cruise and non-cruise) passengers starting and ending a voyage. Cruise passengers on excursion in ports (cruise transit) are excluded. Starting from 2011, the figures for Spain include data for a number of minor regional ports outside the state-controlled port system. Netherlands only provide the number of non-cruise passengers (“ferry passengers”). The passenger figures for Portugal do not include cruise passengers until 2011. Passenger data for Norway cover international traffic only. Romania started reporting passenger data in 2007, Turkey in 2008 and Montenegro in 2012. Data for Icelandic ports are not available for 2007 and 2008. Data for Iceland exclude cruise passengers. French data for the period 2009-2016 contain Eurostat estimates.

Table 5: Data include (cruise and non-cruise) passengers starting and ending a voyage. Cruise passengers on excursion in ports (cruise transit) are excluded.

Table 6: See note for Table 3 above. 2016 data for Spanish ports include cruise passengers. Passenger transport data for Malta do not include international transport to/from the port of Valletta. Passenger data for Norway cover international traffic only. Data are not available for Iceland.

Tables 7 and 8:

  • Liquid bulk: oil tanker, chemical tanker, LG tanker, tanker barge, other tanker.
  • Dry bulk: bulk/oil carrier, bulk carrier.
  • Container: full container.
  • Cargo, specialised: barge carrier, chemical carrier, irradiated fuel, livestock carrier, vehicle carrier, other specialised.
  • Cargo, non-specialised: reefer, Ro-Ro passenger, Ro-Ro container, other Ro-Ro cargo, combination carrier general cargo/passenger, combination carrier general cargo/container, single-decker, multi-decker.
  • Passenger: passenger (excluding cruise passenger vessels).
  • Cruise passenger: cruise ships only.
  • Offshore activities: offshore supply.
  • Other: dry cargo barges, tugs, miscellaneous, unknown type of vessel.

Special symbols used in the tables

':' not available '-' not applicable

Context

The content of this statistical article is based on data collected within the framework of the EU maritime transport statistics Directive, i.e. Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea (OJ L141 of 6.6.2009, page 29), which is a recast of the original Council Directive 95/64 (EC) of 8 December 1995.

The basic legal act (Directive 2009/42/EC) was amended by:

The following legal acts include respectively the last official version of the list of ports and some dissemination aspects:

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