Intensification of farming is the process of increasing the use of capital and labour (e.g. fertilisers, pesticides, machinery) relative to land area, to increase agriculture production per hectare.

Intensification increases the pressure on the environment, due to an increase of the use of inputs. A higher use of fertilisers and pesticides, for instance, increases the risk of nutrients and pesticides run-off into surface and groundwaters. However, the actual effect of the use of inputs on the environment does not only depend on the amount of inputs used but also on how they are applied. Therefore intensification does not necessarily need to lead to environmental degradation.

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