Eutrophication is a process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. It may occur naturally but can also be the result of human activity (fertiliser run-off, sewage discharge).

These nutrients typically promote excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish.

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