European Neighbourhood Policy - East - energy statistics
Data extracted in April 2021.
Planned article update: March 2022.
In 2019, Azerbaijan was the only net exporter of energy among the European Neighbourhood Policy-East countries, with net exports of 44 million tonnes oil equivalent.
The share of households in final energy consumption was higher in all European Neighbourhood Policy-East countries than in the EU in 2019.
This article is part of an online publication; it presents information on a range of energy statistics for the European Union (EU) and the six countries that together form the European Neighbourhood Policy-East (ENP-East) region, namely, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Data shown for Georgia exclude the regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia over which Georgia does not exercise control. The data shown for Moldova exclude areas over which the government of the Republic of Moldova does not exercise control. The latest data for Ukraine generally exclude the illegally annexed Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol and the territories which are not under control of the Ukrainian government (see specific footnotes for precise coverage).
The article provides information on the structure of energy production and consumption in the ENP-East countries as well as developments over time. This information is presented through a range of indicators including: primary energy production, energy trade, gross electricity generation, gross inland energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Primary energy production
Energy commodities extracted or captured directly from natural resources are called primary energy sources, while energy commodities which are transformed from primary energy sources are called derived products. Primary energy sources cover the extraction of coal and other solid fuels; exploitation of oil and natural gas fields; production by nuclear and hydroelectric power plants; and renewables. The primary production of crude oil is defined as the quantity of fuel extracted or produced within national boundaries, including offshore production. Primary production of natural gas is defined as the quantity of dry gas, measured after purification and extraction of natural gas liquids and sulphur. Energy transformed from one form to another, such as electricity or heat generation in thermal power plants, is not considered as primary production of energy. Energy is often measured in tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). This is a normalised unit, equivalent to the approximate amount of energy that can be extracted from one tonne of crude oil, assigned a net calorific value of 41 868 kilojoules/kg, which allows the potential energy from different quantities of various energy sources to be compared.
Natural resource endowments of fossil fuels largely determine the structure of primary energy production. In Ukraine, the major endowment is coal (mainly located in the easternmost regions), while there is also considerable production from nuclear power, including Europe’s largest nuclear power plant with six reactors, in Zaporizhia. Oil and natural gas are the principal sources of primary energy production in Azerbaijan, with most of the fields located offshore in the Caspian Sea. By contrast, in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia and Moldova there were far fewer natural energy resources available for primary energy production.
The level of primary energy production may fluctuate considerably from one year to the next from changes in energy demand, reflecting, for example, economic fortunes and the number of heating days; from changes in energy prices, which are affected by international market supply and demand; and the weather, particularly for hydroelectric power. Developments in primary energy production may also reflect new energy sources and existing energy resources becoming depleted or being replaced.
There were two main primary energy producers in the ENP-East countries in 2019: Azerbaijan produced 62 million tonnes of oil equivalent and in Ukraine the production was 60 million tonnes (see Table 1). The third highest level of primary production was in Belarus with 4 million tonnes. Azerbaijan’s primary energy production was 8.3 % lower in 2019 than it had been a decade earlier. Significant changes occurred in 2011, when output fell by 8.4 % and in 2017 by 4.9 %, before rebounding in 2019 by 6.2 %. In Ukraine, 2019 primary energy production was 21.7 % below the 2009 figure. Production increased by 5.9 % in 2011 but fell in 2014 by 14.2 % and again in 2015 by 10.6 %. This may be attributed at least in part to the change in geographical coverage of Ukrainian energy statistics. A further fall of 8.3 % occurred in 2017, with a smaller rebound in 2018 of 3.4 %.
Figure 1 shows that in Azerbaijan in 2019, oil and petroleum products, at 62.5 % and natural gas, at 37.1 %, provided almost all national primary production. Since 2009, the share of natural gas in hydrocarbon production and thus in total energy production has increased, in line with global trends. In Ukraine in 2019, nuclear energy provided 36.2 %, natural gas 26.9 % and coal and other solid fuels 23.6 % of primary production. The contribution of coal and other solid fuels fell from 42.0 % in 2009, while that of nuclear energy increased from 28.3 % and of natural gas from 21.0 %.
The other four ENP-East countries had limited primary energy production – production shares should be viewed in this context. Oil and petroleum products provided 38.6 % of production in Belarus in 2019, down from 46.0 % in 2009. Renewables and biofuels accounted for 33.7 % in 2009 and for 42.9 % in 2019. In Georgia, production was mainly focused on hydroelectric power. Moldova had a high contribution from renewables and biofuels in 2019. In Armenia, the largest share of production in 2018 (2019 not available) was from nuclear power.
The structure of primary energy production in the EU is relatively varied, reflecting the availability of fossil fuel deposits and the potential for hydro power, as well as policies concerning the production of nuclear energy and energy from renewable sources. The major sources of primary energy in the EU were renewables and biofuels (36.5 %) and nuclear power (32.0 %) in 2019. Solid fuels accounted for 16.2 % of the primary energy production, while natural gas accounted for 8.5 % and oil and petroleum products for just 3.7 %.
Primary energy production in the EU was 616 million toe in 2019. The level of production in the EU can be compared with worldwide production (according to the International Energy Agency (IEA)) of 14.4 billion toe in 2018. Between 2009 and 2019, primary energy production in the EU fell by 7.9 %. The decline in EU output was fairly consistent, with the only significant increase during this period occurring in 2010, at 4.0 %.
If energy consumption exceeds primary production, the shortfall needs to be accounted for by imports of primary or derived products or by reductions in stocks. Net imports are calculated as the quantity of energy imports minus the equivalent quantity of exports. Imports represent all entries into the national territory, excluding transit quantities (notably via gas and oil pipelines); exports similarly cover all quantities exported from the national territory.
Azerbaijan is the only net exporter of energy among the ENP-East countries. Its net energy exports of 44.2 million toe in 2019 were, however, 17.4 % lower in 2019 than in 2009. All the other countries are consistent energy importers. Ukraine was a net importer of 33.0 million toe in 2019, 20.3 % less than in 2009. Belarus’s net energy imports were 22.6 million toe in 2019, an increase of 4.7 % from 2009. Moldova imported a net quantity of 2.2 million toe in 2019, up by 10.6 % from 2010 (2009 not available). Georgia, at 4.1 million toe net imports in 2009, and Armenia at 2.3 million toe in 2018 (2019 not available), did not report comparable figures for 2009.
In 2019, the EU imported a net quantity of 909.1 million toe of energy, with net imports accounting for a larger share of inland consumption than primary production at 615.9 million toe.
Gross electricity production/generation refers to the process of producing electrical energy. It is the total amount of electrical energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, for example coal, nuclear or wind power. It is commonly measured in gigawatt hours (GWh).
Figure 3 shows the development of gross electricity generation in ENP-East countries and the EU over the period 2009-2019, unless otherwise indicated. Moldova (2010-2018) and Ukraine (2009-2018) were the only ENP-East countries to report lower levels of electricity generation at the end of this period than at the beginning, with a 10.3 % contraction in the former and an 8.0 % reduction in the latter. Note that the reported level of electricity generation in Ukraine fell strongly in 2014 and 2015, at least in part due to changes in the geographical coverage. In contrast, the other three countries reporting all saw strong growth over the period; there is no available data for Georgia. Azerbaijan had 38.2 % higher electricity generation in 2019 than in 2009. Uneven development of electricity generation in Belarus saw an overall increase of 33.0 % over 2009-2019. An initial period of growth was followed by stability in Armenia, resulting in a 34.8 % increase between 2009 and 2019. EU electrical power production rose by 3.4 % over the period 2009-2018. This is consistent with developed country trends of both economic growth and improved efficiency in electricity.
Gross inland energy consumption is the energy that a country requires to meet its internal (national) demand. It covers consumption by the energy sector itself; distribution and transformation losses; final energy consumption by end users; non-energy use by end users (such as feedstock for the petrochemical industry, lubricants); and statistical differences. It represents the total energy demand of a country or region from all sources necessary to satisfy inland consumption.
Final energy consumption is the total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry and agriculture. It is the energy which reaches the final consumer's door. Energy consumption by the energy sector itself is therefore not included in the definition of final energy consumption; this is particularly significant when looking at the data for Azerbaijan. The ‘other’ sector in final energy consumption primarily consists of services, including those of the state, and agriculture, forestry and fishing.
Figure 4 shows the development of gross inland energy consumption over the most recent decade. After a decline in 2010, gross inland energy consumption in Azerbaijan rose considerably to stand 31.0 % higher in 2019 than in 2009. Moldova gross inland energy consumption grew 11.9 % over the period 2010-2019 (2009 not available): this growth largely occurred during the period 2016-2018. In Belarus consumption was 2.5 % higher in 2019 than it had been in 2009. It is not possible to draw firm conclusions on the overall change in consumption for Ukraine, as the data available from 2014 onward exclude the illegally annexed Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol. For comparison, there was a reduction of 3.0 % overall in the level of energy consumption in the EU during the period 2009-2019, which may, at least in part, be attributed to efforts to improve energy efficiency.
Figure 5 shows the structure of final energy consumption. If a country’s industrial sector output declines or the sector becomes more energy efficient, such as by changing the mix of industries, the shares of other sectors in final energy consumption inevitably grow. Countries with smaller industrial sectors tend to show larger household shares of final energy consumption.
In 2019, Ukraine had the largest share of industry in its final energy consumption, at 34.3 %, followed closely by Belarus at 33.2 %. Georgia’s industry sector consumption share was 17.5 %. Azerbaijan had final energy consumption by its non-energy industry at 16.3 %. In 2018, Armenia’s share of industry in final energy consumption was 15.2 %; that of Moldova was 9.0 % in 2019.
The share of households in final energy consumption in 2019 was 47.9 % in Moldova, 38.0 % in Azerbaijan, 33.1 % in Armenia (2018 data), 31.1 % in Georgia and 29.9 % in Ukraine. Belarus had the lowest share of households in final energy consumption at 26.7 %.
The range of shares of transport in final energy consumption is narrower than for the household and industry sectors: Georgia had the largest share at 33.6 % and Ukraine the smallest at 21.4 %.
In the EU, transport accounted for 30.9 % of final energy consumption in 2019, households 26.3 % and industry 25.6 %.
Greenhouse gas emissions
Figure 6 shows the path of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from 2009 to 2018, the latest data available. All ENP-East countries except for Ukraine show increases, ranging from 1.1 % in Moldova (2016 data) and 2.1 % in Belarus to 42.0 % in Georgia (2015 data). Ukraine’s decline is possibly partly due to changes in the geographical coverage of the data from 2014 onwards.
In the EU, greenhouse gas emissions in 2018 had fallen by 7.1 % from their 2009 value.
Source data for tables and graphs
The data for ENP-East countries are supplied by and under the responsibility of the national statistical authorities of each country on a voluntary basis. The data result from an annual data collection cycle that has been established by Eurostat. These statistics are available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website, together with a range of additional indicators for ENP-East countries, covering most socio-economic topics.
For EU statistics, the main legislation covering the collection of statistics in relation to energy quantities is Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics. Since its adoption, it has been amended many times and a consolidated version is available. A summary of the relevant legislation is also available on Eurostat's website, under 'Legislation' on the dedicated section for Energy statistics.
Tables in this article use the following notation:
|Value in italics||data value is forecast, provisional or estimated and is therefore likely to change;|
|:||not available, confidential or unreliable value;|
Energy has been a key feature on the EU’s policy agenda for a number of years, largely as a result of fluctuating energy prices; security of supply; and human induced effects of energy use on climate change, in particular, increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions. The use of renewable energy sources is seen as a key element of the EU’s energy policy and should help to improve energy security; support the achievement of a carbon neutral society; and decouple energy costs from oil prices.
Alongside this, EU policy has also supported the development of gas pipeline and electricity transmission networks across the EU, as well as of common rules to increase competition between suppliers and promote consumer choice. Energy crises have underlined the EU's need to work with its neighbours on energy security, including diversification of energy sources, routes and suppliers.
In January 2014, the European Commission put forward a 2030 climate and energy framework with the aim of encouraging private investment in infrastructure and low-carbon technologies. The key targets proposed were to have 40 % less greenhouse gases in 2030 than in 1990 and for the share of renewable energy in consumption to reach at least 27 % by 2030. Alongside the proposed targets were plans to reform the emissions trading system and to consider further amendments to the energy efficiency directive.
The EU’s 2050 long-term strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was laid out in November 2018, with the aim of making Europe the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050 in response to the climate and environmental emergency.
In consequence, the European Commission announced the European Green Deal in December 2019. This is an action plan in support of the 2050 long-term strategy which with a further reduction in 2030 greenhouse gas emissions compared with 1990 levels; invest in research and innovation; and preserve Europe’s natural environment.
As of 2021, European Union climate legislation to implement these proposals is undergoing detailed development in the EU Council and European Parliament. This package considers the actions required across all sectors, including a reduction of 2030 greenhouse gas emissions compared with 1990 levels of at least 55 %, to be implemented through support for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. This will enable the EU to move towards a climate-neutral economy and implement its commitments under the Paris Agreement. This process has resulted in a proposal before the European Parliament for a European Strategy for Energy System Integration.
Some ENP-East countries are confronted by energy supply issues, whereby businesses and households cannot be certain that they will have an uninterrupted supply of electricity; this may result from a lack of productive and transmission capacity: not enough generation capacity; insufficient primary energy availability; unreliable plants that have to go off-grid; inefficient transmission systems; or insecure energy supplies due to geo-political relations, for example, when importing fuels or electricity.
In March 2020, the European Commission presented a joint policy proposal for Eastern Partnership policy beyond 2020: Reinforcing Resilience - an Eastern Partnership that delivers for all. This is intended to succeed the 2015 review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (SWD(2015) 500 final). The 2020 paper notes existing joint energy efficiency initiatives in Armenia, Georgia and Ukraine. Concerning energy connectivity, the paper proposes that:
- … the EU will continue to work with the partner countries to reinforce cross-border and inter-regional interconnections. The Southern Gas Corridor is nearing completion and is expected to bring the first gas from Azerbaijan to the EU in 2020. Evidence-based energy policy and collection, use and management of data will be further supported through the ‘EU4Energy’ initiative and the energy policy dialogue. The ongoing amendment of the Energy Community treaty, of which three partner countries are part, will aim at making the Energy Community more efficient and fit for a sustainable energy future. The EU will also help the partner countries to increase energy security by diversifying from oil or gas imports through investments in renewable energy and enhanced energy efficiency and by encouraging energy market integration based on sound legislation.
The Energy Community is an international organisation which brings together the European Union and its neighbours to create an integrated pan-European energy market. Its objective is to extend the EU internal energy market rules and principles on the basis of a legally binding framework. Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine are members of the Energy Community, while Armenia is an observer. Other energy initiatives concern energy efficiency of buildings; energy legislation and regulation modernisation; and strengthening international nuclear safety.
In cooperation with its ENP partners, Eurostat has the responsibility ‘to promote and implement the use of European and internationally recognised standards and methodology for the production of statistics necessary for developing and monitoring policy achievements in all policy areas’. Eurostat undertakes the task of coordinating EU efforts to increase the statistical capacity of the ENP countries. Additional information on the policy context of the ENP is provided here.
- Energy, transport and environment statistics — 2020 edition
- Shedding light on energy in the EU — a guided tour of energy statistics — 2018 edition
European neighbourhood policy
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — 2019 edition
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — 2018 edition
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — 2016 edition
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — 2015 edition
- International trade for the European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — 2016 edition
- European Neighbourhood Policy-East countries — Statistics on living conditions — 2015 edition
- European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — Key economic statistics — 2014 edition
- European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — Labour market statistics — 2014 edition
- European Neighbourhood Policy — East countries — Youth statistics — 2014 edition
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - quantities (nrg_quant)
- Energy statistics - quantities, annual data (nrg_quanta)
- Eastern European Neighbourhood Policy countries (ENP-East) (ESMS metadata file — enpe_esms)
- Energy statistics — supply, transformation and consumption (ESMS metadata file — nrg_quant_esms)