Statistics Explained

Electricity price statistics


Data extracted in Octber 2022.

Planned article update: April 2023.

Highlights

Household electricity prices increased in all but five EU Member States in the first half of 2022, compared with the first half of 2021.
In the first half of 2022, household electricity prices in the EU show sharpest increase in Czechia (61.8 %). The biggest decrease is observed in the Netherlands (-53.6 %), driven by subsidies and allowances.
In the first half of 2022, the Netherlands gives the largest in impact allowance to consumers. The share of taxes values was negative (-267.6 %).
Non-household electricity prices in the EU were highest in Greece (€0.30 per kWh) and lowest in Finland (€0.08 per kWh) in the first half of 2022.
[[File:Electricity price statistics 14-11-2022.xlsx]]

Electricity prices (including taxes) for household consumers, first half 2022

This article highlights the development of electricity prices both for household and non-household consumers within the European Union (EU). When available, it also includes price data from Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia, Türkiye, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine.

The price of energy in the EU depends on a range of different supply and demand conditions, including the geopolitical situation, the national energy mix, import diversification, network costs, environmental protection costs, severe weather conditions, or levels of excise and taxation. Note that the prices presented in this article include taxes, levies and VAT for household consumers, but exclude refundable taxes and levies for non-household consumers.
*This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.

Full article



Electricity prices for household consumers

Highest electricity prices in Denmark and Belgium

For household consumers in the EU (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-sized consumers with an annual consumption between 2 500 kWh and 5 000 kWh), electricity prices in the first half of 2022 were highest in Denmark (€0.4559 per kWh), Belgium (€0.3377 per kWh), Germany (€0.3279 per kWh) and Italy (€0.3115 per kWh); see Figure 1. The lowest electricity prices were registered in the Netherlands (€0.0595 per kWh), Hungary (€0.0948 per kWh) and Bulgaria (€0.1093 per kWh). A kilowatt-hour for Danish household consumers costed 80.5 % more than the EU average price, whereas households in the Netherlands had to pay 76.4 % less than the EU average. This difference is mainly driven by subsidies and allowances given to household consumers in the Netherlands.

The EU average price in the first semester of 2022 — a weighted average using the most recent (2022) data for electricity by household consumers — was €0.2525 per kWh.

Vertical stacked bar chart on the electricity prices for household consumers in the first half 2022 in the EU, the euro area, EU Member States and some of the EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries. Each bar shows the three components of the price, which are the price without taxes, the VAT, and other taxes.
Figure 1: Electricity prices for household consumers, first half 2022
(€ per kWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_204)


Figure 2 depicts the development of electricity prices for household consumers in the EU since the first half of 2008. The price without taxes, i.e. the energy, supply and network, increased slightly faster than the overall inflation rate (HICP) until the second half of 2013 when it was €0.1338 per kWh. From 2014 to 2019, it remained relatively stable. In the second half of 2021, the highest ever price observed in the collection is recorded. The weight of the taxes has increased by 4.8 percentage points from 31.2 % in the first half of 2008 to 35.8 % in the second half of 2021 but substantially decreased in the first half of 2021 (23.5 %). This reflects the impact of the measures to alleviate EU household electricity costs.

For the prices adjusted for inflation, the total price for household consumers, i.e. including all taxes, was €0.2525 per kWh in the first half of 2022 compared to €0.1604 per kWh in the first half of 2008. This price is lower than the actual price including taxes, whereas the actual price excluding taxes is approximately on the same level as the 2008 price adjusted for inflation.

Line chart with four lines showing the development of electricity prices for household consumers in the EU from the first half of 2008 to the first half of 2022. The lines show the following four different prices: prices including taxes, prices excluding taxes, the prices of the first half of 2008 including taxes adjusted for inflation, and the prices of the first half of 2008 excluding taxes adjusted for inflation.
Figure 2: Development of electricity prices for household consumers, 2008-2022
(€ per kWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_204)


Weight of taxes and levies differs greatly between Member States

Figure 3 shows the proportion of taxes and levies in the overall electricity retail price for household consumers. In the EU, the share of taxes in the first half of 2022 was smallest in the Netherlands, where the values were in fact negative (-267.6 %). The Netherlands gives the largest in impact allowance to consumers. The relative share of taxes was highest in Denmark, making up 48 % of the total price. The average share of taxes and levies at EU level was 23.5 %, a substancial decrease of 12.4 % when compared with 2021S2, mostly driven by subsidies and allowances. The VAT in the EU represents 13.1 % of the total price. It ranges from 4.8 % in Malta to 21.3 % in Hungary.

Vertical stacked bar chart on the share of taxes and levies paid by household consumers for electricity in the first half 2022 in the EU, the euro area, EU Member States and some of the EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries. Each bar shows the share of VAT and the share of other taxes and levies.
Figure 3: Share of taxes and levies paid by household consumers for electricity, first half 2022
(%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_204)


Largest increase in electricity prices in Czechia, Latvia and Denmark

Figure 4 shows the percentage change in electricity prices for household consumers including all taxes and VAT from the first half of 2021 compared with the first half of 2022. For comparison purposes the national currencies were used. For energy prices, comparing year on year instead of semester on semester is most meaningful to avoid seasonal effects. Year on year, the total prices increased in all except five EU Member States. The biggest increase is observed in Czechia (61.8 %), followed by Latvia (59.4 %) and Denmark (57.3 %). Energy and supply costs mainly drove the increase. The Netherlands (-53.6 %) and Slovenia (-16.4 %) were the two EU countries to record the largest decreases. These decreases are driven by measures taken to alleviate electricity costs.

Horizontal bar chart on the percentage change in electricity prices for household consumers in the first half of 2022 compared with previous year's same semester in the EU, EU Member States and some of the EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries.
Figure 4: Change in electricity prices for household consumers compared with previous year's same semester, first half 2022
(%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_204)


Electricity prices in purchasing power standard

In Map 1, electricity prices for household consumers in the first half of 2022 are shown in purchasing power standard (PPS), grouping the available countries in six categories, with electricity price categories ranging from above 26.9 PPS per 100 kWh to below 15.3 PPS per 100 kWh. The final burden for the consumer depends on their own consumption. Electricity prices based on purchasing power standard were highest in Romania (44.6) and Czechia (38.9). The lowest electricity prices based on the purchasing power standard were observed in the Netherlands (5.2) and Malta (14.6).

Map on electricity prices in purchasing power standard for household consumers in the first half 2022 in the EU Member States (except Sweden) and some EFTA countries, candidate countries and potential candidates. Each available country is grouped to one of six categories ranging from above 26.9 PPS per 100 kWh to below 15 PPS per 100 kWh.
Map 1: Electricity prices for household consumers, first half 2022
(PPS per 100 kWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_204)


Share of transmission and distribution costs for household electricity consumers

Figure 5 presents the share of transmission and distribution costs for household electricity consumers. Transmission and distribution costs are only reported once a year, at the end of the second semester. This section refers to 2021 data. Distribution costs account for the largest share by far, when compared to the transmission costs. This is normal for all types of networks including the electricity system.

Transmission network is used for transmitting bulk amounts of energy over long distances. The distribution network is usually the part of the system where the consumers are connected. The distribution network is denser than the transmission network, therefore, its share in the costs is expected to be higher.

Countries with lower population density require a more extensive transmission network to meet their needs. Its costs are higher when compared with the countries with higher population density. Smaller, densely populated countries use mostly their distribution network.

In 2021, Luxembourg (100.0 %), Slovakia (91.3 %) and Finland (90.0 %) had the highest shares of distribution costs. On the other hand, Estonia (37.0 %), Poland (30.4 %) and Cyprus (29.1 %)had the highest shares of transmission costs in 2021.

100% vertical stacked bar chart on the share of transmission and distribution costs paid by household consumers for electricity in 2021 in the EU Member States and some EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries. Each bar shows the share of transmission costs and the share of distribution costs.
Figure 5: Share of transmission and distribution costs paid by household consumers for electricity, 2021
(%)
Source: non-published Eurostat data

Electricity prices for non-household consumers

Electricity prices highest in Greece and Italy

Non-household consumers are defined for the purpose of this article as medium-sized consumers with an annual consumption between 500 MWh and 2 000 MWh. As depicted in Figure 6, electricity prices in the first half of 2022 were highest in Greece (€0.3042 per kWh) and Italy (€0.2525 per kWh). The lowest prices were observed in Finland (€0.0808 per kWh) and Sweden (€0.1117 per kWh). The EU average price in the first semester of 2022 was €0.1833 per kWh. The aggregates are weighted averages taking into consideration the average consumption in each band.

Vertical stacked bar chart on the electricity prices for non-household consumers in the first half 2022 in the EU, the euro area, EU Member States and some EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries. Each bar shows the two components of the price, which are the price without taxes, and the non-recoverable taxes.
Figure 6: Electricity prices for non-household consumers, first half 2022
(€ per kWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_205)


Figure 7 shows the development of electricity prices for non-household consumers in the EU since the first half of 2008. The price without taxes, i.e. the energy, supply and network, was increasing similarly to the overall inflation until 2012, when it peaked at €0.0943 per kWh in the first semester. Afterwards it was on the decrease until 2020. In the second semester of 2019, for example, it was at €0.0781 per kWh, whereas in the second half of 2020 it increased and stood at €0.0820 per kWh, which is still lower than the 2008 first semester price. By contrast, in the first half of 2022, there is a steep increase, with the price without taxes standing at €0.1602 per kWh, the highest value and the highest increased compared with the previous reference period since this data collection started.

The weight of the taxes has increased, by 20.8 percentage points, from 13.8 % in the first half of 2008 to 34.6 % in the first half of 2021. In the first semester 2022, the share of taxes was the lowest observed since this data collection started (12.6 %), which reflects the measures taken to alleviate electricity costs.

Looking at the non-household total price, i.e. including the non-recoverable taxes, for the first half of 2022, it almost doubled (92.1 %) compared with the 2008 first half price, from €0.0834 per kWh to €0.1602 per kWh.

For the prices adjusted for inflation, the total price for non-household consumers, i.e. including taxes, was €0.1244 per kWh in the first half of 2022 compared to €0.0968 per kWh in the first half of 2008. This price is lower than the actual price including taxes. The total price for non-household consumers, i.e. without taxes, was €0.1072 per kWh in the first half of 2022 compared to €0.0834 per kWh in the first half of 2008. This price is higher than the actual price excluding taxes.

Line chart with four lines showing the development of electricity prices for non-household consumers in the EU from the first half of 2008 to the first half of 2022. The lines show the following four different prices: prices including taxes, prices excluding taxes, the prices of the first half of 2008 including taxes adjusted for inflation, and the prices of the first half of 2008 excluding taxes adjusted for inflation.
Figure 7: Development of electricity prices for non-household consumers, 2008-2022
(€ per kWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_205)


Proportion of non-recoverable taxes and levies in electricity prices

Figure 8 presents the proportion of non-recoverable taxes and levies in the overall electricity price for non-household consumers. In the first half of 2022, the share of taxes was highest in Poland, followed by Latvia and Cyprus, where non-recoverable taxes and levies made up 36.5 %, 32.1 % and 30.3 % of the total price respectively. The share of taxes for the EU stood at 12.6 %.

Vertical bar chart on the share of taxes and levies paid by non-household consumers for electricity in the first half 2022 in the EU, the euro area, EU Member States and some EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries.
Figure 8: Share of taxes and levies paid by non-household consumers for electricity, first half 2022
(%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_205)


Development of electricity prices for non-household consumers

Figure 9 shows the change in electricity prices for non-household consumers including all non-recoverable taxes and levies from the first half of 2021 to the first half of 2022. For comparison purposes the national currencies were used. The biggest increases were recorded in Greece (159.1 %) and Romania (136.6 %), followed by Denmark (101.9 %). In all EU Member States except Malta, the increase was above 10%. For Malta the increase was 4.8 %.

Horizontal bar chart on the percentage change in electricity prices for non-household consumers in the first half of 2022 compared with previous year's same semester in the EU, the Euro area, EU Member States and some EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries.
Figure 9: Change in electricity prices for non-household consumers compared with previous year's same semester, first half 2022
(%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_205)


Share of transmission & distribution costs for non-household electricity consumers

Figure 10 presents the share of transmission & distribution costs for non-household electricity consumers. Transmission and distribution costs are only reported once a year, at the end of the second semester. This section refers to 2021 data. As for households consumers, distribution costs account for the largest share, compared to transmission costs. This is normal for all types of networks including the electricity system. Transmission network is used for transmitting bulk amounts of energy over long distances. The distribution network is usually where the consumers are connected. The distribution network is denser than the transmission network, therefore, its share in the costs are expected to be higher.

Countries with lower population density require a more extensive transmission network to meet their needs. Its costs are higher, when compared to the countries with higher population density. Smaller, densely populated countries use mostly their distribution network.

However, several non-household consumers can be directly connected to the transmission network or use part of the distribution network (medium voltage only). Therefore, the share of transmission costs can be higher when compared with household consumers.

In 2021, Czechia, Sweden and Austria had the highest shares of distribution costs, with 91.2 % (estimated), 88.3 % and 84.1 % (estimated), respectively. On the other hand, Denmark, Belgium and Italy had the highest shares of transmission costs in 2021, with 58 %, 57.5 % and 56.4 %, respectively.

100% vertical stacked bar chart on the share of transmission and distribution costs paid by non-household consumers for electricity in 2021 in the EU Member States and some EFTA countries, candidate countries, potential candidates and other countries. Each bar shows the share of transmission costs and the share of distribution costs.
Figure 10: Share of transmission and distribution costs paid by non-household consumers for electricity, second half 2021
(%)
Source: non-published Eurostat data


Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

Defining household consumers

Throughout this article, references to household consumers relate to the medium standard household consumption band with an annual electricity consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh. All figures are consumer retail prices and include taxes, levies and VAT. The full datasets for electricity prices for households consumers are available at:

and

Defining non-household consumers

Throughout this article, references to non-household consumers relate to the medium standard non-household consumption band with an annual consumption of electricity between 500 and 2 000 MWh. In this article, prices correspond to the price for electricity production, its supply, the network costs and includes all non-recoverable taxes and levies. The full datasets for electricity prices for non-households consumers are available at:

and

Methodology

Prices in national currencies are converted into euro using the average exchange rate of the period for which the prices were reported.

Prices are always compared with the prices of the same semesters (i.e. year on year) in order to avoid seasonal effects.

In 2016, Regulation (EU) 2016/1952 entered into force. It defines the obligation for the collection and dissemination of electricity prices for household and non-household consumers. Until 2016, the domain of non-household consumers was defined as industrial consumers, but reporting authorities were allowed to include other non-household consumers. Regulation (EU) 2016/1952 changed the definition from industrial to non-household consumers to have a unique methodology for all reporting countries. Until January 2017, the reporting authorities provided their price data for the household sector on a voluntary basis.

Electricity tariffs or price schemes vary from one supplier to another. They may result from negotiated contracts, especially for large non-household consumers. For smaller consumers, they are generally set according to a number of characteristics including the amount of electricity consumed. Most tariffs also include some form of fixed charge. There is, therefore, no single price for electricity. In order to compare prices over time and between EU Member States, this article shows information for consumption bands for household consumers and for non-household consumers. Electricity prices for household consumers are divided into five annual consumption bands and, for non-household consumers, into seven different consumption bands.

The prices collected cover average prices over a period of six months (a half-year or semester) from January to June (first semester) and from July to December (second semester) of each year. Prices include the basic price of electricity, transmission and distribution charges, meter rental, and other services. Electricity prices for household consumers presented in this article include taxes, levies, non-tax levies, fees and value added tax (VAT) as this generally reflects the total price paid by household consumers. As non-household consumers are usually able to recover VAT and some other taxes, prices for non-household consumers are shown without VAT and other recoverable taxes/levies/fees. The unit for electricity prices is that of euro per kilowatt-hour (€ per kWh).

Allowances in the reference period 2022 Semester 1

Belgium: For 2022, a heating allowance of €100 for all households is integrated in the electricity bill. VAT was reduced from 21% to 6% since 1 March 2022.

Bulgaria: In response to the increase in electricity prices, the government has introduced a temporary compensation scheme for non-household end consumers. Under this scheme, non-household consumers receive a monthly compensation, calculated specifically for each individual consumer, through their electricity supplier. The amount of the compensation is deducted from the total final price after VAT has been charged on each monthly invoice. Household electricity prices are set and regulated by the Energy and Water Regulatory Commission and are not affected of the dynamically changing market situation. The government has imposed a moratorium on prices for household customers for the period 16.12.2021-31.03.2022.

Czechia: In addition to introducing a compensation scheme for electricity and natural gas prices, the government granted a temporary waiver of VAT on natural gas (LPG included) and electricity. The waiver applies to all supplies from November 2021 onwards.

Denmark: The Danish government in August 2022 payed out a lump sum (DKK 6.000) per households affected by high cost for heating – in case they at the same time have had a relative low income in 2020. Regarding users of electricity for heating, DKK billion 0,23 were paid. It was considered that only households in size group DD and DE could be subject for compensation. In average the compensation were compiled to DKK 0.06 per kwh in group DD and 0.01 in group DE. Only about 1.5 per cent of the households get compensation because of heating by electricity.

Germany: For your information, there were no subsidies for electricity or natural gas in any form in Germany in the first half year. An electricity levy was only cut sharply, as had been planned for a long time, and will be eliminated altogether in the second half year of 2022.

Estonia: From January to March 2022, a price limit has been established for electricity and gas bills, the remaining part of which is automatically compensated by the state for private consumers. There is a price ceiling for domestic consumers of 0.12€/kWh (excluding taxes) for electricity consumption up to 650 kWh per month. From October 2021 to March 2022, the electricity network fee is compensated to the extent of 50% to all electricity consumers. Until December, all consumers were compensated 50%, with the new measure, from January 2022 non household consumers will be compensated 100% of the electricity network fee. From September 2021 to March 2022, up to middle-income families will be reimbursed 80% of the price increase of a specific type of energy (electricity, gas or room heating) on the basis of electricity, gas and heating bills. For Aprill to June 2022 there was no compensation.

Ireland: Due to the recent increases in energy prices, Ireland has introduced measures to alleviate the burden on final consumers. Domestic electricity customers, including pay as you go customers, received a one-off exceptional payment of €200 between April and June 2022. A further measure to tackle rising energy costs has been introduced in the way of a cut in VAT on electricity bills from 13.5% to 9% from May 1st 2022.

Greece: The consumers (household and non household) receive, in their electricity bills, compensation different for each month and calculated up to a certain limit of the monthly consumption. VAT and all other taxes are charged based on the reduced price (initial price minus compensation). Additionally, there is an extra financial allowance for the first semester 2022 and for the household customers only. It is paid directly to them and is not visible on their electricity bills. It is worth mentioning that not all household consumers are eligible, as certain conditions must be met. In any case,this allowance can not exceed 600 euros per beneficiary.

Spain: The Government of Spain has adopted measures during 2021 to cushion this increase and these measures have focused on the "taxes, fees and charges" component. Thus, the Government has reduced the charges during the first semester of 2022. Specifically, it has reduced the applicable rate of VAT and the Special Electricity Tax.

France: - Individuals with regulated prices (about 2/3) have seen the evolution of prices including tax capped at 4%. This cap had consequences for customers with prices indexed to these tariffs. - The domestic tax on final electricity consumption (TICFE) has been reduced to the lowest level (€1/MWh or €0.5/MWh depending on the case) - The poorest households can benefit from an "energy check" (pre-existing but reinforced measure) - A targeted subsidy aimed at offsetting the additional costs of gas expenses for large consumer companies - The volume of electricity of nuclear origin likely to be purchased at the Arenh regulated tariff has been increased by 20TWh. This tariff makes it possible to reduce the price of electricity supply for a specific customer profile. - A targeted subsidy aimed at offsetting the additional costs of electricity expenses for large consumer companies

Croatia: The prices for households are regulated, mitigating the rise in wholesale electricity prices. A limit of the increase in fees for electricity has been adopted. The government provides social benefits for citizens at risk of energy poverty, supports for pensioners with pension below 4000 kn, created a program of subsidies for the procurement of artificial fertilizers and subsidies to the fisheries and aquaculture sector.

Italy: The Italian Government has implemented extraordinary and temporary measures to contain the exceptional increases in energy prices with the allocation of resources from the State Budget. More precisely, the Government has adopted various measures starting from the second half of 2021, which were then continued and, in some cases, strengthened during 2022.

The measures began in 2021 with legislative decree 73/2021 and continued in the same year with legislative decree 130/2021. Further measures were then arranged for the current year, initially with the Budget Law for 2022 and then with the legislative decrees 4, 17, 21, 80, 115 and 144 of 2022.

It was therefore possible to reduce or to set to zero the price components aimed to cover the general system charges in the electricity sector (ASOS and ARIM tariffs) and in the natural gas sector (RE, GS e UG3 tariffs) for household users and non-household users until now.

Moreover, the Government temporarily reduced the VAT rate applicable to the supply of gas for civil and industrial uses to 5%, in the invoices issued for consumption of October, November and December 2021. This reduction was then further extended to cover consumption until December 2022 (see details in the table 1). Under usual conditions, the VAT rate applied to gas consumption is: - 10% for annual consumption up to 480 m3, and 22% over this threshold for household users; - 10% for non-household users.

Finally, the Government adopted some measures which, while not having a direct impact on energy prices, help consumers to alleviate the higher cost of energy products. These measures consist in expanding the number of beneficiaries of energy bonuses and in increasing the value of these bonuses for household consumers in poor economic conditions and in granting a tax credit to non-domestic consumers for the purchase of electricity and natural gas.

Cyprus: Based on Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority (CERA) Decision 294/2021, a discount of 65% was imposed on the Regulated Tariffs for the usage of Transmission and Distribution Systems for a total period of four (4) months, November-December 2021 & January-February 2022.

Latvia: For all consumers, a 100% discount on distribution tariffs was applied from January 2022 to April 2022. From November 2021, the Electricity Market Law stipulates that protected users (needy or low-income persons, families with many children or families with children with disabilities, as well as persons with group I disabilities) have the right to receive additional support for protected users for electricity payments. The support takes the form of partial compensation of the amount of the monthly electricity bill from the state budget.

Luxembourg: From 1 May to 31 December 2022, the Government has decided to bear the costs for the distribution network as well as the fixed monthly fee for residential customers.

Hungary: In Hungary, the 99,8% of household consumers is supplied by universal service providers. Since 2013, the prices of universal service is regulated thus the current trend of increase does not effect it. The A1 pricing of household consumers (most of them are in this category) is made up of a electricity price for below 1320 kWh/year consumption. Every kWh above 1320 kWh consumption is priced differently, which is 7% higher at the moment.

Malta: There are no subsidies or allowances directly to the consumer but a financial aid to Enemalta plc (electricity distributor) every month to be able to keep prices stable.

Netherlands: The government provides a refund (allowance) to all electricity consumers. It is envisaged as a tax relief primarily for low-consumption household consumers, since electricity consumption is recognised as a basic need. An extra compensation instrument that the NL government has implemented this year is a lump sum paid directly to the consumers’  accounts. Households with an income up to 120% of the social minimum income are eligible for a lump sum of 1300 euro for this year.

Austria: In the first half of 2022, the first vouchers for energy cost compensation in the amount of € 150 were redeemed. This will be included in the annual electricity bill. However, the number of vouchers was still low in the first half of 2022. 

Poland: VAT rate was reduced from 23 to 5% from January 1, 2022. The excise duty for non-domestic customers was reduced from 5 to 4.60 PLN / MWh from January 1, 2022 and the excise duty was excepted for households from January 1, 2022.

Portugal: The government provided a reduction in electricity network access tariffs for 2022 (households & non households, all voltage levels). The VAT rate was reduced for electricity customers in low voltage, with contracted power less than or equal to 3.45 kVA The intermediate rate of VAT (13%) was applied to electricity consumption (does not include fixed component, fees and taxes) of all contracts with a power not exceeding 6.9 kVA, for monthly periods of 30 days, with the following limits: does not exceed 100 kWh per 30-day period or, when purchased for consumption by large families, 150 kWh per 30-day period.

Romania: The Romanian Government adopted a series of legal measures regarding the cap of electricity and natural gas retail prices, namely an electricity and natural gas consumer support scheme which has been applicable since 1 November 2021. In the case of electricity, the support scheme includes measures that apply a cap to the price component of electricity in the final bills paid by electricity consumers. The price cap is differentiated based on the type of consumer (household, non-household) and level of energy consumption. Starting with September 2022, the price cap for non-households is no longer applicable, with some exemptions. The suppliers invoice to final consumers the capped price and receive the difference between the wholesale electricity price and the retail electricity price from the state budget. The support measures affected the data collection for the first semester of 2022. The Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE) conducts a distinct and bespoke collection of data for the submission of the data according to Regulation (EU) 2016/1952 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2016 on European statistics on natural gas and electricity prices. During data collection and verification for the 1st semester of 2022, ANRE identified suppliers that sent data referring to the capped electricity price instead of the final non-capped electricity price, respectively not affected by support schemes. ANRE has contacted suppliers and asked them to verify and send the correct data, namely the final non-capped price applied to final consumers, not affected by support schemes. The major suppliers who ensure aproximately 80% of electricity supply have corrected and resent the data and have declared that the data they resent to ANRE represents the electricity prices before applying the price cap, therefore it is not affected by support schemes. ANRE has included the corrected data sent by suppliers in the data submission according to Regulation (EU) 2016/1952.

Slovenia: From February 2022, the excise duty for final consumers of electricity was reduced by 50 %: - With an annual consumption of 0 to 10,000 MWh from EUR 3.05 per MWh to EUR 1.525 per MWh, - With an annual consumption above 10,000 MWh from EUR 1.800 per MWh to EUR 0.900 per MWh. From February to April 2022: - Households and small business final customers of electricity were acquitted from paying the “contribution for renewables and high-efficiency cogeneration”, - All final consumers of electricity were acquitted from paying network charge tariffs for the distribution and transmission system.

Finland: Value added tax of the electricity will be reduced from 24 % to 10 % from December 2022 until April 2023. Additional measures will take effect from January 2022 until April 2022 : the electricity bill that exceeds 400 €/month but not 1 500 €/month will be compensated by 60%.

Sweden: In Sweden, the government has decided to introduce compensation for high electricity prices for household customers. The compensation depends on the consumption of electricity by the households during December 2021 and January-March 2022 and will be distributed through reduced cost in the invoices. Hence, in the prices reporting, the compensation has been deducted from the final price with all taxes and levies included.

Iceland: Iceland is an independent producer of heat and electricity for housing. Heating is generally of geothermal origin. All electricity in the country is produced in hydro-powerplants in the country and thus does not rely on gas/nuclear/coal/fuels e.t.c. Iceland‘s electricity net is not connected to Europe. The associtated prices are thus not surging in Iceland as in many other countries.  The government has not issued any measures to compensate prices for heating or for electricity nor is there any pressure to do so.

Norway: The government of Norway introduced a temporary support scheme from December 2021 onwards where all households receive an amount of support per kWh electricity used. This amount varies from month to month depending on the average electricity spot price. This support is paid to household consumers by lowering their electricity bill.

Context

The price and reliability of energy supplies, electricity in particular, are key elements in a country’s energy supply strategy. Electricity prices are of particular importance for international competitiveness, as electricity usually represents a significant proportion of total energy costs for industrial and service-providing businesses. Contrary to the price of fossil fuels, which are usually traded on global markets with relatively uniform prices, electricity prices vary widely among EU Member States. The price of primary fuels and, more recently, the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission certificates influence, to some degree, the price of electricity.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Energy Emergency - preparing, purchasing and protecting the EU together, COM2022(553) final, coordinates solidarity efforts, secures the energy supply, stabilises price levels and support households and companies facing high energy prices.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, REPowerEU: Joint European Action for more affordable, secure and sustainable energy, COM2022(108) final, Commission to propose measures to coordinate solidarity efforts, secure the energy supply, stabilise price levels and support households and companies facing high energy prices.

In 2019, the European Commission presented the Clean energy for all Europeans package. The Commission completed a comprehensive update of its energy policy framework to facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels towards cleaner energy and to deliver on the EU’s Paris Agreement commitments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The Fit for 55 legislative proposals cover a wide range of policy areas including climate, energy, transport and taxation, setting out the ways in which the Commission will reach its updated 2030 target in real terms.

Regulation (EU) No 2016/1952 tackles data weaknesses led to the recommendation to improve the detail, transparency and consistency of energy price data collection. An energy prices and costs report would be prepared every 2 years. The European Commission thus published such a report also in 2016 and 2018.

The seventh report on energy prices and costs, as part of the [1] was published on 18 October 2022. The 2022 report is the third report since the adoption of the European Green Deal and the first after the adoption of the REPowerEU plan. It highlights the challenges that the energy sector has faced in the past 12 months and the progress made in addressing both shorter-term issues and Europe’s long-term climate goals. In particular, the report takes stock of the EU’s energy policy response to the current energy crisis, exacerbated by Russia’s war in Ukraine.

Increased transparency for gas and electricity prices should help promote fair competition, by encouraging consumers to choose between different energy sources (oil, coal, natural gas and renewable energy sources) and different suppliers. Energy price transparency is more effective when publishing and broadcasting as widely as possible prices and pricing systems.

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