EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) methodology - housing deprivation

This article is part of a set of articles describing the methodology applied for the computation of the statistical indicators pertinent to the subject area of Housing deprivation (ilc_mdho) within the overall domain of Income and living conditions. For these indicators, the article provides a methodological and practical framework of reference. The indicators relevant to the subject area of housing deprivation are the following:

• Severe housing deprivation rate
• Share of total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor
• Share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling
• Share of total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household
• Share of total population considering their dwelling as too dark
• Share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower, nor indoor flushing toilet in their household
• Share of total population who cannot afford to replace worn-out furniture

Moreover, since the indicators are of multidimensional structure and can be analysed simultaneously along several dimensions, the separate datasets providing these indicators along with the different combinations of dimensions are also presented.

Description

• The share of total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor refers to the percentage of persons in the total population living in a dwelling either a leaking roof, or damp walls/ floors/ foundation, or rot in window frames or floor (HH040).
• The share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling refers to the percentage of persons in the total population living in a dwelling having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling (HH080) or not having bath or shower in the dwelling for the sole use of their household (HH081).
• The share of total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household refers to the percentage of persons in the total population living in a dwelling without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (HH090, HH091).
• The share of total population considering their dwelling as too dark refers to the percentage of persons in the total population considering they live in a too dark dwelling (HS160).
• The share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower, nor indoor flushing toilet in their household refers to the percentage of persons in the total population living in a dwelling without bath or shower (HH080) and without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (HH090).
• The share of total population who cannot afford to replace worn-out furniture refers to the percentage of people in the total population that is not able to replace furniture when needed (i.e. when furniture is damaged or broken) (HD080).

Statistical population

The statistical population consists of all persons living in private private households. Persons living in collective households and in institutions are generally excluded from the target population.

However, the share of population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor, the share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling, the share of population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household and the share of population living in households considering their dwelling as too dark, cover the population aged 0 to 17 living in private households, when calculated for children.

In any case, people with missing values for equivalised income and for any of the different dimensions that the indicators are presented, are excluded from the calculation.

Reference period

All indicators are collected and disseminated on an annual basis and refer to the survey year.

The reference period for all dimensions along with the indicators are disseminated is the survey year, except for age, income, household type and overcrowding. As far as age is concerned, it refers to the age of the respondent at the end of the income reference period, based on which household type and overcrowding are also derived. The income reference period is a fixed 12-month period (such as the previous calendar or tax year) for all countries except the United Kingdom, for which the income reference period is the current year, and Ireland, for which the survey is continuous and income is collected for the last twelve months.

Additionally, for housing deprivation items and housing conditions, the reference period is the survey year.

Unit of measurement

The percentage of people is provided.

Dimensions

The separate datasets provide each indicator along with the Geopolitical entity and time and the dimensions presented below.

The severe housing deprivation rate is presented along with the following dimensions:

The share of total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor, the share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling, the share of total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household, the share of total population considering their dwelling as too dark as well as the share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower, nor indoor flushing toilet in their household are given broken down by age group, sex, income group (total, below 60% of median equivalised income, above 60% of median equivalised income) and household type.

When the latter set of indicators are computed for children (aged 0 to 17), they are provided broken down by age group (CHILDAGE) and income group (total, below 60% of median equivalised income, above 60% of median equivalised income).

Calculation method

1. Severe housing deprivation rate:

The severe housing deprivation rate presented along with the dimensions (k) $(SEVERE\_HH\_DEP_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people living in an overcrowded dwelling deprived by at least one housing deprivation item (SEV_H_DEP) in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$SEVERE\_HH\_DEP_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i=j\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i } \times 100$

where j denotes the population, or subset of population, who suffers from severe material deprivation (SEV_H_DEP).

No methodological issues pertain to the calculation of the indicator.

2. Share of total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor:

The share of total population or subsets of population, living in a dwelling with a leaking roof or damp walls/floors/ foundation or rot in window frames or floor presented along with the dimensions (k) $(LEAKING\_ROOF_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames or floor (HH040 = 1) in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$LEAKING\_ROOF_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\; where\;HH040=1\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i } \times 100$

No methodological issues pertain to the calculation of the indicator.

3. Share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling:

The share of total population or subsets of population, living in a dwelling without bath or shower (HH080 =2) or not having bath or shower for the sole use of their household (HH080 = -5 AND (HH081 =2 OR HH081=3) presented along with the dimensions (k) $(LACK\_BATH\_SHOWER_{at\_k})$￼ ￼is calculated as the percentage of people living in a dwelling either without bath or shower or not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$LACK\_BATH\_SHOWER_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\;where\;HH080=2\;OR\;(HH080=-5\;AND\;(H081=2\;OR\;HH081=3))\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i} \times 100$

With regard to the calculation of the share of total population or subsets of population, having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling, the following methodological issues should be taken into consideration: With regard to the calculation of the severe housing deprivation rate, the following methodological issues should be taken into consideration:

• The TF on Material deprivation recommended starting from the 2008 operation, instead of using this variable HH080, to use the following variable HH081 with 3 answering categories.
• A shower unit or bathtub outside the dwelling is not to be considered in this item. On the other hand, it is not required that the shower unit or the bath occupy a separate room.

4. Share of total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household:

The share of total population or subsets of population, living in a dwelling without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (HH090=2 OR (HH090=-5 AND (HH091=2 OR HH091=3)) presented along with the dimensions (k) $(LACK\_TOILET_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people living in a dwelling without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$LACK\_TOILET_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\;where\;HH090=2\;OR\;(HH090=-5\;AND\;( HH091=2\;OR\;HH091=3))\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i} \times 100$

With regard to the calculation of the share of total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household, the following methodological issues should be taken into consideration:

• The TF on Material deprivation recommended starting from the 2008 operation, instead of using this variable HH090, to use the following variable HH091 with 3 answering categories.

5. Share of total population considering their dwelling as too dark:

The share of total population or subsets of population, living in a too dark dwelling presented along with the dimensions (k) $(LACK\_LIGHT_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people living in a too dark dwelling (HS160 = 1) in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$LACK\_LIGHT_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\;where\;HS160=1\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i} \times 100$

With regard to the calculation of the share of total population considering their dwelling as too dark, the following methodological issues should be taken into consideration:

• The objective is to assess whether the respondent feels ‘the dwelling being too dark, not enough day-light’ to be a problem for the household. No common objective standards as to what a ‘problem’ refers to are implied. The questions asks whether the household feels that there is a problem with most of the rooms being too dark (not necessarily all of the rooms).

6. Share of total population having neither a bath, nor a shower, nor indoor flushing toilet in their household:

The share of total population or subsets of population, living in a dwelling without bath or shower and without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (LACK_BST = 1) presented along with the dimensions (k) $(LACK\_BSTrate_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people living in a dwelling without bath or shower and without indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the adjusted cross sectional weight RB050a.

$LACK\_BSTrate_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\;where\;LACK\_BST=1\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i} \times 100$

7. Share of total population who cannot afford to replace worn-out furniture:

The share of total population or subsets of population, (k) $(LACK\_FURNITURE_{at\_k})$ is calculated as the percentage of people that cannot afford replacing worn-out furniture(HD080 = 2) in each dimension k over the total population in that k.

The weight variable used is the Adjusted Cross Sectional Weight (RB050a).

$LACK\_FURNITURE_{at\_k}=\frac{\sum \limits_{\forall i\;where\;HD080=2\_at\_k} RB050a_i}{\sum \limits_{\forall i\_at\_k} RB050a_i} \times 100$

Moreover, there are some methodological limitations that pertain to the following dimensions accompanying the indicators: Age, Degree of urbanisation, Tenure status, Household type.

Main concepts used

For the production of the indicators relevant to the subject area of housing deprivation, the variables listed below are also involved in computations:

SAS program files

SAS programming routines developed for the computation of the EU-SILC housing deprivation datasets, along with the different dimensions are listed below.

Dataset SAS program file
Severe housing deprivation rate by age, sex and poverty status (ilc_mdho06a) mdho06.sas
Severe housing deprivation rate by household type (ilc_mdho06b) mdho06.sas
Severe housing deprivation rate by tenure status (ilc_mdho06c) mdho06.sas
Severe housing deprivation rate by degree of urbanisation (ilc_mdho06d) mdho06.sas
Severe housing deprivation rate by income quintile (ilc_mdho06q) mdho06q.sas
Total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor (ilc_mdho01) _mdho01.sas
Children (aged 0 to 17) living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor (ilc_mdho01c) _mdho01c.sas
Total population having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling (ilc_mdho02) _mdho02.sas
Children (aged 0 to 17) having neither a bath, nor a shower in their dwelling (ilc_mdho02c) _mdho02c.sas
Total population not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (ilc_mdho03) _mdho03.sas
Children (aged 0 to 17) not having indoor flushing toilet for the sole use of their household (ilc_mdho03c) _mdho03c.sas
Total population considering their dwelling as too dark (ilc_mdho04) _mdho04.sas
Children (aged 0 to 17) living in households considering their dwelling as too dark (ilc_mdho04c) _mdho04c.sas
Total population having neither a bath, nor a shower, nor indoor flushing toilet in their household (ilc_mdho05) _mdho05.sas
Persons who cannot afford to replace worn-out furniture by income group and type of household (ilc_mdho07) _mdho07.sas

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Database

• Living conditions and welfare (livcon)
Income and living conditions (ilc)
Material deprivation (ilc_md)
Housing deprivation (ilc_mdho)

Dedicated section

Income and living conditions (ilc)