Computer and personal and household goods repair statistics - NACE Rev. 2
Data from June 2019
Planned article update: March 2020
The sector for the repair of computers and personal and household goods accounted for 0.3 % of the total employment in the EU in 2016.
The sector for the repair of computers and personal and household goods accounted for 0.8 % of the total number of enterprises in the EU in 2016.
This article presents an overview of statistics for the repair of computers and personal and household goods in the European Union (EU), as covered by NACE Rev. 2 Division 95. This is the only division within Section S (other service activities) for which structural business statistics (SBS) are compiled and this division completes the SBS coverage of the non-financial business economy which is defined as Sections B to J, L to N and Division 95. It belongs to a set of statistical articles on 'Business economy by sector'.
There were almost 205 700 enterprises operating with the repair of computers and personal and household goods (Division 95) as their main activity in the EU-28 in 2016. Together they employed 434 400 persons, equivalent to 0.3 % of the non-financial business economy employment, while they generated EUR 11.0 billion of value added which was 0.2 % of the non-financial business economy total.
Apparent labour productivity of the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016 was EUR 25 000 per person employed, which was well below the non-financial business economy average of EUR 50 500 per person employed and second smallest among all NACE sections that constitute the non-financial business economy (after accommodation and food service activities sector). The repair of computers and personal and household goods sector is characterized as a labour-intensive activity. Despite very low apparent labour productivity , the EU-28’s average personnel costs for the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector were around 20 % below the non-financial business economy average: EUR 26 200 per employee for the repair of computers and personal and household goods compared with EUR 33 800 thousand per employee.
The wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio combines the two previous indicators and shows the extent to which value added per person employed covers average personnel costs per employee. The particularly low apparent labour productivity for the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector was below the corresponding level for average personnel costs in 2016, resulting in a wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio just below parity (96.0 %). As such, the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector had a lower wage-adjusted labour productivity than any of the NACE sections within the non-financial business economy with the scientific research and development, and were the only sectors to record a ratio that was under 100 %. The wage-adjusted labour productivity average non-financial business economy was 149.4 %.
The gross operating rate (the relation between the gross operating surplus and turnover) is a measure of profitability. The gross operating rate for the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016 stood at 14.4 %, which was slightly above the non-financial business economy average (11.0 %). This relatively high gross operating rate is achieved as a result of relatively low levels of turnover compared with value added — a pattern that is typical of many labour-intensive service activities (other than distributive trades).
Just under three quarters (73.8 %) of the enterprises within the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector were classified to the repair of personal and household goods (Group 95.2) in 2016, with the remainder repairing computers and communication equipment (Group 95.1). The repair of personal and household goods subsector was also largest in terms of employment, accounting for 60.5 % of the sectoral employment in 2016, but it generated less value added than the repair of computers and communication equipment, as the latter contributed 53.7 % of sectoral added value. The more technical activity of the repair of computers and communication equipment subsector recorded an even higher share of personnel costs, at 60.5 % of the total. These large variations in the contribution of the two subsectors depending on the indicator used for analysis are reflected in some of the derived indicators concerning personnel costs, productivity and profitability.
The low apparent labour productivity figure for the whole of the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector (EUR 25 000 per person employed in 2016) was pulled downwards by the subsector for the repair of personal and household goods which recorded only EUR 19 000 of value added per person employed (in 2016) in contrast to EUR 34 000 per person employed recorded for the repair of computers and communication equipment in 2016. The former was still less than a half of the non-financial business economy average (EUR 50 500). Average personnel costs per employee ranged from EUR 31 200 per employee for the repair of computers and communication equipment — just below than the average of EUR 33 800 for the whole of the non-financial business economy — to EUR 21 100 per employee for the repair of personal and household goods.
The gross operating rate for the EU-28’s repair of personal and household goods subsector was 19.0 % in 2016, which was almost twice as high as the average for the whole of the non-financial business economy (11.0 %); the gross operating rate for the repair of computers and communication equipment (10.9 %) was slightly below the average.
The United Kingdom accounted for more than a quarter (26.0 %) and France accounted for almost a fifth (18.3 ) of the EU-28’s value added within the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016, some considerably greater shares than recorded by any of the other EU Member States — see Figure 3. It should be noted that even in those countries with the largest repair of computers and personal and household goods sectors, the contribution of this activity to the non-financial business economy remained low: for example, in Czechia and Croatia it accounted for just 0.3 % of non-financial business economy value added — the highest shares among any of the Member States. The relative importance of the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector, in terms of the value added, was also low in EFTA countries, ranging from 0.05 % of the non-financial business economy total in Switzerland; through 0.07 % in Norway to 0.09 % in Iceland.
In employment terms, the share of the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in the non-financial business economy employment peaked at 0.5 % in Spain and Greece, while shares less than 0.15 % were recorded for Luxembourg and Austria.
A large majority of EU Member States had a wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio below parity (100.0 %) with Greece as the country with lowest record of only (32.2 %). Values above non-financial economy average (149.4 %) were recorded only in the United Kingdom (172.1 %) and Romania (152.8 %).
Size class analysis
The repair of computers and personal and household goods sector is dominated by micro enterprises (employing fewer than 10 persons), which is perhaps unsurprising given the specialist nature of this activity and the lack of national or international players developing their businesses within this area.
Out of the 205 700 enterprises that were active in the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016, almost all were classified as micro enterprises (98.4 % of the total). Together these micro enterprises employed 281 000 persons, equivalent to two thirds (64.7 %) of the total employment for the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector. This was the highest share across all of the NACE sections that constitute the non-financial business economy aggregate.
In terms of their contribution to sectoral value added, the share of micro enterprises was lower; indeed, they generated less than half (45.5 %) of the added value within the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016, where the relative shares for small enterprises (employing 10 to 49 persons) and for large enterprises (employing 250 or more persons) were considerably higher, at 18.1 % and 20.4 % respectively.
Figure 6 shows that there was an important difference in the relative contributions of the two subsectors to EU-28 value added when analyzed on the basis of a size class breakdown for 2016. The role of small and medium-sized enterprises was particularly pronounced for the repair of personal and household goods subsector, as those accounted for 96.0 % of the total added value in this subsector; large enterprises employing 250 or more persons generated just 4.0 % of the added value. By contrast, large enterprises recorded the highest share of value added within the repair of computers and communication equipment subsector (34.6 %).
Within the individual EU Member States and EFTA members there was only the United Kingdom where share of persons employed in micro enterprises was less than 50.0 % with Slovenia being on the top with highest share recorded (90.5 %).
Several Member States, for which data are available, reported that SMEs accounted for total of value added. Particularly high share of micro enterprises were recorded in Ireland (70.8 %), Latvia (72.6 %), Slovakia (76.8 %) and Slovenia (85.1 %).
The Île de France (which includes the French capital city of Paris) recorded the highest number of persons employed, across NUTS level 2 regions within the EU-28, for the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector in 2016. With an employment of 15 300 persons, the Île de France accounted for 3.5 % of the total number of persons employed in the EU-28 in this sector, just higher than the second largest regional employer, namely, the Spanish capital city region of the Comunidad de Madrid (13 700 persons).
The ranking of the largest regions suggests that employment within the EU-28’s repair of computers and personal and household goods sector was largely concentrated within French, Italian and Spanish regions — particularly those containing some of the major cities: among the top 20 regions, there were five from Italy (including the capital city region of Lazio — although a higher level of employment was recorded in Lombardia, which includes Milan), four from France (including regions covering Paris, Marseille and Lyon), and from Spain (including regions covering Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Seville). Two of the remaining regions were located in the United Kingdom and Poland, while the final three regions were capital city regions of Greece, Hungary and Romania.
The relative importance of the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector can be analysed by comparing the employment of this sector with the non-financial business economy employment. Among the 210 NUTS level 2 regions for which data are available in 2016, the median share of the administrative and support service activities sector in the non-financial business economy employment was 0.3 %. Using this measure, there were not any region among non-financial business economy where employment rose to more than 1.0 % in 2016. Highest shares were recorded for two regions in France (Limousin 0.83 % and Picardie; 0.76 %) and one region in the United Kingdom, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire (0.74 %). At the other end of the ranking, there is another British region, North Yorkshire, where the contribution of the repair of computers and personal and household goods sector to the non-financial business economy employment was very small, 0.02 %.
The activities covered by Division 95 which forms the basis of this article are the repair and/or maintenance of:
- computers and computer peripherals such as printers as well as communications equipment like fax machines and mobile phones;
- home electronic goods (consumer electronics); garden equipment; clothing and footwear; furniture and furnishings; personal items such as watches and jewellery; most other consumer goods such as bicycles, toys, sports equipment and musical instruments.
This article does not cover the repair of industrial machinery and equipment, central heating and air conditioning equipment, nor hand-held power tools and it also excludes enterprises that carry out repair as a secondary activity in combination with other activities; as such, it focuses exclusively on specialist repairers.
The analysis presented in this article is based on the main dataset for structural business statistics (SBS), size class data and regional data, all of which are published annually.
The main series provides information for each EU Member State as well as a number of non-member countries at a detailed level according to the activity classification NACE. Data are available for a wide range of variables.
In structural business statistics, size classes are generally defined by the number of persons employed. A limited set of the standard structural business statistics variables (for example, the number of enterprises, turnover, persons employed and value added) are analysed by size class, mostly down to the three-digit (group) level of NACE. The main size classes used in this article for presenting the results are:
- small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): with 1 to 249 persons employed, further divided into;
- micro enterprises: with less than 10 persons employed;
- small enterprises: with 10 to 49 persons employed;
- medium-sized enterprises: with 50 to 249 persons employed;
- large enterprises: with 250 or more persons employed.
Regional SBS data are available at NUTS levels 1 and 2 for the EU Member States, Iceland and Norway, mostly down to the two-digit (division) level of NACE. The main variable analyzed in this article is the number of persons employed. The type of statistical unit used for regional SBS data is normally the local unit, which is an enterprise or part of an enterprise situated in a geographically identified place. Local units are classified into sectors (by NACE) normally according to their own main activity, but in some EU Member States the activity code is assigned on the basis of the principal activity of the enterprise to which the local unit belongs. The main SBS data series are presented at national level only, and for this national data the statistical unit is the enterprise. It is possible for the principal activity of a local unit to differ from that of the enterprise to which it belongs. Hence, national SBS data from the main series are not necessarily directly comparable with national aggregates compiled from regional SBS.
Enterprises providing services for the repair of computers and communications equipment as their principal activity may provide services directly to end clients such as households and business clients, or they may provide specialised services to intermediaries such as manufacturers or distributors. Enterprises providing repair and maintenance services for personal and household goods are generally focused on household clients.
Business clients with more complex requirements for information technology (IT) services may well receive repair and maintenance services for computers and communications equipment bundled into broader IT services (see the article on information and communication services) provided by information technology services providers (Division 62). Equally, repair and maintenance services may be provided as a secondary activity by enterprises that are principally manufacturers or distributors of computers and communications equipment.
Many repair activities, including those presented in this article — or others, such as those related to motor vehicles — often face increased demand during downturns in the overall economic cycle as households and businesses postpone purchases of new capital goods or consumer durables and semi-durables and repair existing items instead; equally demand for repair services may decrease during an upturn in the cycle.
- SBS – services (serv)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics - services (sbs_na_serv)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics for services (NACE Rev. 2 H-N and S95) (sbs_na_1a_se_r2)
- SMEs - Annual enterprise statistics broken down by size classes - services (sbs_sc_sc)
- Services by employment size class (NACE Rev. 2 H-N and S95) (sbs_sc_1b_se_r2)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics - services (sbs_na_serv)
- SBS - regional data - all activities (sbs_r)
- SBS data by NUTS 2 regions and NACE Rev.2 (from 2008 onwards) (sbs_r_nuts06_r2)
- Business economy by sector - NACE Rev. 2 (online publication)