Archive:Jewelry, musical instruments, sports goods, toy production statistics - NACE Rev. 1.1
- Data from January 2009. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
This article belongs to a set of statistical articles which analyse the structure, development and characteristics of the various economic activities in the European Union (EU). According to the statistical classification of economic activities in the EU (NACE Rev 1.1), the present article covers the manufacture of items corresponding to NACE Groups 36.2 to 36.6, which are part of the furniture, jewellery, musical instruments, sports goods and toys sector. The activities covered in this article are the manufacture of:
- jewellery and related articles (corresponding to NACE Group 36.2);
- musical instruments (NACE Group 36.3);
- sports goods (NACE Group 36.4);
- games and toys including electronic games (NACE Group 36.5);
- miscellaneous items such as brushes, pens, umbrellas and candles (NACE Group 36.6).
Note that the article does not cover the manufacture of sports clothes or footwear (which are classified within NACE Divisions 18 and 19, and not in Division 36).
Main statistical findings
The EU-27's jewellery (NACE Group 36.2) subsector consisted of 30.3 thousand enterprises which generated EUR 3.2 billion of value added in 2005 and employed 115.4 thousand persons in 2006, which was about one quarter of the other manufacturing activities workforce and a slightly smaller share of value added.
Italy accounted for the highest share of EU-27 value added in this subsector with 35.9 %, more than double the share of France, the next largest. Italy was also the most specialised Member State in jewellery manufacturing, followed by Greece and Cyprus, with none of the other Member States registering even one tenth of 1 % of their non-financial business economy value added in this subsector.
Investment in the EU-27's jewellery subsector was valued at EUR 371 million in 2006. Personnel costs made up 17.5 % of this subsector's operating expenditure, the lowest share of any of the other manufacturing subsectors; this was the result of relatively high purchases of goods and services, reflecting the high value of many of the materials used in this activity. Low apparent labour productivity (EUR 26.7 thousand per person employed) in 2005 contributed to a particularly low wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio (115.2 %), the second lowest ratio among all of the industrial (NACE Sections C to E) NACE groups in 2005 or 2006.
Musical instruments manufacturing (NACE Group 36.3) was the smallest subsector within the EU-27's other manufacturing activities sector, with value added of EUR 740 million and a workforce of 24.9 thousand persons. Germany alone generated more than two fifths of the EU-27's value added in this sector, and was the second most specialised Member State in musical instrument manufacturing, behind the Czech Republic.
Tangible investment in the EU-27's musical instruments subsector was valued at EUR 53 million in 2006, resulting in an investment rate of 7.1 %, the lowest among the other manufacturing activities subsectors. The labour-intensive nature of this activity can be seen from the extremely high share of personnel costs in total operating expenditure, which reached 34.8 % in 2006, the third highest among all of the industrial NACE groups in 2005 or 2006. Apparent labour productivity (EUR 29.8 thousand per person employed) was below the average for the other manufacturing activities sector (EUR 33.9 thousand per person employed), while average personnel costs (EUR 25.1 thousand per employee) were almost identical to the sectoral average: the resulting wage adjusted labour productivity ratio was 119.1 % in 2006.
Sports goods manufacturing (NACE Group 36.4) in the EU-27 consisted of 4.3 thousand enterprises which recorded a value added of EUR 1.7 billion in 2006 and employed 43.6 thousand persons. France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Austria had the largest sports goods manufacturing subsectors in terms of value added, all generating at least EUR 200 million of value added in this subsector. As a result, Austria recorded by far the highest value added specialisation ratio for this subsector.
Investment in sports goods manufacturing in the EU-27 was valued at EUR 193 million in 2006, leading to an investment rate of 11.1 %, slightly below the average for the other manufacturing activities sector (12.2 %). This subsector is most notable for having by far the highest apparent labour productivity (EUR 40.0 thousand per person employed) and average personnel costs (EUR 29.1 thousand per employee) among the EU-27's other manufacturing activities NACE groups; this was the only subsector where average personnel costs were above the non-financial business economy average. The wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio of 137.3 % was also the highest within the other manufacturing activities sector, but still 13.8 percentage points below the non-financial business economy average.
Games and toys
One of the key issues for toys is safety. In January 2008 the European Commission adopted proposals (COM(2008) 9) to revise the legislation on this issue, in particular with respect to the use of chemical substances in toys.
The EU-27's toys and games manufacturing (NACE Group 36.5) subsector consisted of over six thousand enterprises, which employed 61.3 thousand persons in 2005. Germany recorded value added of EUR 697.5 million in games and toys manufacturing in 2006, with the United Kingdom, Italy and Austria generating more than EUR 200 million of value added each in this subsector, and Spain just under this amount. Austria and the Czech Republic were relatively specialised in this activity, as this subsector contributed much more to their non-financial business economy value added than in any other Member State. Note that no recent data are available for either Denmark or Malta, both of whom are known to be relatively highly specialised in games and toys manufacturing. Tangible investment in the EU-27's toys and games manufacturing subsector was valued at EUR 441 million in 2006, just under one quarter (23.4 %) of the total for the other manufacturing activities sector.
The activity of miscellaneous manufacturing (NACE Group 36.6) was the largest of the five NACE groups covered within this article as it generated 45.3 % of the EU-27’s value added in the other manufacturing activities sector, and employed 50.9 % of its workforce. The estimated 38.0 thousand enterprises in this subsector generated a value added of EUR 7.0 billion with a workforce of 231.1 thousand persons employed. Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom had the largest miscellaneous manufacturing subsectors in 2006, each contributing around one fifth of EU-27 value added.
The miscellaneous manufacturing activity recorded tangible investment valued at EUR 827 million in 2006. Personnel costs represented one quarter (25.8 %) of operating expenditure in this subsector in the EU-27, considerably higher than the average share within the non-financial business economy (16.1 %). Apparent labour productivity (EUR 30.2 thousand per person employed) and average personnel costs (EUR 24.5 thousand per employee) were both below the average for other manufacturing activities, as was the wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio of 123.2 %.
Data sources and availability
The main part of the analysis in this article is derived from structural business statistics (SBS), including core, business statistics which are disseminated regularly, as well as information compiled on a multi-yearly basis, and the latest results from development projects.
Further Eurostat information
- European Business: Facts and figures - 2009 edition
- Directive 2009/48/EC of 18 June 2009 on the safety of toys
- Extra-EU trade in manufactured goods
- PRODCOM statistics
- PRODCOM survey on production of manufactured goods
- Cyprus, the Netherlands and Poland, 2005; Denmark, Estonia, Ireland and Malta, not available.
- Ireland, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal, 2005; Estonia and Malta, not available.
- The Netherlands and Poland, 2005; Malta, not available.
- Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal, 2005; Denmark, Ireland, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta, not available.