SDG 10 - Reduced inequalities (statistical annex)

Reduce inequality within and among countries (statistical annex)


Data extracted in May 2019.

Planned article update: June 2020.

Highlights


EU trend of SDG 10 on reduced inequalities

This article provides an overview of statistical data on SDG 10 ‘Reduced inequalities’ in the European Union (EU). It is based on the set of EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an EU context.

This article is part of a set of statistical articles, which are based on the Eurostat publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2019 edition’. This report is the third edition of Eurostat’s series of monitoring reports on sustainable development, which provide a quantitative assessment of progress of the EU towards the SDGs in an EU context.

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Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap

Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap evaluation 2019.png

The relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap helps to quantify how poor the poor are by showing the distance between the median income of people living below the poverty threshold and the threshold itself, expressed in relation to the threshold. This threshold is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income of all people in a country and not for the EU as a whole. Data presented in this section stem from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

Figure 1: Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap, EU, 2005-2017 (% distance to poverty threshold)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_30)


Table 3: Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap, EU
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_30)


Figure 2: Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap, by country, 2012 and 2017_(% distance to poverty threshold)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_30)

Income distribution

Income distribution evaluation 2019.png

Income distribution is measured by the ratio of total equivalised disposable income received by the 20 % of the population with the highest income (top quintile) to that received by the 20 % of the population with the lowest income (lowest quintile). Equivalised disposable income is a household's total income (after taxes and other deductions) that is available for spending or saving, divided by the number of household members converted into equivalised adults. Data presented in this section stem from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

Figure 3: Income distribution, EU, 2005-2017 (income quintile share ratio)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_41)


Table 4: Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the income quintile share ratio, EU
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_41)


Figure 4: Income distribution, by country, 2012 and 2017 (income quintile share ratio)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_41)

Income share of the bottom 40 % of the population

Income share of the bottom 40 % of the population evaluation 2019.png

This indicator measures the income share received by the bottom 40 % of the population (in terms of income). The income concept used is the total disposable household income, which is a household’s total income (after taxes and other deductions) that is available for spending or saving. Data presented in this section stem from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

Figure 5: Income share of the bottom 40 % of the population, EU, 2005-2017 (% of income)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_50)


Table 5: Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the income share of the bottom 40 % of the population, EU
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_50)


Figure 6: Income share of the bottom 40 % of the population, by country, 2012 and 2017 (% of income)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_50)

Purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita

Purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita evaluation 2019.png

GDP per capita is calculated as the ratio of GDP to the average population in a specific year. Basic figures are expressed in purchasing power standards (PPS), which represents a common currency that eliminates differences in price levels between countries to allow meaningful volume comparisons of GDP. The disparities indicator for the EU is calculated as the coefficient of variation of the national figures.

Figure 7: Purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita, EU-28, 2000-2017 (coefficient of variation of volume indices of expenditure per capita, in %)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_10)


Table 6: Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the coefficient of variation in GDP per capita, EU
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_10)


Figure 8: Purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita, by country, 2017 (volume indices of real expenditure per capita in PPS (EU28=100))
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_10)

Adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita

Adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita evaluation 2019.png

This indicator reflects the purchasing power of households and their ability to invest in goods and services or save for the future, by accounting for taxes and social contributions and monetary in-kind social benefits. The disparities indicator for the EU is calculated as the coefficient of variation of the national figures in PPS.

Figure 9: Adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita, EU, 2000-2017 (coefficient of variation, in %)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_20)


Table 7: Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the coefficient of variation in adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita, in PPS, EU
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_20)


Figure 10: Adjusted gross disposable income of households per capita, by country, 2017 (index EU-28 = 100)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_20)

Asylum applications

Asylum applications evaluation 2019.png

This indicator shows the number of first-time asylum applicants per million inhabitants and the number of positive first-instance decisions per million inhabitants. A first-time applicant for international protection is a person who lodged an application for asylum for the first time in a given Member State. First-instance decisions are decisions granted by the respective authority acting as a first instance of the administrative/judicial asylum procedure in the receiving country. The source data are supplied to Eurostat by the national ministries of interior and related official agencies.

Figure 11: Asylum applications by state of procedure, EU-28, 2008-2018 (number per million inhabitants)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_60)


Figure 12: First time asylum applications, by country, 2013 and 2018 (number per million inhabitants)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_10_60)
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More detailed information on EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as indicator relevance, definitions, methodological notes, background and potential linkages, can be found in the introduction of the publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2019 edition’.