Europe 2020 indicators - climate change and energy

Data extracted in August 2019.

No planned update.

Highlights

In 2017, EU GHG emissions, including emissions from international aviation and indirect CO2 emissions, were down by 21.7 % compared with 1990 levels. The EU is thus expected to exceed its Europe 2020 target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020.

Greenhouse gas emissions, EU-28, 1990–2017
(Index 1990=100)
Source: Eurostat online data code (t2020_30)

This article is part of a set of statistical articles on the Europe 2020 strategy. It provides recent statistics on climate change and energy in the European Union (EU).

Full article

General overview

The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU’s agenda for growth and jobs for the current decade. It emphasises smart, sustainable and inclusive growth as a way to strengthen the EU economy and prepare it for the challenges of the next decade.

Climate change and energy are closely interlinked, due to the fact that the consumption of fossil fuels contributes substantially to global warming. With unchecked climate change threatening to erode the foundations of modern society, in 2009, the EU committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to contribute to limiting the average global temperature rise to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This commitment was reinforced and strengthened in 2015 by the Paris Agreement, which calls on the international community to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Through its climate change and energy targets the Europe 2020 strategy aims to shift the EU towards a low-carbon economy based on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.

Europe 2020 strategy targets on climate and energy and the post-2020 climate and energy framework Also known as the ‘20-20-20’ targets, the Europe 2020 strategy's three climate and energy targets are interrelated and mutually support one another [1]:

  • A 20 % reduction in GHG emissions compared with 1990 levels;
  • A 20 % share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption; and
  • A 20 % cut in energy consumption compared to a 2020 business-as-usual projection.


In 2014, the European Council agreed on a post-2020 climate and energy framework. The 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework [2] includes three targets for 2030: at least a 40 % cut in GHG emissions (from 1990 levels), at least 27 % share for renewable energy and further improvements in energy efficiency (compared to a projected business-as-usual scenario for 2030).

In 2018, the revised Renewable energy directive [3] and amending Directive on Energy Efficiency [4] increased the ambition of the latter two targets for renewable energy and energy efficiency to their current values: a minimum 32 % share for renewable energy and at least a 32.5 % improvement in energy efficiency (compared with a projected business-as-usual scenario for 2030).

Source: Eurostat online data codes: (t2020_30), (t2020_31), (t2020_33) and (t2020_34)

The EU is on track to achieving its GHG emission reduction target for 2020

Reducing GHG emissions is a central objective of the Europe 2020 strategy. The EU as a whole aims to reduce emissions by 20 % compared with 1990 levels (including international aviation and indirect CO2 emissions). The main policy instruments to achieve this target are the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) [5] and the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) [6].

The EU ETS sets a single EU-wide cap for more than 11 000 power stations and industrial plants, and emissions from flights within the European Economic Area. It allows these economic actors to trade emission allowances among themselves. The cap shrinks each year to reach a 21 % reduction of emissions covered by the EU ETS by 2020 compared with 2005 [7].

The ESD sets a binding GHG emissions target for each Member State for sectors not included in the EU ETS. Member States’ targets for the ESD sectors (such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste) vary from a 20 % reduction to a maximum 20 % increase in emissions by 2020, reflecting differences in relative wealth. Less wealthy economies are allowed to increase their emissions to accommodate a need for higher economic growth. However, as their targets still limit emissions compared with business-as-usual scenarios projected at the time of decision-making, all Member States are committed to making reductions. By 2020, the legislation requires that the national targets will collectively deliver a reduction of at least 10 % in total EU emissions from the non-EU ETS sectors compared with 2005 levels.

Together, the EU ETS and the ESD aim to reduce overall emissions to 14 % below 2005 levels by 2020. This translates to a 20 % cut compared with 1990 levels. The Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) — the successor of the ESD and operating from 2021 to 2030 — specifies that non-ETS-sectors must reduce emissions by 30 % by 2030 compared with 2005 [8]. In addition to these overarching instruments, the EU has implemented an array of policy tools to address emissions from certain sectors and activities.

By 2017, the EU as a whole had cut GHG emissions by 21.7 % compared with 1990 levels (see Figure 1). A large portion of this reduction occurred during the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1994 a significant drop of 6.7 % occurred, mostly due to structural shifts in the economy, modernisation in the industrial sector and a shift from coal to gas. Despite rising energy consumption, the period between 1998 and 2007 saw emissions stabilise at around 92–94 % of 1990 levels. This was the result of reductions in landfilling and improved waste management, a decline in livestock numbers, a decrease in the use of nitrogenous fertiliser and a gradual shift from more carbon-intensive fuels to renewable energy and natural gas [9].

By far, the sharpest single-year decline in GHG emissions since the early 1990s occurred between 2008 and 2009 (– 7.2 %). During this time, the economic crisis reduced industrial production, transport volumes and energy demand. The following years saw a slow recovery in many parts of Europe.

The further decline in GHG emissions observed between 2010 and 2014 can be attributed to three main factors: improvement in the energy intensity of the EU economy, rapid development of renewable energy sources and the aftermath of the economic slowdown [10]. Since 2014, however, GHG emission reductions have stalled. In 2017, emissions were 1.1 % above 2014 levels. While higher energy efficiency and fuel switching from coal to gas in some countries continued to drive emissions down, the effect was offset by higher emissions from road transport and industry as economic activity expanded in several sectors [11].

Figure 2 shows Member States’ overall per capita GHG emissions for the years 2005 and 2017. In 2017, Luxembourg continued to emit the most per capita in the EU. This can be partly attributed to a considerable number of commuters from neighbouring countries fuelling their cars on Luxembourgish territory, as well as road freight transit and fuel tourism [12]. In contrast, per capita emissions were lowest in some eastern and southern European countries as well as in Sweden.

Between 2005 and 2017, Luxembourg showed the highest reduction in per capita emissions. The United Kingdom, Ireland, Greece, Denmark and Belgium also showed large cuts. In contrast, per capita emissions rose in five Member States over the same period (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Poland).

Figure 1: Greenhouse gas emissions, EU-28, 1990–2017
(Index 1990=100)
Source: Eurostat online data code (t2020_30)


Figure 2: Greenhouse gas emissions per capita, by country, 2005 and 2017
(tonnes of CO2 equivalent)
Source: European Environment Agency (online data code: (sdg_13_10))


All sectors except transport have lowered emissions since 1990

All sectors except fuel combustion in transport and international aviation contributed to the overall reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 to 2017. In absolute terms, fuel combustion in energy industries made the largest emissions cut with a reduction of 496 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent over the period (- 29.6 %). Nevertheless, the energy sector is still responsible for the largest share of total emissions (26.3 % in 2017). The second largest absolute reduction was achieved in the manufacturing industries and construction with a reduction of 336 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (- 40.2 %) [13].

By contrast, emissions from fuel combustion in transport were 19.2 % higher in 2017 than in 1990. With a share of 21.1 % in total EU emissions in 2017, transport was the second largest source of emissions after the energy industries. While transport emissions remain below their all-time peak reached in 2007, they have been increasing for the past four years, reversing the previous downward trend. Emissions from international aviation more than doubled between 1990 and 2017, increasing by 89 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (+ 128.9 %).


GHG emissions under the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) have fallen since 2005

Figure 3 shows Member States’ Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) emissions (total emissions excluding those covered by the EU ETS) between 2005 and 2017, as well as their 2020 ESD targets. In total, 18 countries are well on track to meeting their 2020 national targets [14]. The EU as a whole reduced its ESD emissions by 10.8 % compared with ESD base year, putting it on track to comply with the ESD obligations to reduce emissions by 9.3 % in 2020.

In addition to the 2020 targets, Member States are also obliged to meet annual emissions targets, or so-called interim targets [15]. Malta has not met its annual ESD targets for each of the five years from 2013 to 2017 and has relied on flexibility mechanisms to comply with its legal obligations. Preliminary figures show that 10 Member States did not meet their ESD targets for 2017 (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta and Poland). With the 10.8 % reduction in ESD emissions up to 2017, the EU thus over-achieved its interim target of a 7 % reduction [16].

The overall positive trend in ESD emissions in the EU can be linked mainly to emission reductions in the building sector and energy efficiency improvements, as well as a less carbon-intensive fuel mix for space heating [17]. Furthermore, despite harsher winters in recent years, overall milder winter temperatures over the past 15 years are partly responsible for falling heating demand compared with the 1990s. Temporary reductions in transport emissions as a result of the economic slowdown between 2007 and 2013 also contributed to the decrease [18].

Figure 3: Greenhouse gas emissions in Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) sectors, by country, 2017
(% change since ESD base year)
Source: European Environment Agency, Eurostat online data code: (t2020_35)

Renewable energy on the rise

Renewable energy keeps growing steadily

The Europe 2020 strategy’s second climate change and energy target has the objective of renewable energy reaching a 20 % share of gross final energy consumption by 2020. Gross final energy consumption comprises the energy supplied to final consumers for all energy uses and the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy sector for electricity and heat production, including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission. The recast Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2018 set a new EU-level target: by 2030, the renewable energy share should reach at least 32 % [19].

Between 2004 and 2017, the share of renewable energy intensity more than doubled, reaching 17.5 % of gross final energy consumption in 2017 (see Figure 4). The main drivers of this increase were rapid developments in technology, the implementation of support schemes for renewable energy technology and the falling costs of renewable energy systems [20]. Over the past decade, there has been a steady growth in installed capacity for renewable electricity and heat generation, driven by policies such as feed-in tariffs, grants, tax credits and, more recently, competitive tenders. At the same time, the introduction of obligatory quotas has stimulated the use of renewable transport fuels. Furthermore, in the electricity sector, an upscaling of global production volumes and technological advances have led to substantial cost reductions. New photovoltaic power stations built in 2017 produce electricity for a third of the costs required in 2009. The offshore wind industry has achieved similar reductions, roughly halving costs per kilowatt-hour between 2011 and 2017 [21]. As a result, electricity from wind turbines and large solar installations is becoming increasingly competitive with conventional power plants. In Germany and the Netherlands, tenders for wind parks have already obtained zero-subsidy offers and the first EU solar project without public support was developed in Portugal in 2018 [22].

Differences between Member States in their share of renewable energy, as shown in Figure 5, stem from variations in available natural resources, such as the potential for building hydropower plants and the availability of biomass, but also variations in their energy policies. Nevertheless, all EU countries increased the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption between 2004 and 2017.

Overall, the EU is on track to reach its renewable energy target for 2020, but the pace of increase of the renewable energy share has slowed since 2014. However, recent modelling has shown that renewable energy policies that are currently implemented, along with those that are already planned, might not be enough in a number of Member States to reach their national binding targets in time, if only domestic supply, without cooperation mechanisms, is considered [23].

The EU share of renewable energy in final energy consumption is equivalent to the global average reached in 2016 (17.5 %). However, this value includes regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa where traditional biomass is still widespread and, therefore, over two-thirds of final energy consumption were procured from renewable sources in 2016. Many emerging and industrialised countries, however, have lower shares. For example, China covered 12.6 % of its final energy consumption with renewables in 2016, followed by the United States (9.5 %), Australia (9.3 %), Mexico (9.2 %) and Japan (6.6 %). Brazil and Canada have a higher share of renewable energy, amounting to 45.5 % and 21.6 % in 2016 respectively, stemming from high bioenergy and hydropower use [24].

Figure 4: Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption, EU-28, 2004–2017
(%)
Source: Eurostat online data code (t2020_31)


Figure 5: Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption, by country, 2004 and 2017
(%)
Source: Eurostat online data code (t2020_31)

Shares of renewable energy are growing across different sectors

Renewable energies contribute both to electricity generation and energy consumption for heating and cooling as well as for transport. As shown in Figure 6, renewable energy contributed to almost a third of gross final electricity consumption in 2017, which is more than twice the share reported in 2004. Moreover, renewable energy provided almost one-fifth of Europe’s final energy consumption for heating and cooling in 2017, up from 10.4 % in 2004. The share of renewable energy in transport energy use has also increased since 2004, reaching 7.4 % in 2017. The break in the time series in 2011 can be explained by a change in the accounting methodology for liquid biofuels [25].

The recast 2018 Renewable Energy Directive [26] focuses on promoting the development of advanced renewable fuels of non-biological origin and the direct use of renewable electricity in electric vehicles. It places further limits on the amount of liquid biofuels that have been produced from crops grown on agricultural land that can contribute to renewable energy targets in transport. Feedstocks with a high risk of inducing indirect land use change are to be phased out by 2030.

Figure 6: Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption, by sector, EU-28, 2004–2017
(%)
Source: Eurostat Eurostat online data code (sdg_07_40)

The EU needs to further pursue energy efficiency improvements

Delivering the same service or product by using less energy is one of the most cost-effective ways of reducing GHG emissions and enhancing energy security.

The Europe 2020 strategy has a target to increase energy efficiency by 20 %. In absolute terms this means that by 2020 EU energy consumption should not exceed 1 483 Mtoe of primary energy or 1 086 Mtoe of final energy [27]. The EU efficiency target is measured as a 20 % saving compared with projected primary energy consumption (PEC) in 2020. Starting with 2005 as the base year, this business-as-usual projection (carried out in 2007) estimated that PEC would reach 1 853 Mtoe in 2020. It assumed continuous economic growth and no additional energy-efficiency policies above and beyond those in place in 2005. The envisaged 20 % saving amounts to an absolute reduction of 370 Mtoe, resulting in a target PEC of no more than 1  483 Mtoe for 2020 [28]. Compared with the actual PEC in 2005, this is equivalent to a reduction of 13.4 %. The revised Energy Efficiency Directive (EED), adopted in 2018, set the 2030 energy efficiency target to be at least 32.5 % [29].

PEC includes all gross inland energy consumption except energy carriers used for non-energy purposes, for example, petroleum or gas not used for combustion but for producing plastics. By contrast, final energy consumption (FEC) only comprises energy consumed by end users (for example, households, industry and agriculture) for all energy uses, excluding energy used by the energy sector. The difference between PEC and FEC is equivalent to the energy consumed by the energy sector itself and energy lost during energy transformation (particularly electricity generation), transmission and distribution.

Energy consumption in the EU has been decreasing, but the trend reversed in 2014

As Figure 7 shows, PEC in the EU was following an intermittent but overall upward trend until 2006 when it peaked at 1 729 Mtoe. After the onset of the economic crisis in 2008, it fell sharply and continued to fall over the next four years (with the exception of an increase in 2010), reaching 1 511 Mtoe in 2014. Since then, however, PEC has again seen a continuous increase, growing between 0.6 % and 1.7 % per year. In 2017, the EU consumed 0.4 % less primary energy than it did in 1990 and 9.2 % less than in 2005.

Reductions in 2011 and 2012 can be partly attributed to reduced economic output expressed by a 0.4 % contraction of real GDP in 2012. However, PEC continued to fall thereafter, despite a real GDP growth of 1.8 % in 2014 [30]. Weather patterns can help to explain some of this result: while warmer years in 2013 and 2014 are considered to have lowered energy demand, a return to more average temperatures only partly explain the increase in PEC after 2014. The recent uptick in economic activity has also driven the increase in energy use. Although, energy efficiency improvements have dampened this effect, progress in reducing energy intensity have not been strong enough to keep PEC on a downward trend [31]. To achieve its 2020 efficiency target, the EU would need to reduce its PEC by another 5.0 % in the three years between 2017 and 2020.

The trend in FEC has closely followed the trend in PEC, rising to 1 123 Mtoe in 2017, up from 1 066 Mtoe in 2014. Notably, the EU had already reached its 2020 target for FEC in 2014, but the increased consumption in subsequent years means an additional 3.3 % reduction is required between 2017 and 2020.

Globally, only one major economy has reduced PEC by more than the EU: Japan consumed 17.7 % less primary energy in 2017 than it did in 2005. The United States reduced its PEC by 7.9 % over the same period, whereas energy demand rose in all other large industrialised countries and regions. The highest increase over the past decade was observed in Turkey which increased its PEC by 75.9 %, followed by India (67.6 %), China (66.0 %), the Middle East (56.7 %), South Korea (40.2 %) and Thailand (39.9 %) [32]. An increase in PEC can, however, occur despite energy efficiency improvements. In emerging economies, in particular, high economic growth and population push up demand for energy.

Figure 7: Primary energy consumption and final energy consumption, EU-28, 1990–2017
(Million tonnes of oil equivalent)
Source: Eurostat online data codes (t2020_33) and (t2020_34))

Changes in energy consumption at Member State and sector level

Figure 8 shows the change in PEC between 2005 and 2017 in all Member States. Looking at the 2017 data, 25 countries reduced PEC compared with 2005 by values ranging from 0.02 % to 23.4 %.

Between 1990 and 2017, economic sectors showed different FEC trends (see Figure 9). Agriculture, forestry and fishing as well as industry, reduced their FEC by 25.5 % and 23.6 %, respectively, while the residential sector’s consumption increased by 5.1 %. Energy consumption in the services and transport sectors grew by 39.2 % and 25.6 %, respectively, over the same period. Notably, energy consumption in all sectors grew by varying amounts in 2016 and 2017, which reflects an increase in economic activity as well as a return to colder winter temperatures. Moreover, in some Member States have been delays in implementing energy efficiency policies [33]. Over the past decade, between 2008 and 2017, FEC fell by 11.1 % in the industry sector, 1.0 % in the transport sector and 5.1 % in the residential sector. In contrast, energy consumption in the services sector increased by 2.6 %.

While these changes reflect sector-specific levels of energy-efficiency improvement, they also relate to structural changes in the EU economy, particularly a shift away from an energy-intensive industry to a service-based economy. In the case of transport, a large share of efficiency gains has been offset by rising volumes of transport over the past few decades. In 2017, the majority of final energy was used in transport with a 30.8 % share, followed by industry (24.6 %) and households (27.2 %). The services sector was responsible for 14.5 %, agriculture, forestry and fishing for 2.4 % of FEC.

Figure 8: Change in primary energy consumption, by country, 2016
(Index 2005= 100)
Source: Eurostat online data code (t2020_33)


Figure 9: Final energy consumption, by sector, EU-28, 1990 and 2017
(% in total FEC)
Source: Eurostat online data code (nrg_bal_s)

Data sources

Indicators presented in the article:

Breakdown by sector (sdg_07_40)
Breakdown by sector (nrg_bal_s)


Context

Unchecked climate change threatens to erode the foundations that modern society is built on by changing weather patterns, redrawing coastlines and degrading natural ecosystems. As a contribution to avoiding dangerous levels of global warming, the EU has pledged to drastically reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Europe 2020 strategy includes the target to cut GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 and put the EU on a pathway to becoming a ‘low-carbon’ economy.

The Energy Union further supports the shift towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon economy through legal frameworks and related initiatives, highlighting renewable energy as a key element of decarbonisation [34]. It is closely linked with the EU climate and energy targets for 2030, aiming to cut GHG emissions by 40 % compared with 1990 levels.

In 2018 and 2019, the EU adopted comprehensive legislation to ensure its 2030 targets will be reached, including a revised Emission Trading Directive [35] and the Effort Sharing Regulation [36] governing GHG reduction targets for sectors outside the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It also agreed on the Regulation governing greenhouse gas emissions and a loss of stored carbon as a result of land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) [37]. By implementing the Clean Energy for All Europeans [38]package, EU legislators continued their push for a more integrated, efficient and sustainable EU energy market. A key element of the package is the new Governance Regulation [39] which obliges Member States to develop comprehensive National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) for 2030.

For 2050, the EU aims to reduce emissions by 80–95 % compared with 1990 levels. As a response to the Paris Agreement, the EU is currently in discussions to strengthen this target and to establish the goal of net-zero emission levels in 2050 [40]. The Paris Agreement, which was signed at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2015, commits the international community to limiting the rise in mean global temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and seeks to further limit the increase to 1.5 °C. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent greenhouse gas, accounting for about 81 % of the EU’s GHG emissions in 2017 (not including land use, land use change and forestry and international aviation) [41].

The low-carbon transition is not only a strategy to prevent climate change. Climate and energy policies also contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy's core objective of enabling sustainable growth. For example, two key levers for reducing emissions — the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency — also foster innovation and create jobs. The EU’s ‘20-20-20’ targets are thus interlinked with other Europe 2020 goals, in particular those for research and development (R&D) and employment.

Creating demand for green products, while boosting innovation and export strength in the growing global market, will also be key to mastering new technologies such as smart grids, energy storage and electric vehicles. At the same time, improved energy efficiency will bolster the competitiveness of EU businesses by lowering production costs. Renewable energy and energy efficiency measures also reduce energy dependence and have the potential to save the EU between EUR 175 and 320 billion in energy import costs per year over the next 40 years [42].

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Notes

  1. European Commission (2014), Taking stock of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM(2014) 130 final, Brussels.
  2. European Council (2014), European Council (23 and 24 October 2014) — Conclusions, EUCO 169/14, Brussels.
  3. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
  4. Directive (EU) 2018/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 amending Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency.
  5. Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC.
  6. Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
  7. Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community.
  8. Regulation 2018/842 on binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013.
  9. EEA (2019), Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019, EEA Report No 6/2019.
  10. EEA (2018), Trends and drivers in greenhouse gas emissions in the EU in 2016, EEA Briefing No 5/2018, Copenhagen.
  11. EEA (2019), Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019, EEA Report No 6/2019.
  12. Eurostat (2010), Eurostat, Using official statistics to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, Luxembourg, p. 28.
  13. EEA, Eurostat (online data code: (env_air_gge)).
  14. EEA (2018), Trends and projections in Europe 2018 — Tracking projections towards Europe’s climate and energy targets, EEA Report No 16/2018, p. 25.
  15. For more information on the annual targets see European Commission (2018), Commission Staff Working Document, Technical information Accompanying the document Report from the European Commission to the European Parliament and the Council EU and the Paris Climate Agreement: Taking stock of progress at Katowice COP, SWD(2018) 453 final, Brussels.
  16. Ibid.
  17. EEA (2019), Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019, EEA report No 06/2019.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
  20. European Commission (2019), Renewable energy progress report, COM(2019)225.
  21. McCrone, Moslener et al (2018), Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2018, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, commissioned by UN Environment’s Economy Division in cooperation with Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and produced in collaboration with Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Frankfurt am Main.
  22. European Commission (2019), Renewable energy progress report, COM(2019)225.
  23. Ibid.
  24. IRENA (2018), 7.2 Renewable energy data set based on IEA world energy balances.
  25. The Renewable Energy Directive sets sustainability criteria for the production of liquid biofuels, which make up the largest share of renewables in transport. Since 2011 only those biofuels certified as sustainable according to the Directive are counted towards the share of renewables in transport and are therefore included in the indicator. Some Member States transposed the sustainability standards into national law earlier than others. This change in the accounting methodology explains the dip in the share of renewables in transport from 2010 to 2011.
  26. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
  27. Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, Article 3. Directive 2013/12/ EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia.
  28. Directive 2013/12/ EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia.
  29. Directive (EU) 2018/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 amending Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency.
  30. Based on Eurostat data on real GDP growth rate — volume (online data code: (tec00115)).
  31. European Commission (2019), 2018 assessment of the progress made by Member States towards the national energy efficiency targets for 2020 and towards the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive as required by Article 24(3) of the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU, COM(2019) 224 final, Brussels.
  32. IEA, Headline Global Energy Data, 2017 edition. Figures for China, India, Thailand and the Middle East refer to 2016 data. Figures for the United States, Turkey, Japan and Korea refer to 2017 provisional data.
  33. European Commission (2019), 2018 assessment of the progress made by Member States towards the national energy efficiency targets for 2020 and towards the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive as required by Article 24(3) of the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU, COM(2019) 224 final, Brussels.
  34. European Commission (2015), A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy, COM(2015) 80 final, Brussels.
  35. EU ETS Directive (Directive (EU) 2018/410.
  36. Regulation (EU) 2018/842 — Binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013.
  37. Regulation (EU) 2018/841 — on the inclusion of greenhouse gas emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry in the 2030 climate and energy framework and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 and Decision No 529/2013/EU.
  38. European Commission (2016), Clean energy for all Europeans, COM(2016) 860 final, Brussels.
  39. Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action.
  40. European Commission (2018), A Clean Planet for all A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy, COM/2018/773 final, Brussels.
  41. EEA (2019), Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019, EEA Report No 6/2019.
  42. European Commission (2018) Climate Action: Benefits of climate action.