Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community, Rev. 1.1 (2002)

Code:  G
Description:  Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods
Definition:  This section includes wholesale and retail sale (sale without transformation) of any type of goods, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise. Wholesale and retailing are the final steps in the distribution of merchandise. Also included in this section is the repair of motor vehicles and installation and repair of personal and household goods.

Sale without transformation is considered to include the usual operations (or manipulations) associated with trade, e.g. sorting, grading and assembling of goods, mixing (blending) of goods (e.g. wine or sand), bottling (with or without preceding bottle cleaning), packing, breaking bulk and re-packing for distribution in smaller lots, storage (whether or not frozen or chilled), cleaning and drying of agricultural products, cutting out of wooden fibreboards or metal sheets on own account.

Wholesale is the re-sale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional or professional users; or to other wholesalers; or acting as agents or brokers in buying merchandise for, or selling merchandise to, such persons or companies. The principal types of businesses included are merchant wholesalers, i.e. wholesalers who take title to the goods they sell, such as wholesale merchants or jobbers, industrial distributors, exporters, importers, and cooperative buying associations, sales branches and sales offices (but not retail stores) which are maintained by manufacturing or mining units apart from their plants or mines for the purpose of marketing their products and which do not merely take orders to be filled by direct shipments from the plants or mines.

Also included are merchandise and commodity brokers, commission merchants and agents and assemblers, buyers and cooperative associations engaged in the marketing of farm products. Wholesalers frequently physically assemble, sort and grade goods in large lots, break bulk, re-pack, redistribute in smaller lots, e.g. pharmaceuticals; store, refrigerate, deliver and install goods, engage in sales promotion for their customers and label design.

Retailing is the re-sale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods mainly to the general public for personal or household consumption or utilization, by shops, department stores, stalls, mail-order houses, hawkers and peddlers, consumer cooperatives, auction houses, etc. Most retailers take title to the goods they sell, but some act as agents for a principal and sell either on consignment or on a commission basis.