Any kind of extraction of energy products from natural sources within the concerned state to a usable form is called indigenous production. It takes place when the natural sources are exploited, for example extraction in coal mines and crude oil fields or generation of electricity in hydro power plants. Transformation of energy from one form to another, such as electricity or heat generation in thermal power plants, or coke production in coke ovens, is not primary production. More specific definitions by product are given below.|
HARD COAL, LIGNITE
Primary production of these commodities consists of quantities of fuels extracted or produced, calculated after any operation for removal of inert matter. Primary production includes the quantities consumed by the producer in the production process (e.g. for heating or operation of equipment and auxiliaries) as well as supplies to other on-site producers of energy for transformation or other uses.
CRUDE OIL & Natural Gas Liquids
Production within national boundaries including off-shore production is covered. Production only includes marketable production, excluding volumes returned to formation. Such production should include all crude oil, Natural Gas Liquids, condensates and oil from shale and tar sands, etc. It should also include the receipts of Additives/oxygenates by refineries and blending plants from outside the refinery sector.
Primary production covers natural gas liquids and other products obtained on production, purification and stabilisation of natural gas and which can be consumed without refining. By definition the production of refineries is not primary production and in Eurostat’s energy statistics is presented as Transformation output.
Dry marketable production, measured after purification and extraction of Natural Gas Liquids and sulphur is considered as primary production. It does not include quantities re-injected, extraction losses, or quantities vented and flared. It includes quantities used within the natural gas industry, in gas extraction, pipeline systems and processing plants. Production within national boundaries including off-shore production is covered.
The heat produced in a reactor as a result of nuclear fission is regarded as primary production of nuclear heat, or in other words nuclear energy. It is the actual heat produced or calculated on the basis of reported gross electricity generation and the thermal efficiency of the nuclear plant. The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.
SOLAR ENERGY (flat plate collectors)
Primary energy production (TJ) is the heat available to the heat transfer medium, i.e. the incident solar energy less optical and collector's losses. Passive solar and solar photovoltaic are not included.
HYDRO-POWER, WIND ENERGY, SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC
Primary energy production (TJ) is the gross electricity generation in hydro power plants, wind turbines, tidal barrages and photovoltaic plants, assuming a conversion factor of 3 600 kJ/kWh. Primary production of hydropower comprises generation in natural water flow plants. The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers are included.
Primary energy production is the enthalpy difference between the fluid produced in the production borehole and of the fluid eventually disposed of (reinjection borehole).
In the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid biofuels (wood/wood waste/other solid waste), primary energy production represents the heat produced after combustion (corresponding to the net calorific value of the fuel). In the case of anaerobic digestion of wet biomass/wastes, primary energy production corresponds to the heat content (net calorific value) of the biogases produced, including the gases consumed in the installation for the fermentation processes but net of flare. Primary production in the case of liquid biofuels corresponds to the heat content (net calorific value) of the fuel.
Industrial waste (non-renewable):
Primary energy production represents the heat content (Net Calorific Value, NCV) of the industrial waste used as fuel. Renewable industrial waste is reported in the Solid biofuels, Biogases and/or Liquid biofuels categories.
Primary energy production represents the heat content (NCV) of the municipal waste used as fuel.
Primary energy production represents the heat content (NCV) of the solid biofuels used as fuel. The following solid biofuels are covered: fuel wood, wood residues and by-products, wood pellets, black liquor, bagasse, animal waste, other vegetal materials and residues.
Biogases: Primary energy production corresponds to the heat content (NCV) of the biogases produced, including the gases consumed in the installation for the fermentation processes but excluding flared gases. The following biogases are covered: Biogases from anaerobic fermentation (landfill gas, sewage sludge gas, other biogases from anaerobic fermentation) and biogases from thermal processes.
Production for energy purposes of finished products only, not the total volume of liquids into which liquid biofuels may have been blended (see Definitions of Renewable Energy and Waste Sources section).