Memobust Glossary
Edited by Rob van de Laar, Statistics Netherlands
The glossary contains a list of words and concepts with a description of their meaning. It also contains several terms outside the SDMX and GSBPM standards. The work on the glossary started at the beginning of the Memobust project (2011), and as the project progressed, new words and concepts were added. In the final stage of the project (2014) a lot of work has been done on the glossary to integrate and harmonise statistical terms and definitions originating from different modules and different topics in the Handbook. Definitions that are not part of a standard glossary and were formulated by the authors of the Memobust modules are the socalled Memobust definitions. For these the “ISO/IEC 111794 Part 4: Formulation of data definitions” standard was applied. These concepts were used by the authors in the indicated modules. Intentionally different definitions for the same term from different standards have been kept as separate definitions in the glossary, so that in future work differences in standard definitions can be removed or definitions can be combined to arrive at even better definitions. In some cases where two or more definitions for the same term exist with one definition from a standard source and another definition a Memobust definition, the author was not able to use the standard definition and provided a definition for the purpose of his module. Accidental differences in Memobust definitions have been removed by the editor of the Memobust glossary. This work of harmonising and integrating terms and definitions could be continued after the end of the Memobust project if resources exist for this task. At the moment we integrated and harmonised the Memobust glossary for 764 definitions and 695 terms. Some of these definitions are intended to be different, so homonyms have not been prevented completely. (In the pdf version, homonyms are indicated with a light background colour.) Web addresses of sources for standard definitions are provided at the end of the document.
This Memobust glossary was used during the writing of the Handbook in order to facilitate the use of harmonised vocabulary right from the start. From the beginning this glossary was based on the SDMX glossary, and contains all concepts relevant to the Memobust handbook. For internal reviews this glossary was used as it helped reviewers to check the specific vocabulary of a module. It is intended for readers of the modules in the Memobust handbook as an easy reference, but it can also be used to find quickly modulus of the Handbook with relevant information from key terms. For each term references are provided to the relevant modules. Definitions are not repeated as part of the modules, so maintenance of the glossary is limited to this ‘global’ Memobust glossary.
To download a printable version of the Memobust glossary, please access the pdf file (link under "Related Documents" on the righthandside of this page).
Glossary
Term 
Definition 
Source of definition 
Synonyms 
Module 
(n,k) rule 
A cell is regarded as confidential, if the n largest units contribute more than k % to the cell total, e.g. n=2 and k=85 means that a cell is defined as risky if the two largest units contribute more than 85 % to the cell total. The n and k are given by the statistical authority. In some NSIs the values of n and k are confidential. 
Dominance rule 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

(p,q) rule 
It is assumed that prior to publication of tabular data the contribution of one individual to a cell total can be estimated to within q per cent (a priori relative error in estimating the individual contribution). If after publication of the statistic the value can be estimated to within p per cent (a posteriori relative error in estimating the individual contribution), the cell is declared as confidential. The parameters p and q are determined by the statistical authority. In some NSIs the values of p and q are confidential. 
Ambiguity rule; 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

µARGUS 
Software that creates safe microdata files. 
Argus (2013) 


Acceptance region 
A component of an edit rule that defines, for a given edit group, for which values of the test variable the edit is satisfied. 
Norberg (2011) 


Accepted burden 
An allowable level of response burden created e.g. by increasing nonresponse rates, which has a positive effect on response burden. To avoid such undesirable “rewards” 
Willeboordse et al. (1997) 


Accessibility 
The ease and conditions under which statistical information can be obtained. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Accessibility of a log 
The ease and conditions under which logs can be obtained. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Accuracy 
The closeness of estimates to the unknown true values. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) (2009) 


Accuracy 
Closeness between the estimated value and the true value measured by the statistic (usually unknown) 
OECD (2006) 


Accuracy 
Closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Accuracy (of estimates) 
The closeness of estimates to the true values. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Accuracy (of estimates) 
Closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure. Context: The accuracy of statistical information is the degree to which the information correctly describes the phenomena. It is usually characterized in terms of error in statistical estimates and is often decomposed into bias (systematic error) and variance (random error) components. Accuracy is associated with the “reliability” 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Active enterprise 
Within the Business Demography context, activity is de?ned as any turnover and/or employment in the period from 1st January to 31st December in a given year. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 6) 


Activity 
An activity can be said to take place when resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques, information networks or products are combined, leading to the creation of specific goods or services. An activity is characterised by an input of products (goods and services), a production process and an output of products. Activities can be determined by reference to a specific level of NACE Rev. 2. 
CODED 


Activity 
The combination of actions that result in a certain set of products. An activity can be said to take place when resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques or products are combined, leading to specific goods or services. Thus, an activity is characterised by an input of resources, a production process and an output of products. Context: In practice the majority of units carry on activities of a mixed character. One can distinguish between three types of economic activity:  Principal activity: The principal activity is identified by the topdown method as the activity which contributes most to the total value added of the entity under consideration. The principal activity so identified does not necessarily account for 50% or more of the entity's total value added.  Secondary activity: A secondary activity is any other activity of the entity that produces goods or services. 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Activity 
An activity can be said to take place when resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques, information networks or products are combined, leading to the creation of specific goods or services. An activity is characterised by an input of products (goods and services), a production process and an output of products. Activities can be determined by reference to a specific level of NACE Rev. 2. If a unit carries out more than one activity, all the activities, which are not ancillary activities are ranked according to the gross value added. On the basis of the preponderant gross value added generated, a distinction can then be made between principal activity and secondary activities. Ancillary activities are not isolated to form distinct entities or separated from the principal or secondary activities of entities they serve. 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server 

Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The statistical units and the business register 
Actual burden 
The burden based on a realistic level of difference between signals on nonresponse and response. More precisely, it is a reasonably allowable level of non–response. 
Hedlin et al. (2005) 


Adjacency matrix 
01 matrix that indicates which nodes in a graph (or a digraph) are connected by an edge (or an arrow). 
Hacking & 


Administrative data 
The data derived from an administrative source, before any processing or validation by the NSIs. 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 

(1) Theme: Collection and Use of Secondary Data; 
Administrative data holder 
The organisational unit holding an administrative source 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Administrative data provider 
The administrative data holder who is bound to provide their data to the NSI, by law or by virtue of a specific agreement 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Administrative population 
The set of units that an administrative source is meant to cover, as defined by the relevant administrative regulation. This population may or may not correspond exactly to a given target 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Administrative register 
Administrative registers come from administrative sources and become statistical registers after passing through statistical processing in order to make it fit for statistical purposes (production of register based statistics, frame creation, etc.). 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 


Administrative regulation 
A set of detailed directions having force of law, developed to put a policy into practice (such as decrees, ordinances, and other similar provisions). It is normally addressed to a designated population of natural and/or juridical persons, which are bound to observe it. 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Administrative source 
A data holding containing information collected and maintained for the purpose of implementing one or more administrative regulations. 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 (first part) & 


Administrative source 
A data holding containing information collected and maintained for the purpose of implementing one or more administrative regulations. In a wider sense, any data source containing information that is not primarily collected for statistical purposes. 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Administrative source 
A data holding containing information collected and maintained for the purpose of implementing one or more administrative regulations. Context: A wider definition of administrative sources, is used in the Eurostat Business Registers Recommendations Manual: a data holding containing information which is not primarily collected for statistical purposes. The organisational unit responsible for maintaining one or more administrative sources is known as an administrative organisation. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Administrative units 
With reference to the use of administrative data for statistical purposes, the units for which administrative data are recorded. These units may or may not be the same as those required for the statistical output (which are referred to as statistical units). 
Essnet Admin Data Glossary 1.1 


Aggregation 
Aggregation in a system of time series is commonly referred in a literature as benchmarking to contemporaneous constraints. 
Stuckey et.al. (2004) 

(1) Theme: Issues on Seasonal Adjustment; 
AIC 
Measure of the relative goodness of fit of a statistical model AIC = 2k  2log(lik), where k is the number of parameters in the model and lik is maximum value assumed by the likelihood function. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Unit level for Small Area Estimation; 
Allocating (sample elements to interviewers) 
The allocation consists of associating each telephone number (belonging to a sample element) with an interviewer. So the allocation of interviewers to sample elements is via their telephone numbers. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Ambiguity rule 
See: (p,q) rule. 
(p,q) rule; 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Annual Alignment 
The constraint that annual data has to be consistent with sub annual data. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Anticipated value 
Anticipated values are used in score functions and are predictions for the values which are expected in the actual survey. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Predicted values 

ARGUS 
Two software packages for Statistical Disclosure Control are called Argus. µArgus is a specialized software tool for the protection of microdata. The two main techniques used for this are global recoding and local suppression. In the case of global recoding several categories of a variable are collapsed into a single one. The effect of local suppression is that one or more values in an unsafe combination are suppressed, i.e. replaced by a missing value. Both global recoding and local suppression lead to a loss of information, because either less detailed information is provided or some information is not given at all. tArgus is a specialized software tool for the protection of tabular data. tArgus is used to produce safe tables. tArgus uses the same two main techniques as µArgus: global recoding and local suppression. For tArgus the latter consists of suppression of cells in a table. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

ARIMA models 
These are a versatile family of models for modelling and forecasting time series data. Seasonal ARIMA models have a special form for efficiently modelling many kinds of seasonal time series and are heavily used in seasonal adjustment. ARIMA is an acronym for AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average 
US Census Bureau 


Assisted coding 
Coding of textual variable performed during the interview 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Attribute 
A quality of feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful. Examples: availability, accuracy, integrity, confidentiality, effectiveness. 
Longman (2010) 

(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Attribute disclosure 
Attribute disclosure is attribution independent of identification. This form of disclosure is of primary concern to NSIs involved in tabular data release and arises from the presence of empty cells either in a released table or linkable set of tables after any subtraction has taken place. Minimally, the presence of an empty cell within a table means that an intruder may infer from mere knowledge that a population unit is represented in the table and that the intruder does not possess the combination of attributes within the empty cell. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Attribute of register unit 
Attribute of a register unit is a regularly updated characteristic of a register unit. Remark: Attributes of statistical register units can be arranged in groups. Accordingly, attributes referring to identification, contact, classification, demographic characteristics, relation to other register units, attributes supporting register maintenance and statistical processes (for example organization of data collection, sampling, etc.) can be defined. In respect of maintainability and changes of attributes over time, administrative and statistical attributes are distinguished 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Automatic coding 
Coding (in batch) using a program. The program takes all of the decisions. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Automatic coding 
The computer assigns codes to the verbal responses working in “batch” 
Macchia S. and Murgia M (2002) 
AUC 

Automatic coding precision 
The percentage of correctly coded descriptions ((Number of correctly coded description/Number coded descriptions) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Automatic coding rate 
The percentage of coded descriptions(Number of coded description/Number descriptions to be coded) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Automatic editing 
An umbrella term for editing methods in which the data are checked and adjusted by a computer. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Autoregressive model 
A representation of a type of random process; 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Autoregressive model 
An econometric modelbased upon the autoregressive process but also containing lagged versions of some or all of the endogenous variables considered in the model specification. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Auxiliary variable 
A variable that correlates with the target variable and is observed for all units. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Bagofwords assumption 
The assumption that, for a description, only the separate words that occur play a role, and not the order and the combinations of these words in the description. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Barnardisation 
A method of disclosure control for tables of counts that involves randomly adding or subtracting 1 from some cells in the table. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Base register 
Registers kept as a basic resource for public administration. The function of base registers is typically to keep stock of the population at any given time. In addition, they have to maintain identification information to be used by other sources. 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 


Benchmarking 
Achieving consistency between data that are published at different frequencies (for instance quarterly data that has to comply with annual data). 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Benchmarking 
Achieving consistency between data that are published at different frequencies (for instance quarterly data that has to comply with annual data). 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Benchmarking 
Achieving consistency between data that are published at different level of aggregation. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot); 
Benchmarking 
Benchmarking (to temporal constraints) involves enforcing consistency across time with respect to another time series. 
Stuckey et.al. (2004) 

(1) Theme: Issues on Seasonal Adjustment; 
Bias 
An effect which deprives a statistical result of representativeness by systematically distorting it, as distinct from a random error which may distort on any one occasion but balances out on the average. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 
Systematic error. 

Bias 
The bias of an estimator is the difference between its mathematical expectation and the true value of the parameter. In case it is zero, the estimator is said to be unbiased. Expectation is usually calculated on the set of all possible samples (Randomization approach). Otherwise is calculated with respect to the assumed model (modelbased approach). 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Bias 
The bias of an estimator is the difference between its mathematical expectation and the true value it estimates. If this difference is zero, the estimator is said to be unbiased. Expectation is usually calculated on the set of all possible samples. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot); 
Bias 
The bias of an estimator is the difference between its mathematical expectation and target parameter. In the case it is zero, the estimator is said to be unbiased. Expectation is usually calculated on the set of all possible samples. 
Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange (SDMX) 


Bias (of an estimator) 
An effect which deprives a statistical result of representativeness by systematically distorting it, as distinct from a random error which may distort on any one occasion but balances out on the average. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Sample coordination; 
BIC 
This is a criterion for model selection among a finite set of models. It is based, in part, on the likelihood function. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


BIC 
Measure of the relative goodness of fit of a statistical model BIC=k log(n)2log(lik) where k is the number of parameters in the model, n is the number of observation and lik is the maximum value of the likelihood function. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot) 
Binding constraint 
See hard constraint 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Birth rate 
The birth rate of a given reference period is the number of births as a percentage of the population of active enterprises. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Blocking variable 
A variable that is used to partition matching data sets, that is, divide in a number of subfiles, with the intention of reducing the search space. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimator) 
Estimator minimizing the square loss in the class of linear unbiased estimators (unbiasedness is referred to the model distribution). 
Memobust definition (2014) 


BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) 
Predictor which minimizes the square loss in the class of linear unbiased predictors (unbiasedness is referred to the model distribution). 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Bounds 
The range of possible values of a cell in a table of frequency counts where the cell value has been perturbed or suppressed. Where only margins of tables are released it is possible to infer bounds for the unreleased joint distribution. One method for inferring the bounds across a table is known as the Shuttle algorithm. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Break of time series 
Break occurring when there is a change in the standards for defining and observing a variable over time. 
SDMX (2009) 
Time series break 

Breakup 
This event involves a splitting of the production factors of an enterprise into two or more new enterprises, in such a way that the previous enterprise is no longer recognisable. There is no continuity or survival, but the closure of the previous enterprise is not considered to be a death. Similarly the new enterprise are not considered to be births. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 4). 


BSDG 
Bussiness Statistics Directors Group 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Business register for statistical purposes 
Regulation (EC) No 177/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council establishes a common framework for business registers for statistical purposes in the Community.Member States shall set up one or more harmonised registers for statistical purposes, as a tool for the preparation and coordination of surveys, as a source of information for the statistical analysis of the business population and its demography, for the use of administrative data, and for the identification and construction of statistical units. The registers shall be compiled of: All enterprises carrying on economic activities contributing to the gross domestic product (GDP), and their local units; 
Business Register Regulation (EC) No 177/2008, Articles 1 and 3 (1) 
Statistical business register 
Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
CAI 
Computer Assisted Interviewing. 
Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE), "Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing", Conference of European Statisticians Methodological material, Geneva (2000) 

(1) Theme: Electronic Questionnaire Design; 
cAIC 
As model selection measure, cAIC is well suited for small area estimation. It is relevant to inferences regarding the clusters, or areas, in the context of linear mixed models. inferences regarding the clusters, or areas, in the context of linear mixed models. The criterion is 
Memobust definition (2014) 


cAIC 
As model selection measure, cAIC is wellsuited for small area estimation. It is relevant for inferences regarding clusters, or domains, in the context of linear mixed models. The criterion is cAIC = 2peff – 2log(lik), where lik is maximum values assumed by the conditional likelihood, that is the likelihood function when fixed and random effects vectors evaluated at their estimated values. The effective number of degrees of freedom peff is essentially given by the trace of the hat matrix H. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot) 
CAII 
Computer Assisted Internet Interview 
Willeboordse et al. (1997) 


Calculated interval 
The interval containing possible values for a suppressed cell in a table, given the table structure and the values published. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Calendar adjustment 
Calendar adjustment refers to the correction for calendar variations. Such calendar adjustments include working day adjustments or the incidence of moving holidays (such as Easter and Chinese New Year) 
OECD (2006) 


Calendar effects 
Influences deriving from differences in the number of working days or the dates of particular days which can be statistically proven and quantified 
Eurostat (2009) 

(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Calibration 
One of the most important methods of weighting commonly used by many statistical agencies in survey sampling, whose main aim is to compute weights to be used in estimation, given an input of auxiliary information. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Calibration equation 
In the calibration procedure for totals, equations in which calibration weights applied to all auxiliary variables in the sample exactly reproduce the known population totals of the auxiliary variables. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Calibration estimator 
An estimator which is a weighted sum of sample observation, whose weights are obtained in order to minimize a distance with the design weights subject to the constraint that the weighted sum of an auxiliary variables reproduce the known amount. See Module XIX 2.c for further details 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Calibration estimator 
Estimator which takes into account calibration weights which satisfy calibration equations. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Calibration weights 
Weights which replace the original initial design weights and satisfy calibration equations. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Call scheduler 
Software that runs in the scheduling system according to the values of the scheduling parameters set by survey responsible 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Capacity of call room 
The maximum number of interviewers that can work simultaneously in the call room for CATI survey work. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


CAPI 
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing. A method of data collection in which an interviewer uses a computer to display questions and accept responses during a facetoface interview. 
United States Bureau of Census, Glossary of Selected Abbreviations and Acronyms. 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
CASI 
Computer Assisted SelfInterviewing. The technique whereby respondents independently complete electronic questionnaires, assisted only by speciallydesigned computer programs. 
Glossary, Adapting new technologies to census operations (2001) 

(1) Theme: Electronic Questionnaire Design; 
CASI 
Computer Assisted Self Interviewing is a method of data collection in which the respondent operates the computer: questions are read from the computer screen and responses are entered directly in the computer. A wellknown form of CASI is the web survey. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


CATI 
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. A method of data collection by telephone with questions displayed on a computer and responses entered directly into a computer. 
United States Bureau of Census, Glossary of Selected Abbreviations and Acronyms. 

(1) Theme: Questionnaire Design; 
CATI Interviewer 
A person who on behalf of a statistical office carries out interviews by telephone. In this module we assume that these people work from a call room. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


CAWI 
Computer Assisted Web Interviewing. A method of data collection based on web questionnaire. The respondent accesses the questionnaire via a web connection and fills it in. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Web Survey 
(1) Theme: Coding; 
CBA 
Cost Benefit Analysis – a model enabling identification of which cost and benefits to include to evaluate effects of participating in the survey, discounting future benefits and costs over time to obtain a present day value and identification of relevant constraints. 
Haraldsen et al. (2013), Pres and Turvey (1965) 


Cell suppression 
In tabular data the cell suppression SDC method consists of primary and complementary (secondary) suppression. Primary suppression can be characterised as withholding the values of all risky cells from publication, which means that their value is not shown in the table but replaced by a symbol such as ‘×’ 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Chainlinking 
Joining together two indices that overlap in one period by rescaling one of them to make its value equal to that of the other in the same period, thus combining them into single time series. More complex methods may be used to link together indices that overlap by more than period 
OECD (2006) 


Changes in inventories 
Changes in inventories are measured by the value of the entries into inventories less the value of withdrawals and the value of any recurrent losses of goods held in inventories. 
ESA (2010) 


Characteristic 
See: Attribute. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Checking rule 
see Edit 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Edit 

Clarity 
The ease with which users can understand the statistics. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Clarity 
The extent to which easily comprehensible metadata are available (for the user), where these metadata are necessary to give a full understanding of statistical data. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Clarity of log information 
The degree to which the log information can be read, understood and interpreted. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Readability, interpretability 

Classification scheme 
A hierarchical arrangement of kinds of things (classes) or groups of kinds of thing 
Wikipedia, English edition 

(1) Method: Manual coding; 
Cluster sampling 
A sampling technique used when ‘natural’ 
Wikipedia Cluster Sampling 


Coder 
A specialist trained to interpret and classify descriptions (in a certain area) in the light of a classification used for that purpose. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Manual coding; 
Coding 
The activity in the statistical process in which it is determined whether a code from a classification can be assigned to a description, and, if so, which code this could be. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Manual coding; 
Coding 
The process of converting verbal or textual information into codes representing classes within a classification scheme, to facilitate data processing, storage or dissemination 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Coding 
The process of converting verbal or textual information into codes representing classes within a classification scheme, to facilitate data processing, storage or dissemination. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Coding error 
The assignment of an incorrect code to a data item. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Coding precision 
The percentage of correctly coded descriptions ((Number of correctly coded description/Number coded descriptions) 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Automatic coding precision 

Coding rate 
Percentage of coded texts on the total of texts to be coded 
D’Orazio M. and 
Efficacy, Automatic coding rate 

Coefficient of variation 
The ratio of the square root of the variance of the estimator to its expected value. 
ESS Handbook on Precision Requirements and Variance Estimation for Household Surveys 

(1) Method: Generalised regression estimator; 
Coherence 
The degree to which the statistical processes by which statistics were generated used the same concepts – classifications, definitions and target populations – and harmonised methods. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Coherence 
Adequacy of statistics to be reliably combined in different ways and for various uses. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) (2009) 


Coherence 
Adequacy of statistics to be combined in different ways and for various uses. 


Coherence 
Adequacy of statistics to be combined in different ways and for various uses. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Cold deck imputation 
A form of donor imputation in which the donor record comes from a different data set than the recipient record. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Collection unit 
Collection unit is the unit from which data are obtained and by which questionnaire survey forms are completed. Data supplier and data provider are collection units. 
United Nations, DEPARTMENT of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division [2007]: Statistical Units. United Nations, New York 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Commodity 
Goods and services produced and used in an economy. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Communication mode 
A channel used in a survey to contact businesses, seek survey cooperation, communicate information, instructions, procedures and nonresponse followup, and to support businesses. 
Snijkers & 


Communication strategy 
How businesses are contacted and followedup in case of nonresponse, aimed at receiving timely, accurate and complete responses. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Comparability 
The degree to which the same data items can be compared but for different reference periods or different sub populations (regions or domains). 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Comparability 
Adequacy of statistics to be reliably compared; 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports, 2009; 

(1) Theme: Overall Design; 
Comparison functions 
Functions that compute the distance between records compared on the chosen matching variables. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Complementary suppression 
See: Secondary suppression 
Secondary suppression 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Completeness of log information 
The degree to which log information meets all current and potential needs of the user of the log information. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Composite estimator 
A weighted sum of two component estimators defined to reduce the meansquarederror (MSE) of the resulting estimator. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Preliminary estimates with designbased methods; 
Composite unit 
A unit that is composed of units from a lower order. A household is an example of a composite unit; 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Computer assisted coding (CAC) 
The operator assigns codes working interactively with the computer, that gives him a support in “navigating” 
Macchia S. and Murgia M (2002) 
Interactive coding 

Computer assisted survey information collection 
Computer assisted survey information collection (CASIC) encompasses computer assisted data collection and data capture. CASIC may be more broadly defined to include the use of computer assisted, automated, or advanced computing methods for data editing and imputation, data analysis and tabulation, data dissemination, or other steps in the survey or census process. 
UN Statistical Commission, UNECE, 2000. Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing. 


Computer supported coding 
See Computerassisted coding 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Computerassisted coding 
A form of coding in which a coder makes all the coding decisions, possibly while using an electronic file or index. 
Hacking & 
Interactive coding 

Concentration rule 
Rule to assess whether a cell is a risky cell, based on comparing the size of the individual contributions to the cell. Examples are the dominance rule and the p% rule. 
Hundepool et al. (2012) 
Dominance rule; 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Conditional mean matching 
Model based imputation method: imputes the missing value with its expectation given the observed variables 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Confidentiality of log information 
The degree to which log information cannot be made available to users of log information. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Connected component 
A maximal connected subgraph of a graph. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Consistency 
Sum of subannual values of a time series is equal to the annual values; 
Dagum and Cholette (2006) 


Consistency 
Logical and numerical coherence. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Consistency 
Data values are said to be consistent if they conform to specified edit rules. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Generalised Ratio Adjustments; 
Consistency 
An estimator is called consistent if it converges in probability to its estimand as sample increases 
The International Statistical Institute, "The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms", edited by Yadolah Dodge, Oxford University Press (2003). 


Constrained distance hot deck 
The donor can be chosen just once and the subset of the donors is selected in order to minimize the overall matching distance. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Constraint 
Specification of what may be contained in a data or metadata set in terms of content or, for data only, in terms of the set of key combinations to which specific attributes (defined by the data structure) may be attached. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Consumption of government 
Final consumption expenditure consists of expenditure incurred by resident institutional units on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of the collective needs of members of the community. 
ESA (2010) 


Consumption of households 
Final consumption expenditure consists of expenditure incurred by resident institutional units on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual needs or wants. 
ESA (2010) 


Contact strategy 
when and how respondents are contacted, and what material (questionnaire, cover letter, instructions et cetera) is used in each contact. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Contempeous constraints 
Constraints within one period, between different timeseries 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Control 
Control is the ability to determine general corporate policy by choosing appropriate directors. Control is when owning more than half of the voting shares or otherwise controlling half of the shareholders’ 
European System of Accounts (ESA 1995), paragraph 2.26 


Controlled rounding 
Controlled rounding: To solve the additivity problem, a procedure called controlled rounding was developed. It is a form of random rounding, but it is constrained to have the sum of the published entries in each row and column equal to the appropriate published marginal totals. Linear programming methods are used to identify a controlled rounding pattern for a table. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Controlled Tabular Adjustment 
A method to protect tabular data based on the selective adjustment of cell values. Sensitive cell values are replaced by either of their closest safe values and small adjustments are made to other cells to restore the table additivity. Controlled tabular adjustment has been developed as an alternative to cell suppression. 
CTA 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Conventional Rounding 
A disclosure control method for tables of counts. When using conventional rounding, each count is rounded to the nearest multiple of a fixed base. For example, using a base of 5, counts ending in 1 or 2 are rounded down and replaced by counts ending in 0 and counts ending in 3 or 4 are rounded up and replaced by counts ending in 5. Counts ending between 6 and 9 are treated similarly. Counts with a last digit of 0 or 5 are kept unchanged. When rounding to base 10, a count ending in 5 may always be rounded up, or it may be rounded up or down based on a rounding convention. 
Deterministic rounding 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Coordination of samples 
Increasing the sample overlap for some surveys rather than drawing the samples independently is known as positive coordination. Reducing the overlap between samples for different surveys is known as negative coordination. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Assigning random numbers when coordination of surveys based on different unit types is considered; 
CoP 
The European Code of Practice provides 15 principles covering the institutional environment, the statistical production processes and the output of statistics. A set of indicators of good practice for each of the principles provides a reference for reviewing the implementation of the Code. 
European Code of Practice (2011) 

(1) Theme: Specification of User Needs for Business Statistics; 
Corpus 
Coded set of descriptions. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Correction rule 
An ifthen rule that is used to treat a particular error in a deterministic manner. 
loosely based on UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing 


Correctness of log information 
The degree to which log information reflects reality. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Covariance matrix 
A mathematic measure of reliability. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Coverage 
The definition of the population that statistics aim to cover. 
SDMX (2009) 


Coverage error 
Error caused by a failure to cover adequately all components of the population being studied, which results in differences between the target population and the sampling frame. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database, SDMX Metadata Common Vocabulary (http://sdmx.org), 2009 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Creative editing 
A process whereby manual editors invent editing procedures to avoid reviewing another error message from subsequent machine editing. 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 


Cross validation 
CV methods allow to test the robustness of the models, quantifying their predictive power by leaving out one or more observations when fitting the models, and subsequently assessing the model predictions for the leftout observation(s). It can be quantified in alternative ways, for instance averaging the prediction errors 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Unit level for Small Area Estimation; 
Crosssection 
This involves some observations of all population, or a representative subset at one specific point in time. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


CTA 
See: Controlled Tabular Adjustment 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Controlled Tabular Adjustment 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Cutoff sampling 
A sampling procedure in which a predetermined threshold is established with all units in the universe at or above the threshold being included in the sample and all units below the threshold being excluded. The threshold is usually specified in terms of the size of some known relevant variable. In the case of establishments, size is usually defined in terms of employment or output. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Cutoff survey 
A survey in which all the entities falling above or below a threshold determined according to one or more characteristics of those entities are either included or excluded 
SDMX (2009) 


Cutoff threshold 
A threshold used, mainly for cost or burden reasons, to exclude from the target population (hence from the frame) units contributing very little to the requested statistics, small businesses for instance. 
SDMX (2009) 


Cutoff value 
A value to limit the matching weights (upwards or downwards). 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
DamerauLevenshtein distance 
A metric defined to measure the distance between strings. It measures the minimum number of elementary steps to transform one string into another. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Levenshtein distance 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Data 
Characteristics or information, usually numerical, that are collected through observation. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Data cleaning 
see Editing 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Editing 

Data collection mode 
The technical setup for presenting and answering survey questions to respondents, and the collection of the survey data to the central administration. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Data Integration 
The process of combining data from two or more sources to produce statistical outputs. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Data provider 
The unit that actually reports the data about the reporting unit in the name of the data supplier. This could be a representative, e.g. an accounting firm. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Data reconciliation 
The process of adjusting data derived from two different sources to remove, or at least reduce, the impact of differences identified. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Data set 
Any organised collection of data 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Data supplier 
The unit which is formally responsible to provide data about its reporting unit(s). The survey organization has a legal relationship with the data supplier. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Data validation 
see Editing 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Editing 

DBMS 
Database Management System. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Death rate 
The death rate of a given reference period is the number of deaths as a percentage of the population of active enterprises 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Deductive editing 
An umbrella term for editing methods that use logical reasoning to derive adjustments from the unedited data. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Deductive imputation 
An umbrella term for imputation methods that use logical reasoning to derive imputed values in a deterministic manner. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 
Logical imputation 
(1) Method: Deductive Imputation; 
Deduplication 
Taking the duplicate records out of a file, one by one, that occur multiple times, and that all relate to the same unit (in a certain period). 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Definition 
Step 1 in the OQRM model, where the object and the focus area is defined. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Definitive interruption rate 
The proportion of observation units for which the reporting unit has been successfully contacted, but has interrupted in cooperation before the very end of the questionnaire 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Degree 
The degree of a point in a graph is the number of edges in the graph connected to this point. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Delphi method 
A research tool in which opinions are solicited from many experts about a topic for which there is no consensus. The answers of other experts are fed back anonymously in several rounds until consensus is reached. The method is named after the Oracle of Delphi. 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 


Dependencies 
Step 10 in the OQRM model, where dependencies of a focus area with other focus areas are determined. Example: The soundness of methodology contributes to the accuracy of estimates. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Design burden 
The burden which includes all aspects of the survey environment that are not directly associated with the respondent e.g. method of data collection, mode of collection and the contents of the survey, errors in sampling frame, incorrect sampling, etc. 
Hedlin et al. (2005) 


Design weight 
For a sampling unit, it is the inverse probability of selection. 
ESS Handbook on Precision Requirements and Variance Estimation for Household Surveys, EUROSTAT 2013 

(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Design weight 
Weight which is the inverse of the inclusion probability. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Designconsistency 
Convergence in probability as the sample size increased. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Deterministic imputation 
A deterministic imputation method determines one unique value for the imputation of a missing or inconsistent data item. This means that when the imputation process is repeated, the same values will be imputed. 
EDIMBUS Manual 

(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Deterministic record linkage 
Linkage method that detects links if and only if there is a full agreement of unique identifiers or a set of common identifiers, the matching variables. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Object identifiers 

Deterministic rounding 
See: conventional rounding 
Conventional rounding 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

DIME 
Directors of Methodology 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


DIMESA 
Direcors’ 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Direct estimator 
An estimator of the target parameter for a given subpopulation (domain) is said to be a direct estimator when it is based only on sample information from the subpopulation itself. The more common direct estimators used in large scale business surveys are Calibration estimators. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Direct estimator 
An estimator which takes into account only domainspecific data. In many cases this estimator gives unacceptable results due to the fact that small areas are not represented in the sample by many units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Composite Estimators for Small Area Estimation; 
Disaggregation 
The breakdown of observations, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to a more detailed level to that at which detailed observations are taken. 
SDMX (2009) 


Disclosive cells 
See: risky cells. 
Risky cells 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Disclosure 
Disclosure relates to the inappropriate attribution of information to a data subject, whether an individual or an organisation. Disclosure has two components: identification and attribution. 


Disclosure risk 
A disclosure risk occurs if an unacceptably narrow estimation of a respondent’s confidential information is possible or if exact disclosure is possible with a high level of confidence. 


Dissemination 
Supply of data in any form whatever: publications, access to databases, microfiches, telephone communications, etc. 


Dissemination 
Dissemination is the release to users of information obtained through a statistical activity. 
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms 


Dissimilarity measure 
A measure to express the differences between two objects or entities. Somewhat similar to a metric. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Distance function 
See Metric 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Distance function 
In the calibration procedure, a function which measures the distance between initial design weights and calibration weights. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


DMES 
Directors of MacroEconomic Statistics 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Dominance rule 
See: (n,k) rule. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
(n,k) rule; 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Donor file 
File where one variable (say Z) has been observed and that will be used for imputation purposes on a file where Z is missing (recipient file) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Donor imputation 
An imputation method for which the imputed value is copied from a donor record that closely matches the recipient record on many features. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Doubt category 
A category that can be used if a description cannot be classified with sufficient certainty. The same or other coders can review the descriptions designated as such at a later stage in the process. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
DPoD 
Day  Part of Day combination. The basic time unit for allocating CATI interviewers. For the sake of concreteness we have assumed three DPoD’s in this module: morning, afternoon, evening. Other choices are possible and allowed, however. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


DSS 
Directors of Social Statistics 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


EBLUP 
Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictor – estimator obtained by plugging in the estimation of variance components in a BLUP estimator, that is the estimator that in the class of all linear unbiased estimator minimize square loss. Unbiasedness is referred to model distribution. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Unit level for Small Area Estimation; 
EBLUP (Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) 
Predictor obtained by plugging in the estimates of the variance components in the BLUP. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


ECSC 
European Coal and Steel Community 
ECSC 


EDI 
Electronic Data Interchange 
Willeboordse et al. (1997) 


Edit 
A logical condition or a restriction to the value of a data item or a data group which must be met if the data is to be considered correct. 
EDIMBUS Manual 

(1) Method: Generalised Ratio Adjustments; 
Edit 
A check (logical condition or a restriction to the value of a data item or a group of data items) that identifies missing, invalid or inconsistent values or that points to data records that are potentially in error. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Edit rule, Checking rule 
(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Edit 
A logical condition or a restriction to the value of a data item or a data group which must be met. 
EDIMBUS Manual 


Edit constraints 
see Edit 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Edit distance 
Distance that returns the minimum cost in terms of insertion, deletions and substitutions needed to transform a string of one record into the corresponding string of the compared record 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Edit group 
A component of an edit rule that identifies a (homogeneous) subset of the units for which the acceptance region is applicable for the test variable. 
Norberg (2011) 


Edit rule 
see Edit 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Edit 

Editing 
The application of checks that identify missing, invalid or inconsistent entries or that point to data records that are potentially in error. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Editing 
An activity that aims to detect, understand, and correct missing values and erroneous values in data. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Data cleaning, Data validation 

Editor 
A person who performs interactive or manual editing. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


EEA 
European Economic Area 
EEA 


EFQM 
European Foundation for Quality Management 
Memobust definition (2014) 


EFTA 
European Free Trade Association. 
EFTA 


Employer enterprise birth 
Birth of an enterprise with at least one employee. This population consists of enterprise births that have at least one employee in the birth year and of enterprises that existed before the year in consideration, but were below the threshold of one employee 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 5). 


Employer enterprise death 
An Employee Enterprise death occurs either as an enterprise death with at least one employee in the year of death or as an exit by decline, moving below the threshold of one employee. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 7). 


Enterprise 
The enterprise is the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decisionmaking, especially for the allocation of its current resources. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit. Note: The definition does not limit enterprise to one country. However, by convention this is generally done in the European statistical context. Enterprise may thus be used elsewhere in the meaning of enterprise group, in America also in the meaning of truncated enterprise group 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III A 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Enterprise Birth 
A birth amounts to the creation of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Births do not include entries into the population due to mergers, breakups, splito? or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include entries into a subpopulation resulting only from a change of activity. 
Definition of SBS Regulation variables, EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 5). 
Real Birth Enterprise 

Enterprise Death 
A death amounts to the dissolution of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Deaths do not include exits from the population due to mergers, takeovers, breakups or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include exits from a subpopulation resulting only from a change of activity. 
Definition of SBS Regulation variables, EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 7). 
Real Death Enterprise 

Enterprise group 
An enterprise group is an association of enterprises bound together by legal and/or financial links. A group of enterprises can have more than one decisionmaking centre, especially for policy on production, sales and profit. It may centralise certain aspects of financial management and taxation. It constitutes an economic entity, which is empowered to make choices, particularly concerning the units that it comprises. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III C 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
Error 
In general, a mistake or error in the colloquial sense. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 
Mistake 

Error message 
For electronic questionnaire: a window containing a text that described what sort of inconsistency happened and the list of variables involved in it 
Memobust definition (2014) 


ESAC 
European Statistical Advisory Committee 
Regulation N^{o} 99/2013 


ESCB 
European System of Central Banks 
Regulation N^{o} 223/2009 


ESGAB 
European Statistical Governance Advisory Board 
Decision N^{o} 235 (2008) 


ESS 
European Statistical System. The ESS is the partnership comprising Eurostat, National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) and other national statistical bodies responsible in each Member State (MS) for producing and disseminating European statistics. 
ESS Regulation No 223 (2009) 

(1) Theme: Different types of surveys; 
ESSC 
European Statistical System Committee 
Regulation N^{o} 223/2009 


ESSVIP 
ESS Vision Implementation Project 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Establishment 
An establishment is defined by the System of National Accounts (SNA) as an enterprise, or part of an enterprise, that is situated in a single location and in which only a single (nonancillary) productive activity is carried out or in which the principal productive activity accounts for most of the value added. According to the Regulation on statistical units the local kindofactivity unit (local KAU) corresponds to the operational definition of the establishment. According to the European System of Accounts (ESA) the local KAU is called the establishment in the SNA and ISIC Rev. 3. 
System of National Accounts (SNA) 1993, (5.21), P. 116, European System of Accounts (ESA) 1995, [2.106] footnote 15 and Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III G (2) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Estimate 
The particular value yielded by an estimator in a given set of circumstances. 
SDMX (2009) 
Estimated value. 
(1) Method: Preliminary estimates with designbased methods; 
Estimator 
A rule or method of estimating a parameter of a population. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Estimator effect 
Ratio between variance of the estimator and variance of the HT estimator for the same sampling design. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


ETL 
Extract Transform Load. A set of operations to make an external data set suitable for further processing, e.g. at a statistical office. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Evaluation 
The systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing statistical production process, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. 
GSBPM (2009) 


Experiment embedded 
The sample of a survey is randomly divided into several groups, which are differently treated and then compared with regard to a hypothesis about treatment effects. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Exports of goods and services 
Exports of goods and services consist of transactions in goods and services (sales, barter, and gifts) from residents to nonresidents. 
ESA (2010) 


Failure rate 
The proportion of records in the unedited data that fail a given edit. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


False match rate 
number of incorrectly linked record pairs divided by the total number of linked record pairs 
Memobust definition (2014) 
False positive rate 

False matches 
Matched records which do not represent the same entity 
Memobust definition (2014) 
mismatch, false positive match, Type I error 

False negative match 
See Missed Match 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
False nonmatch rate 
number of incorrectly unlinked record pairs divided by the total number of true match record pairs 
Memobust definition (2014) 
False negative rate, Missed match rate 

False nonmatches 
Unmatched records not correctly classified, that imply truly matched entities were not linked. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
missed match, false negative match, Type II error 

False positive match 
See Mismatch 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Fatal edit rule 
see Hard edit rule 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Feasible matching graph 
A subgraph of an MC graph that satisfies the criteria that are established for the matching graph. These criteria relate at least to the maximum degree of the points or a part thereof (degree restrictions). The word ‘feasible’ 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
FellegiSunter method 
Matching method described in Fellegi and Sunter (1969). 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
First order autoregressive process AR(1) 
Model belonging to the class of autoregressive (AR), in which the current level is modelled on the basis of the previous levels. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Flow variable 
A flow variable is measured over an interval of time. (see also stock variable) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Focus area 
Combination of an object and one accompanying attribute. Examples: accuracy of estimates, soundness of methodology, clarity of a description. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Followup 
The work performed by an editor during manual editing to handle an edit failure. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Followup 
A further attempt to obtain information from an individual or a reporting unit in a survey or field experiment because the initial attempt has failed or later information is available. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Preliminary estimates with designbased methods; 
Foreign key 
A key value that occurs in a record but is not suitable to identify the record itself. A foreign key is therefore located outside the key of a data set. The purpose of a foreign key is to make a match with a record in another data set which, for example, includes additional data based on that key. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Frame 
A list, map or other specification of the units, which define a population to be completely enumerated or sampled 
SDMX (2009), CODED 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Frame error 
Error caused by imperfections in the frame (business register, population register, area sample, etc.) from which units are selected for inclusion in surveys or censuses. 
NQAF (2012) 


Frame population 
Frame population is the set of population units described in the survey frame. Remark: Because of the coverage error of the frame population (reference scope) the frame population and the target population is not overlap each other. The part of the frame population belonging to the target population is the survey population 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Reference scope 
(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Survey frames for business surveys; 
Frequency 
The time interval at which observations occur over a given time period. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Frequency of register maintenance 
Frequency of register maintenance is the time interval of the register content alterations. Remark: Registers can be maintained from different sources with different frequencies. In such cases, the most frequently used source determines the frequency of the register maintenance 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Frequency tables 
See: Tables of frequency (count) data 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Fuzzy string matching 
The comparison of two texts, for which the outcome (usually) is a scalar that indicates the extent to which the texts are similar. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Gazelle 
A gazelle is a highgrowth enterprise that is up to 5 years old. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics. 


Generalised regression estimator 
An estimator that can be written as the sum of the Horvitz Thompson estimator (HT) and a weighted difference between known totals and their HT estimator. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
GREG 

Global score function 
A global score function is the combination of all defined local score functions, i.e., score functions defined for individual variables. 
EDIMBUS Manual 


Gross burden 
All additional costs to businesses arising from their inclusion in a survey if all sampled businesses respond. 
Willeboordse et al. (1997), DETI (2009) 


Gross domestic product 
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is one of the key aggregates in the ESA. GDP is a measure of the total economic activity taking place on an economic territory which leads to output meeting the final demands of the economy. There are three ways of measuring GDP at market prices: (1) The production approach, as the sum of the values added by all activities which produce goods and services, plus taxes less subsidies on products; 
Memobust definition (2014) 
GDP 

Gross measurement errors 
are observations that are not true values 
Memobust definition (2014) 


GSBPM 
The Generic Statistical Business Process Model provides a framework to describe the statistical production process in terms of standard components (phases and subprocesses). 
GSBPM (2009) 

(1) Theme: Specification of User Needs for Business Statistics; 
Hamming distance 
Distance between two records on a matching key, measured by counting the number of variables with different scores. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Hard Constraint 
A constraint that should hold exactly 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Hard edit rule 
An edit rule that identifies data errors with certainty. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Fatal edit rule, Logical edit rule 
(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Heteroscedasticity 
A collection of random variables is heteroscedastic if there are subpopulations that have different variabilities than others. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Highgrowth enterprise 
A highgrowth enterprise is an enterprise with average annualised growth greater than 20% per annum, over a three year period. Growth can be measured by the number of employees or by turnover. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics. 


History 
Step 9 in the OQRM model, where the history of the focus area is formulated. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Hit rate 
(1) The proportion of error flags that an edit generates which point to true errors. Or (2) the proportion of error flags generated by an edit that are associated with adjustments made to the data. [Note: this is a practical approximation to the formal definition given under (1).] 
EDIMBUS Manual 


Horizontal aggregation 
Horizontal aggregation: aggregation, e.g. by country 
European Communities (2001) 

Theme: Seasonal adjustment – introduction and general description 
HorvitzThompson estimator 
Weighted sum with weights given by the inverse of inclusion probabilities. 
Module XIX.0 
HT 

Hotdeck imputation 
A donor record is found from the same survey as the record with the missing item(s). This donor record is used to supply values for the missing or inconsistent data item(s). 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Donor imputation 
(1) Method: Minimum Adjustment Methods; 
Hypercube method 
A heuristic method for protecting tables through cell suppression. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Hypernym 
A generalisation of a term or a more general term. Opposite of ‘hyponym’. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on semantic networks; 
Hyponym 
A specialisation of a term or a more specific term. Opposite of ‘hypernym’. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on semantic networks; 
Importance 
Step 7 in the OQRM model, where the importance of the focus area will be determined, related to the output quality or other objectives. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Imports of goods and services 
Imports of goods and services consist of transactions in goods and services (purchases, barter, and gifts) from nonresidents to residents. 
ESA (2010) 


Imputation 
(1) A procedure for entering a value for a specific data item where the response is missing or unusable. Or (2) a value that is filled in during the process described under (1). 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007), CBS Methods Series Glossary. 
Imputing, Imputed value 
(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Imputation class 
A subpopulation for which imputation is carried out, without using any information from the rest of the population. Different imputation methods can be used for different imputation classes. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 
Imputation group 
(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Imputed value 
see Imputation (2) 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Imputation 

Imputing 
see Imputation (1) 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Imputation 

In control 
Step 6 in the OQRM model, where is determined if the requirements for a focus area are met and/or if the residual risk is acceptable. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Inclusion probability 
For a sampling design without replacement, the probability that a particular unit from the population is drawn. This probability may vary between units, depending on the sampling design. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Imputation; 
Inclusion probability 
The probability that a member of a population will appear in a given sample. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Calibration; 
Indicator 
A data element that represents statistical data for a specified time, place, and other characteristics, and is corrected for at least one dimension (usually size) to allow for meaningful comparisons. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Indirect estimator 
An estimator that “borrows strength” 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Industry 
A group of producing units, having similar output and production processes; 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Influential error 
An error that has a significant influence on figures to be published. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Editing Administrative Data; 
Input editing 
Editing that is performed as data is input, e.g., during an interview. 
EDIMBUS Manual 


Institutional unit 
The institutional unit is an elementary economic decisionmaking centre characterized by uniformity of behavior and decisionmaking autonomy in the exercise of its principal function. A unit is regarded as constituting an institutional unit if it has decisionmaking autonomy in respect of its principal function and keeps a complete set of accounts. In order to be said to have autonomy of decision in respect of its principal function, a unit must be responsible and accountable for the decisions and actions it takes. In order to be said to keep a complete set of accounts, a unit must keep accounting records covering all its economic and financial transactions carried out during the accounting period, as well as a balance sheet of assets and liabilities. Remark: According to the Regulation on statistical units an institutional unit corresponds to an enterprise in the corporate enterprises sector. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex, Section III B. 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Interaction burden 
A product of the relationship between respondent burden and design burden, e.g. requirement concerning memory and effort to be made, familiarity of the respondent with IT methods and tools, etc. 
Hedlin et al. (2005) 


Interactive coding 
Coding using an interactive program, which presents the necessary background or other information to a coder, who makes all the coding decisions. The program also processes the answers (and the possible reason for the choices as indicated by the coder). 
Hacking & 


Interactive editing 
An editing method for which a computer program checks the data and a human editor adjusts the data. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 
Manual editing 
(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Intermediate consumption 
Intermediate consumption consists of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding fixed assets whose consumption is recorded as consumption of fixed capital. The goods and services are either transformed or used up by the production process. 
ESA (2010) 


Internet survey 
See Web Survey. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Interviewer effect 
Effects on respondents' 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Interviewer error 
Effects on respondents' 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Intervieweradministered mode 
An interviewer administers and guides the respondent when answering the survey questions. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Intruder 
A data user who attempts to link a respondent to a microdata record or make attributions about particular population units from aggregate data. Intruders may be motivated by a wish to discredit or otherwise harm the NSI, the survey or the government in general, to gain notoriety or publicity, or to gain profitable knowledge about particular respondents. 


Investment 
Gross fixed capital formation consists of resident producers’ 
ESA (2010) 
Gross fixed capital formation 

Inward FATS 
‘Inward statistics on foreign affiliates’ 
Foreign AffiliaTes Statistics (FATS) recommendation manual, version 2012 

Theme: Asymmetry in Statistics – European Register for Multinationals (EGR) 
Irregular component 
This is the residual time series that results from the removal of estimated seasonal and other systematic calendarrelated components of an observed time series, along with the removal of an estimated trendcycle component 
US Census Bureau 


ITDG 
Information Technology Directors Group 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Item nonresponse 
Item nonresponse occurs when a respondent provides some, but not all, of the requested information, or if some of the reported information is not usable. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Partial nonresponse 
(1) Theme: Questionnaire Design; 
Item response rate 
The ratio of the number of units which have provided data for a given data item to the total number of units from which data are to be collected or to the number of units that have provided information at least for some data items. It can indirectly measure the level of response burden. 
Eurostat (2009). 


Iterative proportional fitting 
See multiplicative weighting. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: RAS; 
Jaro distance 
Distance counts the number of common characters and the number of transpositions of characters (same character with a different position in the string) between two strings; 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Joining 
A form of matching used for databases and in which matching is based on matching keys being identical. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Kalman filter 
An iterative technique of dynamic linear modelling, used mainly for estimating the parameters of autoregressive movingaverage time series models with Gaussian residuals. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Key 
See: 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Key word 
Word in a description that is usable for coding, in contrast to a stop word. 
Hacking & 


Kindofactivity unit 
The kind of activity unit (KAU) groups all the parts of an enterprise contributing to the performance of an activity at class level (4digits) of NACE Rev. 2 and corresponds to one or more operational subdivisions of the enterprise. The enterprise's information system must be capable of indicating or calculating for each KAU at least the production value, intermediate consumption, manpower costs, the operating surplus and employment and gross fixed capital formation. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III D 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
KNearest neighbor imputation 
the imputed value is an average of the closest k donors 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Distance hot deck 

Lagrange multiplier technique 
In mathematical optimization, the technique of Lagrange multipliers (named after Joseph Louis Lagrange) provides a strategy for finding the maxima and minima of a function subject to constraints. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Large outlier 
the Y values are extremely larger than the other Y values of the “normal” 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Least median of squares 
statistical method that attempts to minimise the median of all sample squared residuals 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Least squares method 
One of the most popular methods of finding estimates based on fitting a mathematical model to data, aiming at minimizing the sum of squares of deviations between observed and fitted values. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Legal form 
The legal form is defined according to national legislation. It is useful for eliminating ambiguity in identification searches and as the possible criterion for selection or stratification for surveys. It is also used for defining the institutional sector. Statistics according to legal form are produced in business demography. The character of legal or natural person is decisive in fiscal terms, because the tax regime applicable to the unit depends on this. It means that any statistical register fed with fiscal records will have that information. Experience has shown that legal form will often be useful to make adjustments to information collection processes and questionnaires on the legal unit operating an enterprise. A code representing the legal form should therefore be recorded in accordance with the classification of legal forms or categories. The following legal forms can be found in most Member States: Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Limited liability companies, Cooperative societies, Nonprofit making bodies, Enterprises with other forms of legal constitution. 
Business Register Recommendations Manual (edition 2010), chapter 5, characteristic 1.6 
Legal status 
Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Survey frames for business surveys 
Legal local unit 
A legal local unit is a part of a legal unit that is located at a certain address. A legal local unit can operate in several different industries. In practice, a legal local unit is the same as a local unit. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Legal unit 
Legal units include:  Legal persons whose existence is recognized by law independently of the individuals or institutions which may own them or are members of them.  Natural persons who are engaged in an economic activity in their own right. The legal unit always forms, either by itself or sometimes in combination with other legal units, the legal basis for the statistical unit known as the ‘enterprise’. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section II A 3  4. 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
Levenshtein distance 
Distance measure between two strings, defined as the minimum number of mutations needed to transform one string into the other. A mutation is one of three operations: insertion, deletion or substitution of a character/l into a stringl. 
Hacking & 
DamerauLevenshtein distance 
(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Leverage 
Outlier in the xdirection 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Linear mixed model (LMM) 
Linear model containing both fixed and random effects. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Linked tables 
A set of tables with common cells. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Local kindofactivity unit 
The local kindofactivity unit (local KAU) is the part of a KAU which corresponds to a local unit. The local KAU corresponds to the operational definition of the establishment. According to the European System of Accounts (ESA) the local KAU is called the establishment in the SNA and ISIC Rev. 3. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93, of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III G, and European System of Accounts (ESA) 1995, [2.106], footnote 15 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
Local unit 
The local unit is an enterprise or part thereof (e.g. a workshop, factory, warehouse, office, mine or depot) situated in a geographically identified place. At or from this place economic activity is carried out for which  save for certain exceptions  one or more persons work (even if only parttime) for one and the same enterprise. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III F. 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
Local unit of homogeneous production 
The local unit of homogeneous production (local UHP) is the part of a unit of homogeneous production which corresponds to a local unit. 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III H 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
LOCF 
Last Observation Carried Forward. One method of handling missing data based on existing data. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Log 
A file that contains log information. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Log information 
Metadata produced during a specific run of a process. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
A set of logging indicators 

Logging 
Activity of producing log information in a log 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Tracing 

Logging indicator 
A variable that is logged. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Log item 

Logical edit rule 
see Hard edit rule 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Hard edit rule 

Logical imputation 
see Deductive imputation 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Deductive imputation 
(1) Method: Deductive Imputation; 
Longitudinal data 
Longitudinal data occurs when the same variables of the same units are measured several times at different moments. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Design of Estimation – Some Practical Issues; 
Longitudinal imputation 
An umbrella term for imputation methods that make use of observed values for the same variable at other times, either for the same object or for different objects. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Imputation; 
Longitudinal sampling design 
Sampling design over time of a given unit of the population. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: Sample Coordination Using Poisson Sampling with Permanent Random Numbers 
Lower bound 
The lowest possible value of a cell in a table of frequency counts where the cell value has been perturbed or suppressed. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Macrointegration 
Integrating data from different sources on an aggregate level, to enable a coherent analysis of the data, and to increase the accuracy of estimates. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Balancing 
(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Macrodata 
The result of a statistical transformation process in the form of aggregated information. 
SDMX (2009) 
Tabular data 
(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Macroediting 
An umbrella term for editing methods that (initially) check the data on an aggregate level. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 
Output editing 

Macroediting 
A procedure for tracking suspicious data by checking aggregates or applying statistical methods on all records or on a subset of them. 
SDMX (2009) 
Output editing 
(1) Theme: MacroEditing; 
Manual coding 
Coding performed by a coder, without substantial support from a program. 
Hacking & 


Manual editing 
see Interactive editing 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Interactive editing 

Marginal table 
Table derived from a bigger table by aggregation. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Sub table 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Master frame 
Master frame is a snapshot of a register (union of registers) to assign the survey frames based on the given register (registers). Remark: An example of the master frame is the snapshot of the business register to define the survey frames of different economic statistical data collections. Another example can be the snapshot of the address register to make a common frame for population surveys. The common master frame, the common reference period helps the integration and linking of statistical data coming from different surveys. 
Handbook on the design and implementation of business surveys 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Matching 
The process of bringing together data (represented in records) relating to units and spread over two data sets, based on common or very similar characteristics in the form of primary or object characteristic values. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Record linkage, object linkage 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Matching candidate graph 
A bipartite graph that represents the possible matches between records from two data sets. A bipartite graph is one where the set of points is the union of two disjoint sets, such that each edge has its 
Memobust definition (2014) 
MC graph 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Matching key 
One or multiple key variables that are used in two or more data sets to be matched. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Matching noise 
Discrepancy between the data generation mechanism and the imputation generation mechanism. The larger the matching noise, the more distant the usual inferences on the matched data set will be from the inferences that could have been done if the sample was completely observed 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Matching variables 
Common identifiers, either quantitative or qualitative, chosen in order to compare records among files 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Matching keys 
(1) Theme: Probabilistic Record Linkage; 
Matching weight 
A nonnegative function defined on the edges of a graph, which associates a nonnegative value G with each edge of the G. When matching, this weight expresses how well/poorly records match. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Weight 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Maximum Likelihood 
Method to estimate a parameter of a probability distribution. More specifically it is the value that maximizes the likelihood function. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
ML 
(1) Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot); 
MC graph 
See: Matching candidate graph 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Mean Square Error 
Exepected value of the square of the difference between the estimator and the parameter. It is the sum of variance and squared bias. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 
MSE 
(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Measure 
Step 5 in the OQRM model where action are determined to manage the focus area in order to be in control of the focus area. Context: Preventive, corrective and signalling measures can be distinguished. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Measurement error 
Error in reading, calculating or recording numerical value. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Measurement error 
Measurement is characterized as the difference between the observed value of a variable and the true, but unobserved, value of that variable. 
Measuring and Reporting Sources of Error in Surveys, FCSM 2001 


Measurement error 
Error in reading, calculating or recording numerical value. Context: Measurement errors occur when the response provided differs from the real value. Such errors may be attributable to the respondent, the interviewer, the questionnaire, the collection method or the respondent’s recordkeeping system. Errors may be random or they may result in a systematic bias if they are not random. 
SDMX (2009) 


Measurement error 
The difference between the observed value of a variable and the true, but unobserved, value of that variable. 
SDMX (2009) 


Measurement errors 
Measurement errors occur when the response provided differs from the real value; 
Statistics Canada, "Statistics Canada Quality Guidelines", 4th edition, October 2003, page 59. 

(1) Theme: Questionnaire Design; 
Merger 
This event can be seen as the opposite of a breakup. It involves a consolidation of the production factors of two or more enterprises into one new enterprise, in such a way that the previous enterprises are no longer recognisable. There is no continuity or survival, but the closures of the previous enterprises are not considered to be deaths. Similarly the new enterprise is not considered to be a birth. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 4). 


Metadata 
Information that is needed to be able to use and interpret statistics. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Methodology 
A structured approach to solve a problem. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Metric 
A metric d for a set X is defined as nonnegative function 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Distance; 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Micro data 
Nonaggregated observations or measurements of characteristics of individual units. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Microediting 
An exhaustive check to find errors by inspecting each individual observation. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Microintegration 
A method that matches data on individual statistical units from different sources, to obtain a combined data file with better information. The quality of the data is measured in terms of validity, reliability and consistency. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Microdata 
Nonaggregated observations or measurements of characteristics of individual units. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Microselection 
see Selective editing 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Selective editing 

Misclassification 
Erroneous classification of a subject into a category in which the subject does not belong. For instance, a business is classified in Trade instead of Industry. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Mismatch 
A match that has been made erroneously. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
False positive match; 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Missed error rate 
The proportion of errors in the unedited data that were not flagged by any edits in a given set. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Missed match 
A match that should have been made but was not. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
False negative match; 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Missing data 
Observations which were planned and are missing 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Mixedmode survey 
A survey where multiple modes are used to collect data from the sampled units in the data collection period of one survey. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Mode effect 
The effect that using a specific mode has on the responses that are obtained in that mode. Mode effects may be interpreted as a form of measurement bias. 
De Leeuw, Hox & 


Mode effect 
A pure mode effect is essentially a measurement bias that is specifically attributable to the mode. In some surveys the mode effects are small because the same questionnaire can be used across all modes. Most problems occur when mail is combined with an intervieweradministered mode. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Mode of data collection 
Mode refers to what medium is used when contacting the sample members to get their responses. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Model assumption error 
Error that occurs due to the use of methods, such as calibration, generalized regression estimator, calculation based on full scope or constant scope, benchmarking, seasonal adjustment and other models not included in the preceding accuracy components, in order to calculate statistics or indexes. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Model assumption error 
Model assumption errors occur with the use of methods, such as calibration, generalised regression estimator, calculation based on full scope or constant scope, benchmarking, seasonal adjustment and other models not included in the preceding accuracy components, in order to calculate statistics or indexes. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Model based imputation 
Imputation based on an explicitly described statistical model. E.g. use of averages, medians, regression equations, etc. to impute a variable. 
EDIMBUS Manual 

(1) Method: Statistical Matching Methods; 
Movement preservation principle 
The property that all changes of the sub annual data are kept as much as possible at their initial values. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Moving holiday effects 
These are systematic changes in the values of a time series that are associated with the timing of moving holidays, i.e. holidays whose dates vary from year to year, such as Easter, Passover, Ramadan, Chinese New Year and U.S. Labor Day. Estimates of one or a combination of such effects define the moving holiday component of time series 
US Census Bureau 


Moving seasonality 
Moving seasonality is a form of seasonality that accounts for the variability in the seasonal component of a time series from year to year 
ABS (2008) 

(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Multiple activity business 
A business operating in several economic activities 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Multiple imputation 
An observation with failing and/or missing values is imputed several times stochastically. Multiple imputation allows under certain conditions the correct estimation of the variance due to imputation. This estimation is based on a combination of the within and the between variance of the multiply imputed data. 
EDIMBUS Manual 


Multiple location business 
A business operating in several geographical 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Multiplicative weighting 
A form of weighting for which the weights are obtained by multiplying relevant weight factors, determined in an iterative process. Multiplicative weighting is also referred to as raking or iterative proportional fitting. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: RAS; 
Multistage sampling 
A complex form of cluster sampling 
Wikipedia Multistage Sampling 


Multivariate imputation 
Imputing several missing values in a record. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 


NACE 
Classification of economic activities in the European Community (referred to as ‘NACE Rev. 1’ 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 3037/90. 


NACE 
NACE (Statistical classification of economic activities) is the European standard classification of productive economic activities. NACE presents the universe of economic activities partitioned in such a way that a NACE code can be associated with a statistical unit carrying them out. NACE provides the framework for collecting and presenting a large range of statistical data according to economic activity in the fields of economic statistics. 

(1) Theme: Different types of surveys; 

NACE 
Nomenclatures statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté Européenne. 
NACE Rev. 2 (ISSN 19770375) 


NACE 
General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Communities (1970 version); 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server classification 
NACE Rev. 2 
(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Nearest neighbor imputation 
The donor is chosen in such a way that some measure of distance between the donor and the recipient is minimized. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Distance hot deck 

Negative coordination 
Minimize the overlap between samples 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Net burden 
The opposite of gross burden – the total costs actually incurred by responding businesses; 
Willeboordse et al. (1997) 


no terms 
no terms 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Noanswer 
In telephone surveys: the line sounds but nobody answer the telephone 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Non probability sample 
A sample in which the selection of units is based on factors other than random chance, e.g. convenience, prior experience or the judgement of a researcher. 


Non response 
A form of non observation present in most surveys. Non response means failure to obtain a measurement on one or more study variables for one or more elements k selected for the survey. The term encompasses a wide variety of reasons for non observation: "impossible to contact", "not at home", "unable to answer", "incapacity", "hard core refusal", "inaccessible", "unreturned questionnaire", and others. In the first two cases contact with the selected element is never established. 
SDMX (2009) 


Non response error 
Error that occurs when the survey fails to get a response to one, or possibly all, of the questions. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Non response rate 
In sample surveys, the failure to obtain information from a designated individual for any reason (death, absence or refusal to reply) is often called a nonresponse and the proportion of such individuals of the sample aimed at is called the nonresponse rate. 
SDMX (2009) 


Nonbinding benchmarking 
A benchmarking problem with at least one nonbinding annual alignment constraint. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Nonbinding constraint 
See soft constraint 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Nonprobability sample 
A sample in which the selection of units is based on factors other than random chance, e.g. convenience, prior experience or the judgement of a researcher. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
nonrepresentative outlier 
are unique in population (in the sense that there is no other unit like them) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Nonresponse 
A form of non observation present in most surveys. Nonresponse means failure to obtain a measurement on one or more study variables for one or more elements k selected for the survey. The term encompasses a wide variety of reasons for non observation: "impossible to contact", “not at the address”, "unable to answer", "incapacity", "hard core refusal", "inaccessible", "unreturned questionnaire", and others. In the first two cases contact with the selected element is never established. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Questionnaire Design; 
Nonresponse error 
Context: Nonsampling error may arise from many different sources such as defects in the sampling frame, faulty demarcation of sample units, defects in the selection of sample units, mistakes in the collection of data due to personal variations, misunderstanding, bias, negligence or dishonesty on the part of the investigator or of the interviewer, mistakes at the stage of the processing of the data, etc. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Nonresponse error 
Non sampling errors may be categorised as: § 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Nonresponse error 
Error that occurs when the survey fails to get a response to one, or possibly all, of the questions. 
NQAF (2012) 


Nonresponse error 
Error in sample estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations. 
SDMX (2009) 


Nonresponse rate 
In sample surveys, the failure to obtain information from a designated unit for any reason is often called a nonresponse and the proportion of such units of the sample aimed at is called the nonresponse rate. 
SDMX (2009) 


Nonsampling error 
Error in sample estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Nonsampling error 
An error in sample estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations. 
The International Statistical Institute, The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms”, edited by Yadolah Dodge, Oxford University Press, 2003. 


Normal distribution 
One of the most widely known and used of all distributions, sometimes referred to as Gaussian distribution. The continuous probability distribution with two parameters: the expected value and the variance. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Not at Random sample 
A sample in which the selection of units is based on factors other than random chance, e.g. convenience, prior experience or the judgement of a researcher 
SDMX (2009) 


Nowcast 
A forecast relating to the current time (or, rather, to the recent past) and produces an estimate for the period just behind us, but for which no direct statistical observation has been made. 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 

(1) Theme: Collection and Use of Secondary Data; 
NSA 
National Statistical Authority: a nonNSI also responsible for official statistics. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


NSI 
A National Statistical Institute is the leading statistical agency within a national statistical system. 
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms 

(1) Theme: Specification of User Needs for Business Statistics; 
NSO 
National statistical office  NSI or other office producing official statistics 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 


NSTR 
Nomenclature uniformes des marchandises pour les Statistiques de Transport, Revisé 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


NUTS 
Common regional classification, (called ‘Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics’ 
Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1059/2003. 


NUTS 
The NUTS classification (Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics) is a hierarchical system for dividing up the economic territory of the EU. 


Object 
Everything that can be perceived or conceived. Examples: output, process, input, staff, software, methodology, document. Context: For an organization, a specific set of objects are relevant like customers, products, processes, input, data, software, staff, etc. 
ISO 1179 (2004) 
Component or entity 
(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Object characteristic 
A combination of variables that can be used in the identification of units, but which are not used as object identifier. Often, this concerns variables (or a combination thereof) such as name, address, place of residence, date of birth, profession, education, gender, etc. None of these variables can identify the record by themselves, but the combination can be used as a proxy for a object identifier, if this is missing. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Secondary key 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Object identifier 
In database technology, the object identifier is the name for a variable or a combination of variables that satisfy the following requirements:  the value of the variable (or the combination of variables) is unique in the table (or data set) and therefore unambiguously defines the record in which it occurs.  the variable (or the combination of variables) is filled in everywhere and therefore cannot be empty.  The combination of variables is minimal: by eliminating one of the variables, the record is no longer unambiguously defined. If related tables refer to the table in which the variable (or combination) of variables occur, this is used to establish a relationship between tables. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Primary key; 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Objective burden 
Burden referring directly to the actual cost of completing questionnaires by respondents; 
Willeboordse et al. (1997) 


Observation unit 
An observation unit represents an identifiable entity about which data can be obtained and for which data is recorded. It should be noted that this may, or may not be, the same as the reporting unit. Remark: It may not be known in advance (e.g. commodities). 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
OECD 
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 
OECD 


Onsite facility 
A facility that has been established on the premises of several NSIs. It is a place where external researchers can be permitted access to potentially disclosive data under contractual agreements which cover the maintenance of confidentiality, and which place strict controls on the uses to which the data can be put. The onsite facility can be seen as a ' 


Openended question 
Question that let respondent answer using their own words 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection: Techniques and Tools; 
Opportunities 
Step 8 in the OQRM model, where opportunities are analysed if a focus area meets the requirements and more. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


OQRM 
Objectoriented Quality and Risk Management 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 

(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Ordinary rounding 
See: Conventional rounding. 
Conventional rounding 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

OS, PS, TS 
Observed Sample  respondent units for the final estimates; 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Outlier 
An outlier is an observation which is not fitted well by a model for the majority of the data. For instance, an outlier may lie in the tail of the statistical distribution or “far away from the centre” 
EDIMBUS Manual 

(1) Theme: Statistical Data Editing; 
Outlier in the xdirection 
See xoutliers 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Outlier in the ydirection 
See youtliers 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Outliers 
An outlier is a data value that lies in the tail of the statistical distribution of a set of data values. 
OECD (2006) 

(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Output editing 
A procedure for tracking suspicious data by checking aggregates or applying statistical methods on all records or on a subset of them. 
SDMX (2009) 
Macro editing 
(1) Theme: Editing for Longitudinal Data; 
Outward FATS 
‘Outward statistics on foreign affiliates’ 
Foreign AffiliaTes Statistics (FATS) recommendation manual, version 2012 

Theme: Asymmetry in Statistics – European Register for Multinationals (EGR) 
Overcoverage 
Overcoverage arises from the presence in the frame of units not belonging to the target population and of units belonging to the target population that appear in the frame more than once. 
Eurostat, “Assessment of Quality in Statistics: Glossary”, 

(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Overediting 
Editing of data beyond a certain point after which as many errors are introduced as are corrected. 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 


Panel 
A set of units, which is included several times in a repeated survey according to a specified pattern 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Little and Su Method; 
Panel survey 
A survey where elements are followed over time. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Longitudinal survey 

Paper and Pencil Interviewing 
“Paper” 
Memobust definition (2014) 
PPI 

PAPI 
Pencil And Paper Interviewing. 
Hacking & 

(1) Theme: CATI Allocation; 
Paradata 
Paradata, also termed process data contain information about the primary data collection process (e.g. survey duration, interim status of a case, navigational errors in a survey questionnaire).They can provide a means of additional control over or understanding of the quality of the primary data (the responses to the survey questions). 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Parallel mixed mode 
Using two or more modes at the same time, e.g. letting the respondent choose his preferred mode. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Partial nonresponse 
Also known as item nonresponse, defines the case of unit may that may respond to the questionnaire incompletely 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Item nonresponse 

Pencil And Paper Interviewing. 
See PAPI 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: CATI Allocation; 
Perceived burden 
Burden felt subjectively by the respondent, e.g. connected with the length of the questionnaire, difficulty of the questions, effort required to answer these questions, time spent, etc. or disadvantageous perception of the survey by some respondents, i.e. weak willingness to respond, insufficient awareness of the usefulness of participation, etc. 
Willeboordse et al. (1997), Hedlin et al. (2005) 
Subjective burden 

Permanent Random Number 
A unique random number permanently associated with a unit in a register 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Assigning random numbers when coordination of surveys based on different unit types is considered; 
Pilot survey 
A survey, usually on a small scale, carried out prior to the main survey, primarily to gain information to improve the efficiency of the main survey. For example, it may be used to test a questionnaire, to ascertain the time taken by field procedure or to determine the most effective size of sampling unit. 
Dictionary of Statistical Terms, 5th edition, prepared for the International Statistical Institute by F.H.C. Marriott, Longman Scientific and Technical 
Exploratory survey 

Planning period 
Period in which CATI interviewers are scheduled. This can be a period, of say, 4 weeks starting from the current date, or a calendar month, depending on the allocation variant applied. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Poisson sampling design 
Sampling design whereby the selection of any unit of the population into the sample is decided independently from the selection of other units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: Sample Coordination Using Poisson Sampling with Permanent Random Numbers 
Population 
Population is the total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events. There are two types of population, viz, target population and survey population. A target population is the population outlined in the survey objects about which information is to be sought and a survey population is the population from which information can be obtained in the survey. The target population is also known as the scope of the survey and the survey population is also known as the coverage of the survey. For administrative records the corresponding populations are: the "target" population as defined by the relevant legislation and regulations, and the actual "client population". 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Positive coordination 
Maximize the overlap between samples 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Positive predictive value 
number of correctly linked record pairs divided by the total number of linked record pairs (one minus the false match rate) 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Precision 

ppercent rule 
A (p,q) rule where q is 100 %, meaning that from general knowledge any respondent can estimate the contribution of another respondent to within 100 % (i.e., knows the value to be nonnegative and less than a certain value which can be up to twice the actual value). 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

PPOS 
Planned Preliminary Observed Sample: The respondents of the PTS. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


pps 
Probability proportional to size 
Memobust definition (2014) 


PRB 
Perceived Response Burden Study. A survey aimed at recognition and assessment of perceived response burden conducted using some common methodological framework, e.g. PRB Core Questions are a basis to construct relevant target–adjusted questionnaires on burden perceived by respondents in relation to a given statistical survey. 
Dale and Haraldsen (2007) 


Precision 
number of correctly linked record pairs divided by the total number of linked record pairs 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Positive predicted value 

Precision rate 
Percentage correct coded texts on the total of coded texts 
D’Orazio M. and 
Accuracy 

Predicted values 
See anticipated values. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Preliminary estimates 
Estimates based on a preliminary sample 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Preliminary sample 
Partial sample based on early respondents. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Preventive measure 
Measure to avoid a quality problem. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Price index 
The result of a formula in which price changes of various goods and services are weighed together in order get an index for the aggregate. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Primacy effect 
A given response alternative is more likely to be chosen when presented at the beginning rather than at the end of a list of response alternatives. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Primacy 
Theme: Design of Data Collection (part 1) – Choosing the Appropriate Data Collection Method 
Primary confidentiality 
It concerns tabular cell data, whose dissemination would permit attribute disclosure. The two main reasons for declaring data to be primary confidential are: 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Primary data 
Data collected on behalf of an NSI and for which the NSI has defined the conceptual and process metadata 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 


Primary data collection 
The gathering of primary data by an NSI 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 


Primary key 
See Object identifier 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Primary protection 
Protection using disclosure control methods for all cells containing small counts or cases of dominance. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Primary research 
Research that uses primary data 
Golden (1976) 


Primary source 
A source containing primary data 
Golden (1976) 


Primary suppression 
This technique can be characterized as withholding all disclosive cells from publication, which means that their value is not shown in the table, but replaced by a symbol such as ‘×’ 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Principal activity 
The principal (or main) activity is identified as the activity which contributes most to the total value added of a unit under consideration. The principal activity so identified does not necessarily account for 50 % or more of the unit's total value added. The classification of principal activity is determined by reference to NACE Rev. 2, first at the highest level of classification and then at more detailed levels ("topdown" method). 
Business Register Recommendations Manual (edition 2010), chapter 5, characteristic 2.6, 3.6, 4.7 

(1) Theme: Derivation of Statistical Units; 
Priorposterior rule 
See: (p,q) rule. 
(p,q) rule; 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Probabilistic record linkage 
Linkage method that makes an explicit use of probabilities for deciding when a given pair of records is actually a match or not 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Weighted matching 

Probability sample 
A sample selected by a method based on the theory of probability (random process), that is, by a method involving knowledge of the likelihood of any unit being selected. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Probing 
Followup questions that interviewers can ask in addition to those written on the questionnaire to get more adequate information from respondents. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection: Techniques and Tools; 
Processing error 
Error in final survey results arising from the faulty implementation of correctly planned implementation methods. Context: In survey data, for example, processing errors may include transcription errors, coding errors, data entry errors and errors of arithmetic in tabulation. 
NQAF (2012) 

(1) Theme: Quality and Risk Management Models; 
PRODCOM 
A classification of industrial products 
Eurostat website/CROS portal 


Production 
Production is an activity carried out under the control, responsibility and management of an institutional unit that uses inputs of labour, capital and goods and services to produce outputs of goods and services. 
ESA (2010) 
Output 

Profiling 
Profiling is a method to analyse the legal, operational and accounting structure of an enterprise group in order to establish the statistical units within that group and their links and the most efficient structures for the collection of statistical data 
Business Register Recommendations Manual (edition 2010), chapter 19B 


Prorata method 
A straightforward, widely known benchmarking method that achieves consistency between annual and sub annual time series by multiplying all sub annual periods by correction factors defined by the ratio between an annual value and the sum of all underlying sub annual values. These correction factors are called proportional annual discrepancies. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Provider load 
The effort, in terms of time and cost, required for respondents to provide satisfactory answers to a survey. 
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Service Industries Statistics, "Glossary of Terms"; 
Respondent burden 
(1) Theme: Testing the Questionnaire; 
PTS 
Preliminary Theoretical Sample. The planned sample draws to obtain the provisional estimates 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Punctuality 
Time lag between the release date of data and the target date on which they were scheduled for release as announced in an official release calendar. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Punctuality of a log 
The period between the delivery time of the log and the planned delivery and time. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


PUPOS 
Partially Unplanned Preliminary Observed Sample. A subset of the final sample with a specific followup plan. Usually the large units of the final sample 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Purposive sample 
See nonrandom sample 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Qualitative data 
Data describing the attributes or properties that an object possesses. 
Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE), "Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing", Conference of European Statisticians Methodological material, Geneva (2000) 


Quality 
Quality is the degree to which a set of (inherent) characteristics fulfils requirements. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013), ISO 9000 (2005) 

(1) Theme: Quality of Statistics; 
Quality assurance 
Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. 
ISO 9000 (2005) 


Quality Circles 
Structured employee involvement groups operating in designated work areas that meet regularly to identify work related problems and to suggest solutions or improvements to management. 
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms 


Quality control 
Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements. 
ISO 9000 (2005) 


Quality dimension 
Characteristic 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Criterion, Quality component, Quality aspect, Attribute 
(1) Theme: Quality of Statistics; 
Quality indicator 
Variable that represents the quality of data or process. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Quantitative tables 
See: Tables of magnitude data 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Tables of magnitude data 
(1) Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables; 
Query edit rule 
see Soft edit rule 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Soft edit rule 

Question format 
The way the question is structured. Possible formats: singlechoice questions, multichoice question, table, matrix, partial openended question (single or multi choice with other specify), openended question. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
R^{2} 
Coefficient of determination. It provides a measure of how well observed outcomes are replicated by the model, as the proportion of total variation of outcomes explained by the model. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Raking 
See multiplicative weighting. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: RAS; 
Random error 
Antonym of Systematic error 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Random error 
The degree to which the error in the estimate spreads around zero. 
Van Nederpelt (2009) 
Variance, Precision. 

Random hot deck 
A donor record is randomly selected for each recipient record (record with missing information). Usually selection is carried out after grouping units according to some characteristics (e.g. same gender, region, etc.) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Random rounding 
In order to reduce the amount of data loss that occurs with suppression, alternative methods have been investigated to protect sensitive cells in tables of frequencies. Perturbation methods such as random rounding and controlled rounding are examples of such alternatives. In random rounding cell values are rounded, but instead of using standard rounding conventions a random decision is made as to whether they will be rounded up or down. The rounding mechanism can be set up to produce unbiased rounded results. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Random sample 
A sample selected by a method based on the theory of probability (random process), that is, by a method involving knowledge of the likelihood of any unit being selected. 
SDMX (2009) 
Probability sample 
(1) Method: Subsampling for Preliminary Estimates; 
random walk model 
Model formalization of a random path consisting of a succession of random steps. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Rank hot deck 
The donor is chosen in such a way that some measure of distance among percentage points of the empirical distribution is minimized. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Raw description 
Description recorded in an interview or specified by a respondent and that has not been (thoroughly) checked. This may contain various errors, along with insufficient or unnecessary (stop words) information. This is why descriptions are first subjected to several grammatical treatments. This creates a clean or cleansed string, which is used for automatic coding. This string is not intended to be readable, but is utilised as input for the coding program used. 
Hacking & 


Realtime dataset 
dataset showing how estimates change over time providing further information about the dissemination policy, the timing of revisions, the explanation of revision sources, the status of the published data 
OECD (2006) 
Revision triangle 

Recall 
number of correctly linked record pairs divided by the total number of true match record pairs 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Sensitivity 

Recency effect 
A given response alternative is more likely to be chosen when presented at the end rather than at the beginning of a list of response alternatives. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Recency 
Theme: Design of Data Collection (part 1) – Choosing the Appropriate Data Collection Method 
Recipient file 
File where one variable (say Z) is completely missing, and that will be imputed making use of the observed Z in the donor file 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Reconciliation 
The series of a system must be reconciled in order to satisfy crosssectional (contemporaneous) aggregation constraints (see aggregation above) 
Dagum and Cholette (2006) 
Data reconciliation 
(1) Theme: Issues on Seasonal Adjustment; 
Record linkage 
See: matching. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Reference period 
The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer. 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server  Statistical concept 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
References 
Step 11 in the OQRM model where Information is collected related to the focus area. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Referential integrity 
In a relational database, this is the basic principle that is required 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Refusal rate 
The proportion of observation units for which the reporting unit has been successfully contacted, but has refused to give the information sought. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
RegARIMA 
In the seasonal adjustment context, a hybrid model in which some features of the time series, such as moving holiday, trading day and outlier effects, are modeled with linear regression variables while the remaining features (those of the regression residuals, including trend, cycle and seasonal components) are modelled with a seasonal ARIMA model 
US Census Bureau 


Register 
A written and complete record containing regular entries of items and details on particular set of objects. Administrative registers come from administrative sources and become statistical registers after passing through statistical processing in order to make them fit for statistical purposes (production of register based statistics, frame creation, etc.). 
Business Register Recommendations Manual (edition 2010), Glossary 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Register 
A set of files (paper, electronic, or a combination) containing the assigned data elements and the associated information. 
SDMX (2009) 


Register 
A systematic collection of unitlevel data organized in such a way that updating is possible. Updating is the processing of 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 


Register unit 
Register unit is the unit, entity of the register population with related descriptive information on identification, accessibility and other attributes. Remark: Register unit type – that is the collection of a given type of individual units – and register unit instance – that is a concrete, individual register unit – are distinguished. In the surveying process, data processing and dissemination phases, register units might function as data supplier, data provider or statistical (reporting, observation, analytical, dissemination) units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Regression 
A statistical technique for estimating the relationships among variables. In the univariate case only one explanatory variable is used. For the multivariate case, the number of explanatory variables equals two or more. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Rejection region 
antonym of Acceptance region 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Relevance 
The degree to which statistical outputs meet current and potential user needs. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 
Usability 

Relevance of log information 
The degree to which log information is useful. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Usability 

Reliability 
Closeness of the initial estimate to subsequent (revised) estimates 
OECD (2006) 

(1) Theme: Quality of Statistics; 
Remote access 
Online access to protected microdata. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Remote execution 
Submitting scripts online for execution on disclosive microdata stored within an institute’s protected network. If the results are regarded as safe data, they are sent to the submitter of the script. Otherwise, the submitter is informed that the request cannot be acquiesced. Remote execution may either work through submitting scripts for a particular statistical package such as SAS, SPSS or STATA which runs on the remote server or via a tailor made client system which sits on the user’s desk top. 


Repeated survey 
A survey which is carried out more than once, often regularly and often designed with some overlap over time between sampled units, taking both accuracy and response burden into account. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Repeated survey 
A survey which is carried out more than once, often regularly and often designed with some overlap over time between sampled units, taking both accuracy and response burden into account. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Reporting unit 
A unit that supplies the data for a given survey instance. The reporting unit is the unit about which data are reported. When, for a specific survey, the book keeping office completes questionnaires for each of the locations of a business, these locations are the reporting units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Reporting unit 
The unit to which the questionnaire is tied and for which the questionnaire is filled in. It may be the observation unit, or it may be a means to reach the observation units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
representative outlier 
represent other population units similar in value to the observed outliers 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Requirement 
Step 3 in the OQRM model where the requirements for the focus area are formulated. Related: norm, standard, prescription, rule, principle, and indicator. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Respondent 
Respondents are businesses, authorities, individual persons, etc, from whom data and associated information are collected for use in compiling statistics. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Respondent 
The physical person at the data provider who answers the questionnaire. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Respondent 
The physical person who answers the questionnaire. This is a person at the data provider. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Respondent burden 
Burden concerning behavioural and attitudinal attributes of respondents that affect the survey and cannot be changed by the supervisor or organiser of the survey. This concept also includes attitudes towards the survey itself such as the belief in the usefulness of surveys in general. 
Hedlin et al. (2005) 


Respondent burden 
The effort, in terms of time and cost, required for respondents to provide satisfactory answers to a survey. 
SDMX (2009) 
Respondent/provider load 
(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Response 
The reaction of an individual unit to some form of stimulus. It may be to a drug, as in bioassay, or the reaction to a request for information, as in sample surveys of human beings. 
A Dictionary of Statistical Terms, 5th edition, prepared for the International Statistical Institute by F.H.C. Marriott. Published for the International Statistical Institute by Longman Scientific and Technical. 


Response 
In classical statistics we talk of response when each subject, or experimental units, gives rise to a single (case univariate) or vector (case multivariate) measurement on some relevant variables. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Response burden 
The effort, in terms of time and cost, required for respondents to provide satisfactory answers to a survey. 
SDMX (2009) 
Statistical burden, Respondent burgen 
(1) Method: Sample Coordination Using Simple Random Sampling with Permanent Random Numbers; 
Response process 
The result of the interaction between a respondent and a questionnaire 
Edwards W.S. & 

(1) Theme: Testing the Questionnaire; 
Response rate 
The number of observation units for which data have been received, as a proportion of the number of observation units for which data was sought. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Response variable 
A variable that is used to define the values in a table. The other kind of variable used to define a table is a spanning variable. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Responsibilities 
Step 2 in the OQRM model, where the distribution of responsibilities of a focus area are determined. Context: There must be at least an owner of each focus area. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Responsive design 
There is more than one phase of the data collection and, according to the design, changes between phases are made, based on observed process data, typically indicators of quality and costs. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Restricted (or Residual) Maximum Likelihood (REML) 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot); 

Revision 
This a regular procedure in case of unadjusted (raw) data and seasonally adjusted data. Raw data may be revised due to improved information set (in terms of coverage and/or reliability). Revisions of seasonally adjusted data can also take place because of a better estimate of the seasonal pattern due to new information provided by new components. A revision shows the degree of closeness of an initial estimate to a subsequent or final estimate. 
ESS Guidelines (2009), ESS Handbook on Quality Reports (2009) 

(1) Theme: Overall Design; 
Revision 
Difference between revised 
OECD (2006) 


Revision error 
Difference between final and preliminary estimate 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Weighting and Estimation; 
Risk analysis 
Step 4 in the OQRM model, where possible causes and possible effects with problems with a focus area are analysed. Example: Software errors cause problems with the accuracy of estimates. 
Van Nederpelt (2012) 


Risky cells 
The cells of a table which are nonpublishable due to the risk of statistical disclosure are referred to as risky cells. By definition there are three types of risky cells: small counts, dominance and complementary suppression cells. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Rotating panel 
Limiting the length of time in which units stay in the survey panel by dropping a proportion of them after a certain period of time and replacing them with new ones. It is generally done only with the smaller respondents, for whom it is felt that responding to surveys imposes a significant burden. Rotation is designed to keep the sample up to date. It also helps to alleviate the problems caused by sample depletion. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Rotating panel survey 
A panel survey where a portion (e.g. 25%/ of elements are replaced regularly. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Rounding 
Rounding belongs to the group of disclosure control methods based on outputperturbation. It is used to protect small counts in tabular data against disclosure. The basic idea behind this disclosure control method is to round each count up or down either deterministically or probabilistically to the nearest integer multiple of a rounding base. The additive nature of the table is generally destroyed by this process. Rounding can also serve as a recoding method for microdata. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Safe data 
Microdata or macrodata that have been protected by suitable Statistical Disclosure Control methods. 


Safe setting 
An environment such as a microdata lab whereby access to a disclosive dataset can be controlled. 


Safety interval 
The minimal calculated interval that is required for the value of a cell that does not satisfy the primary suppression rule. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Sample 
A subset of a frame where elements are selected based on a randomised process with a known probability of selection. 
SDMX (2009) 


Sample coordination 
From topic Sample selection, but long there now 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Sample size 
The number of observation units which are to be included in the sample. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Sample size dependent estimator 
A sample size dependent estimator is a composite estimator with a subjectively chosen weight for the direct component which depends on true and estimated domain population sizes. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Sample splitting 
statistical method that splits the data into two halves, a regression model is performed on each statistically independent subsample 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Sampling 
The process of selecting a number of cases from all the cases in a particular group or universe. 
SDMX (2009) 


Sampling design 
Design that provides information on the target and final sample sizes, strata definitions and the sample selection methodology. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Sampling error 
An error caused by the fact that only a sample of values is observed and therefore there is a difference between a population value and an estimate. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Sampling error 
That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a sample of values is observed; 
The International Statistical Institute, The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms”, edited by Yadolah Dodge, Oxford University Press, 2003. 

(1) Theme: Quality and Risk Management Models; 
Sampling fraction 
The ratio of the sample size to the population size. 
SDMX (2009) 


Sampling frame 
A list, map or other specification of the units which define a population to be completely enumerated or sampled. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Survey frames for business surveys; 
Sampling strategy 
Sampling design and estimation methodology 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Satellite register 
Satellite register records a given subpopulation of the business register and fulfill the following conditions: 
Business Register Recommendations Manual (edition 2010), paragraph 20.40  modified 
Associated register 
Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The statistical units and the business register 
SBS 
Structural Business Statistics. SBS are statistical surveys covering industry, construction, trade and services. They are conducted in each Member State of the European Union (UE) in order to describe the structure, conduct and performance of businesses across the EU. 
Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 58/97 of 20 December 1996 concerning structural business statistics amended by Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 410/98 of 16 February 1998 


Scheduling of interviewers 
Production of a planning which indicates which interviewers work on what days and part of day (DPoD) combinations in the planning period. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Scheduling system 
IN CATI surveys is the IT module to manage telephone contacts. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


SCM 
Standard Cost Model – an international method model aimed at reducing administrative burdens in the business environment by adopting a policy based on costs of regulations 
ISCM (2003) 


Scope of data suppliers 
Scope of the data supplier is the set of entities of the frame population assigned for data reporting from which data can be retrieved for the investigated population (statistical and observation units). Remark: In full scope data collection, the scope of data suppliers corresponds to the frame population. In representative or combined data collection, the scope of data suppliers is only a part of the frame population. It doesn’t contain the statistical units of the frame population not selected into the sample. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
SDC 
See: Statistical Disclosure Control 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Statistical Disclosure Control 
(1) Theme: Statistical Disclosure Control; 
Seasonal adjustment 
Seasonal adjustment is a statistical technique to remove the effects of seasonal calendar influence operating on series 
OECD (2006) 
SA 
(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Seasonal adjustment software 
There is a wide range of software and interfaces available to perform seasonal adjustment. For official statistics, the two most commonly used seasonal adjustment methods are X12ARIMA (US Census Bureau) and TRAMOSEATS (Bank of Spain). Recently, Eurostat has released a new software (in which both X12ARIMA and TRAMOSEATS are available), called DEMETRA+ 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Seasonal component 
A time series whose values quantify (usually in percents or in the units of data measurement, e.g. dollars) variations in the level of the observed series that recur with the same direction and a similar magnitude at time intervals of length one year. (Length is measured in the calendar units of the observed seriesusually quarters or months, sometimes semesters, weeks, or other units.) 
US Census Bureau 
Seasonality 
(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Secondary data 
Data that is collected by others (i.e. not the NSI), used by an NSI for producing statistics and where the NSI has not defined the conceptual or process metadata 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 


Secondary data collection 
The acquisition of secondary data by an NSI 
Daas and ArendsToth (2012) 


Secondary Key 
See Object characteristic 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Secondary research 
Research that uses secondary sources 
Golden (1976) 


Secondary source 
A source containing secondary data 
Golden (1976) 


Secondary suppression 
To reach the desired protection for risky cells, it is necessary to suppress additional non risky cells, which is called secondary suppression or complementary suppression. The pattern of complementary suppressed cells has to be carefully chosen to provide the desired level of ambiguity for the disclosive cells at the highest level of information contained in the released statistics. 
Complementary suppression 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Segmentation effect 
It is a characteristics typical of electronic questionnaire and consists in the display of one question per screen thus restricting the view of the questionnaire 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Selective editing 
An umbrella term for methods that select records which are likely to contain influential errors for interactive editing, on a recordbyrecord basis. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 
Microselection, significance editing 
(1) Theme: Editing for Longitudinal Data; 
Selective editing 
A procedure which targets only some of the micro data items or records for review by prioritizing the manual work and establishing appropriate and efficient process and edit boundaries. 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing (2007) 
Microselection 
(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Selfadministered mode 
The questions in the survey are administered and answered by the respondent without any assistance or help from an interviewer. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
SelfAdministered Questionnaire 
A questionnaire used in Paper and Pencil interviewing. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Semantic network 
A network(or grph) consisting of words and concepts and semantic relationships between them. Examples of such relationships are synonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. 
Hacking & 


Semiautomatic coding 
Synonymous with computersupported coding and computerassisted coding. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Sensitivity 
number of correctly linked record pairs divided by the total number of true match record pairs. Sensitivity measures the percentage of correctly classified record matches, 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Recall 

Sequential mixed mode 
Using different modes one after another, maximizing the use of one mode before switching to another. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Data Collection; 
Shrinkage factor 
The parameter used in composite estimator formulas to decide about the contribution of the direct and synthetic estimators. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


SIC 
Standard Industrial Classification, a classification of industries by type of economic activity created and maintained by the Department of Labour, United States of America and used also e.g. in UK. 
US Department of Labour 


Signalling measure 
Measure to detect a quality problem. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Significance editing 
Synonym of Selective editing. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Selective editing 

Similarity measure 
A measure that indicates the extent to which two units are similar. This type of measure (or its complement: the dissimilarity measure) is also used in the multivariate analysis. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Simple random sampling 
A sampling design in which the inclusion probability of each unit of the population is given by the sampling fraction. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Single activity business 
A business operating in only one economic activity 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Single location business 
A business operating from only one geographical location 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Skewness 
Measure of the asymmetry of a distribution. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot); 
Small outlier 
the Y values are extremely smaller than the other Y values of the “normal” 
Memobust definition (2014) 


SmithWaterman Distance 
Distance that uses dynamic programming to find the minimum cost to convert one string into the corresponding string of the compared record; 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Snapshot of register 
Snapshot of a register is its frozen state on a given date. Remark: Instead of a register, snapshots are used for statistical processing because, unlike register units (that can be updated frequently), population units and their attributes must be unchanged during the data collection and statistical processing. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Social desirability bias 
Systematic underreporting of something to “fit in” 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Social desirable answers 
Theme: Design of Data Collection (part 1) – Choosing the Appropriate Data Collection Method 
Soft constraint 
A constraint that does not have to hold exactly, but approximately. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Soft edit rule 
An edit rule whose failure indicates an error with probability less than 1. 
EDIMBUS Manual 
Query edit rule 
(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Soundex 
Indexing technique based on the sound (or pronunciation) of words (and not how they are written), originally only for English, but later developed for Dutch as well. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Soundex algorithm 
Originally a phonetic algorithm to index names based on sound (in English). Later, a similar algorithm was developed for words in the Dutch language. Improvements of the Soundex algorithm for English include Metaphone and Double Metaphone. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Soundness of methodology 
The extent to which the methodology used to compile statistics complies with the relevant international standards, including the professional standards enshrined in the Fundamental Principles for Official Statistics. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Methods and Quality; 
Source 
A specific data set, metadata set, database or metadata repository from where data or metadata are available. 
SDMX (2009) 


Source Data 
Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: RAS; 
Spanning variable 
A variable that is used to define the rows, columns etc. of a table. The other kind of variable used to define a table is a response variable. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Specificity 
number of correctly unlinked record pairs divided by the total number of true nonmatch record pairs. Specificity measures the percentage of correctly classified nonmatches. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Splitoff 
This event is similar to a breakup, but in this case the original enterprise does survive in a recognisable form, and therefore there is both continuity and survival. There is no death, but one or more new enterprises are created. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 4). 


Spreading activation 
Method to search in a semantic network. 
Hacking & 


State space model 
A timeseries model that predicts the future state of a system from its previous states probabilistically, via a process model. The state space models describes mathematically how observations of the state of the system are generated via an observation model. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Preliminary estimates with modelbased methods; 
Statistical burden 
The burden of the sampled unit to respond to the survey questionnaire. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Statistical data 
Data that are collected and/or generated by statistics in process of statistical observations or statistical data processing. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Statistical data collection 
Statistical data collection is the operation of statistical data processing aimed at gathering of statistical data and producing the input object data of a statistical survey. 
Terminology on Statistical Metadata, Conference of European Statisticians Statistical Standards and Studies, No. 53, UNECE, Geneva 2000, 


Statistical data editing 
The process of editing a data file for statistical purposes. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Statistical disclosure control 
Statistical Disclosure Control techniques can be defined as the set of methods to reduce the risk of disclosing information on individuals, businesses or other organisations. Such methods are only related to the dissemination step and are usually based on restricting the amount of or modifying the data released. 
Statistical disclosure limitation; 
(1) Theme: Statistical Disclosure Control; 

Statistical edit 
A statistical edit is a set of checks based on statistical analysis of respondent data, e.g., the ratio of two fields lies between limits determined by a statistical analysis of that ratio for presumed valid reporters. 
Glossary of Terms Used in Statistical Data Editing Located on KBase, the knowledge base on statistical data editing, UN/ECE Data Editing Group 


Statistical matching 
Matching records with information from units which do not necessarily have to be the same, but are similar. In terms of intention, this method deals with an entirely different problem than is discussed in this report. This is actually an imputation method. This method is not further discussed in this report for this reason. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Synthetic matching 
(1) Theme: Object Matching (Record Linkage); 
Statistical measure 
A summary (means, mode, total, index, etc.) of the individual quantitative variable values for the statistical units in a specific group (study domains). 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Statistical output 
Results from a statistical process to be accessed by the final users. Context: Can take the form of aggregate statistics, analysis, and microdata releases and can include different forms of media. 
NQAF (2012) 


Statistical output 
Results from a statistical process to be accessed by the final users.. 
NQAF (2012) 


Statistical register 
Statistical register is a continuously updated set of objects for a given population containing information on identification, accessibility of population units and other attributes, supporting the surveying process of the population. The register contains the current and historical statuses of the population and the causes, effects and sources of alterations in the population. Register data of population units are stored in a structured database 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Statistical register 
A regularly updated list of units and their characteristics to be used for statistical purposes. 
SDMX (2009) 


Statistical source 
A source containing information collected and maintained for statistical purposes. It contains statistical units and statistical variables 
Parallel definition 


Statistical unit 
Statistical units are defined on the basis of three criteria: Legal, accounting or organizational criteria; 
Council Regulation (EEC), No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section. 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The statistical units and the business register; 
Step problem 
The phenomenon of a large gap between the last sub annual period of one annual period and the first sub annual period of the next annual period. (for instance: a large gap between December and Januar). Annual and sub annual are used in a broad sense here. It can be any combination of two periods with a difference frequency, such that one annual period covers a whole number of sub annual periods. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Stochastic imputation 
In stochastic imputation the imputed value contains a random component. Repetition of the imputation leads to a different result. 
EDIMBUS Manual 

(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
Stochastic regression imputation 
Model based imputation method: : imputes the missing value with a value obtained as the sum of the predicted value by the regression model being considered and a random error term 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Stock Variable 
A stock variable is measured at one specific time, and represents a quantity existing at that point in time. See also flow variable 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Stop word 
Word in a description that does not contain any information or contains too little information, because it occurs too frequently. A stop word can therefore be deleted by an automatic coding system. 
Hacking & 


Stratification 
A sampling procedure in which the population is divided into homogeneous subgroups or strata and the selection of samples is done independently in each stratum. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Sample Coordination Using Simple Random Sampling with Permanent Random Numbers; 
Stratified simple random sampling 
A sampling design in which the population is divided into homogeneous subgroups or strata and the selection of samples is done independently in each stratum. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Structural zero (cell) 
A zero in a table cell corresponding to a situation where there can be no population elements, because this is impossible, on logical or as a matter of fact or principle. (For instance: a pregnant man.) 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
STS 
ShortTerm Statistics. STS are statistical surveys conducted in each Member State of the UE with a monthly or quarterly frequency. Output data (indicators) deliver information on supply, demand, factors of production and prices in four main domains: industry, construction, retail trade and other services. 
Regulation EC No 1165/98, amended by Regulation EC No 1158/2005 and the regulations implementing and amending these two instruments 

(1) Theme: Different types of surveys; 
Study domains 
A segment of the population for which separate statistics are needed. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Subadditivity 
One of the properties of the (n,k) rule or (p,q) rule that assists in the search for complementary cells. The property means that the sensitivity of a union of disjoint cells cannot be greater than the sum of the cells’ 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Subpopulation 
Subpopulation is a subset of a population. Remark: Subpopulation refers to populations that require different handling in the statistical working process. Subpopulations are usually specified to understand the distinguishing characteristics of these populations 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Supplier manager 
Person responsible to acquire and manage products and or resources to needed to run a business 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Supply use tables 
An accounting framework in which supply and use of goods and services and the generation of value added is described, detailed to commodities and industries. It is the ideal framework for making estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Survey 
Survey is an investigation on the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology. Remark: Included are:  censuses, which attempt to collect data from all members of a population; 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server – Statistical concepts 

Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys 
Survey 
A investigation about the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology. 
SDMX (2009) 


Survey (1) 
Survey is an investigation on the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology. Remark: Included are: 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server – Statistical concepts 

Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Survey (2) 
A wider definition under which the term survey covers any activity that collects or acquires statistical data (including censuses, sample surveys, the collection of data from administrative records and derived statistical activities) has also been proposed. (see Statistics Canada, "Statistics Canada Quality Guidelines", 4th edition, October 2003, page 7, available at http://www.statcan.ca:8096/bsolc/english/bsolc?catno=12539X&CHROPG=1) 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Survey feedback 
Information obtained from a survey used to update the Register 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Sample coordination; 
Survey frame 
Survey frame is the set of survey population units together with their attributes referring to a given reference period. The frame contains the identification, contact, classification attributes of the frame units for a given reference period. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Survey instance 
Survey instance is a particular survey and reference period in which data are collected from respondents 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server  UN metadata terminology 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Survey population 
Survey population is the population for which information during the survey process can be obtained. Remark: Concurrence or difference of survey and target populations is measured by coverage 
Handbook on the design and implementation of business surveys 

(1) Theme: Asymmetry in Statistics – European Register for Multinationals (EGR); 
Surveying department 
The surveying department is the unit of the statistical office that responsible for the data collection phase of the survey 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys; 
Survival rate 
The survival rate of newly born enterprises in a given reference period is the number of enterprises that were born in year ti (i=1,…,n) and survived to year t as a percentage of all enterprises born in year ti. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Surviving enterprise 
In the Business Demography context, survival occurs if an enterprise is active in terms of employment and/or turnover in the year of birth and the following year(s). Two types of survival can be distinguished: 1) An enterprise born in year t1 is considered to have survived in year t if it is active in terms of turnover and/or employment in any part of year t (= survival without changes). 2) An enterprise is also considered to have survived if the linked legal unit(s) have ceased to be active, but their activity has been taken over by a new legal unit set up speci?cally to take over the factors of production of that enterprise (= survival by takeover). 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics 


Swapping (or switching) 
Swapping (or switching) involves selecting a sample of the records, finding a match in the data base on a set of predetermined variables and swapping all or some of the other variables between the matched records. Swapping (or switching) was illustrated as part of the confidentiality edit for tables of frequency data. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Synonym 
Word or concept with the same meaning as another word, possibly in a special context. 
Hacking & 


Synthetic estimator 
An indirect estimator based on the assumption that small areas have the same characteristics as a large area and a reliable direct estimator for the large area is used in the estimation process for small areas. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Synthetic matching 
See: Statistical matching 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Systematic error 
(1) An error reported consistently over time and/or between responding units. Or (2) a type of error for which the error mechanism and the imputation procedure are known. 
UN/ECE Glossary of Terms on Statistical Data Editing, EDIMBUS Manual. 

(1) Method: Automatic Editing; 
Systematic error 
The systematic deviation of the estimate from the true value. 
Van Nederpelt (2009) 
Bias, purity 

Table 
A special form of aggregate data, where the information is divided into cells, each corresponding to a group of individual entities 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Table redesign 
See: table restructuring 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Table restructuring 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Table restructuring 
A technique to produce safe tables by combining rows or columns 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Table redesign 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 
Tables of frequency (count) data 
These tables present the number of units of analysis in a cell. When data are from a sample, the cells may contain weighted counts, where weights are used to bring sample results to the population levels. Frequencies may also be represented as percentages. 
Frequency tables 
(1) Theme: Statistical Disclosure Control; 

Tables of magnitude data 
Tables of magnitude data present the aggregate of a “quantity of interest” 
Quantitative tables 
(1) Theme: Statistical Disclosure Control; 

Tabular data 
Aggregate information on entities presented in tables. 
Macrodata 
Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Takeover 
This event can be seen as the opposite of a splitoff. Enterprises taken over are not considered to be deaths. In this case, one of the original enterprise does survive in a recognisable form, and therefore there is both continuity and survival. The remaining original enterprises are closed. 
EurostatOECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics (chapter 4). 


Target population 
Target population is the set of units about which information is wanted and estimates are required. Remark: We differentiate the ideal and the intended target population. The ideal target population is the user demand, the intended target population is the realisable population of the survey. 
CODED – Statistical concept  modified 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Main module; 
Target variable 
A variable that is observed or derived and that measures an aspect of a phenomenon of interest during a survey; 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Donor Imputation; 
tARGUS 
tArgus is a specialized software tool for the protection of tabular data. tArgus is used to produce safe tables. tArgus uses the same two main techniques as µArgus: global recoding and local suppression. For tArgus the latter consists of suppression of cells in a table. 


TDE 
Telephone/Touchtone Data Entry is a data entyr mode in which a telephone is used by the respondent to communicate his/her answers. It is a form of selfadministered telephone survey that does not require interviewer assistance. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Temporal constraint 
Constraints in the same timeseries for different periods 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Temporal Disaggregation 
Deriving sub annual data (for instance quarterly data) from annual data, by using indicators of the sub annual data (i.e. related time series), see disaggregation. Annual and sub annual are used in a broad sense here. It can be any combination of two periods with a difference frequency, such that one annual period covers a whole number of sub annual periods. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Test variable 
A component of an edit rule that defines, for a given edit group, the expression (in terms of one or more observed variables) that is to be evaluated with respect to the acceptance regions for edit groups. 
Norberg (2011) 

(1) Method: Manual Editing; 
TFIDF Distance 
Distance that is used to match strings in a document. It assigns high weights to frequent tokens in the document and low weights to tokens that are also frequent in other documents 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Threshold rule 
Usually, with the threshold rule, a cell in a table of frequencies is defined to be sensitive if the number of respondents is less than some specified number. Some agencies require at least five respondents in a cell, others require three. When thresholds are not respected, an agency may restructure tables and combine categories or use cell suppression, rounding or the confidentiality edit, or provide other additional protection in order to satisfy the rule. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Time series 
A set of ordered observations on a quantitative characteristic of an individual or collective phenomenon taken at different points of time. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: ChowLin Method for Temporal Disaggregation; 
Time series 
A sequence of measurements of an economic (or other) variable made at approximately equally spaced times. It is important that the definition of the variable and the method used to measure it be consistent over time 
US Census Bureau 


Timeliness 
The length of time between the event or phenomenon the statistical outputs describe and their availability. 
ESS Handbook for Quality Reports (2009) 


Timeliness 
The lapse of time between the end of a reference period and availability of the data. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Subsampling for Preliminary Estimates; 
Topofthehead responses 
The respondent is feeling stressed and pressured to give an quick answer and therefore picks the first response category presented to them. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Theme: Design of Data Collection (part 1) – Choosing the Appropriate Data Collection Method 
Total survey error 
The accumulation of all errors that may arise in the design, collection, processing, and analysis of survey data. 
Biemer (2010) 


Training set 
A corpus where the codes linked to the descriptions are verified. The codes originate from a classification. A training set is used in the coding methods that are based on supervised classification. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Transversal sampling design 
Sampling design of one of the surveys, at one sampling occasion. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: Sample Coordination Using Poisson Sampling with Permanent Random Numbers 
Trendcycle 
The trend is the underlying longterm movement lasting many years. The cycle, also called businesscycle, is a quasiperiodic oscillation lasting for more than a year around the longterm trend. It is characterized by alternating periods of expansion and contraction. The trend and the cycle are difficult to estimate separately and thus are considered and analysed as a whole as the trendcycle 
Statistics Canada (2009) 
TC 
(1) Method: Seasonal adjustment of economic time series; 
Trigram 
String consisting of three consecutive characters. They are used in fuzzy string matching. The more trigrams two strings have in common, compared to the trigrams they have not in common, the more similar they are. 
Hacking & 

(1) Method: Automatic coding based on precoded datasets; 
Trimmed least absolute value 
robust statistical method that attempts to minimise the sum of absolute deviation (residuals) over a subset of k points which yields the lowest sum of absolute residuals (k<n) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Trimmed least square 
robust statistical method that attempts to minimise the sum of squared residuals over a subset, k points which yields the lowest sum of squared residuals (k<n) 
Memobust definition (2014) 


True value 
The actual population value that would be obtained with perfect measuring instruments and without committing any error of any type, both in collecting the primary data and in carrying out mathematical operations. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 


Type I error 
See: Mismatch 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Type II error 
See: Missed match 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Unbiased 
Estimator whose bias is zero. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Unbiasedness 
An estimator is said to be unbiased if the bias (difference between its mathematical expectation and the true value it estimates) is zero. 
The International Statistical Institute, "The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms", edited by Yadolah Dodge, Oxford University Press (2003). 


Undercoverage 
There are target population units that are not accessible via the frame. 
ESS Handbook on Quality Reports (2009) 


Undercoverage 
Undercoverage results from the omission from the frame of units belonging to the target population. 
OECD Glossary 


Undercoverage 
Failure to include required units in the frame, which results in the absence of information for those units. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Theme: Quality of Statistics; 
Unequal probability sampling 
A sampling design in which the inclusion probability may be different for each unit of the population. 
SDMX (2009) 

(1) Method: Balanced Sampling for MultiWay Stratification; 
Unit 
Units refer to entities, respondents to a survey or things used for the purpose of calculation or measurement. Their statistics are collected, tabulated and published. They include, among others, businesses, government institutions, individual organisations, institutions, persons, groups, geographical areas and events. They form the population from which data can be collected or upon which observations can be made. Remark: In this handbook chapter the unit can belong to the population, frame, register. The type of unit can be statistical unit, collection unit, reporting unit, observation unit, analytical unit, legal unit. 
RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server 

Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – The populations, frames, and units of business surveys 
Unit nonresponse 
The event that no data are obtained from a unit that was supposed to be observed. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Imputation; 
Unit of homogeneous production 
The unit of homogeneous production (UHP) is characterised by a single activity which is identified by its homogeneous inputs, production process and outputs. The products which constitute the inputs and outputs are themselves distinguished by their physical characteristics and the extent to which they have been processed as well (as) by the production technique used, by reference to a product classification. The unit of homogeneous production may correspond to an institutional unit or a part thereof; 
Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community, Annex Section III E; 

(1) Theme: Statistical Registers and Frames – Building and maintaining statistical registers to support business surveys; 
Unit of measurement error 
An error that occurs when respondents report values that are consistently too high or too low by a constant factor. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

(1) Method: Deductive Editing; 
Unit response rate 
The ratio of the number of units for which data for some variables have been collected to the total number of units from which data are to be collected. It can indirectly measure response burden. 
Eurostat (2009) 


Unit types 
A Business Register generally consists of several unit types, for example the enterprise unit, the kind of activity unit 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Unity measure error 
An error that occurs when respondents report the value of a variable in a wrong unity measure. 
EDIMBUS Manual 


UPOS 
Unplanned Preliminary Observed Sample. Early respondents used for provisional estimates. No specific followup has been planned 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Upper bound 
The highest possible value of a cell in a table of frequency counts where the cell value has been perturbed or suppressed. 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

User 
A person or an organization that employs or applies statistical information, within or outside an NSI. Institutional users can also be stakeholders in the specification of which statistical information is produced. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


User needs 
User needs refer to the data and metadata requirements of persons or organizations to meet a particular use or set of uses. Such needs may be specified in terms of the quality dimensions promulgated by international organizations or national agencies. 
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms 


Value index 
The ratio of transaction in current prices of the present and previous period 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Variance 
Expectation of the square difference between the estimates and its means value. 
ESS Handbook on Precision Requirements and Variance Estimation for Household Surveys 


Variance 
The variance is the mean square deviation of the variable around the average value. It reflects the dispersion of the empirical values around its mean. 
Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 
Precision, random error. 

Variance 
Expectation of the square difference between the estimates and its means value over the possible values. 
See also Glossary of the Handbook on precision requirement and variance estimation for household surveys. 


Vertical aggregation 
Vertical aggregation: aggregation by sector or branch 
European Communities (2001) 

Theme: Seasonal adjustment – introduction and general description 
Volume index 
The result of a formula in which volume changes of various goods and services are weighed together in order get an index for the aggregate. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


VVK 
The Dutch Association of Chambers of Commerce. VVK means Vereniging Van Kamers van Koophandel 
Hacking & 


Waiver approach 
Instead of suppressing tabular data, some agencies ask respondents for permission to publish cells even though doing so may cause these respondents’ 

Theme: Statistical disclosure control methods for quantitative tables 

Web forms 
A form on a website that enables visitors to communicate with the host by filling in the fields and submitting the information. Information received via a form can be received by email and processed by other specific software. 
OECD, 2004, Promise and Problems of EDemocracy: Challenges of Online Citizen Engagement, OECD, Paris, Annex 1: Commonly used EEngagement Terms. 

(1) Theme: Questionnaire Design; 
Web Survey 
A form of CASI in which a computer administers a questionnaire on a web site. In online surveys the questions are viewed and answered using a standard web browser on a PC, laptop or tablet. In an offline survey the electronic questionnaire is downloaded and completed offline. The responses are transferred through the internet to the server. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
CAWI 

Weight 
The importance of an object in relation to a set of objects to which it belongs. 
SDMX (2009) 
Matching weight 
(1) Method: Denton's Method; 
Weight trimming 
reduction of weights larger than some value 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Weighted Least Square 
The parameter are obtained as those value the minimize a weighted square of distance between predicted and observed. 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Weighted Least Square (WLS) 
Parameter estimates are obtained as the values maximizing the weighted square of distance between predicted and observed values. 
Memobust definition (2014) 

Method: EBLUP Area Level for Small Area Estimation (FayHerriot) 
Weighting 
The act of assigning weights to survey respondents, which are then used to obtain estimates of population parameters by calculating weighted sums of observed values. 
CBS Methods Series Glossary 

(1) Theme: Imputation; 
Winsorization 
modifying values in the sample so that the estimator becomes robust and isn’t affected by large residuals 
Memobust definition (2014) 


Working/trading day effects 
These are systematic effects in monthly times series related to changes in the dayofweek composition of each month and, in some cases, also to changes in the length of February. For flow series (monthly accumulations of daily activity e.g. monthly sales), the increases or decreases from average dayofweek activity associated with the days that occur five times in the month in a given year are important. For flow series, the length of February can have an impact. For stock series, such as endofmonth inventories, the extent to which inventories tend to rise or fall on the day of measurement (e.g. the last day of the month) can have an impact that is different from year to year. Attempts to measure analogous effects in quarterly series are seldom successful. A series of estimated trading day effects defines a trading day component for the time series 
US Census Bureau 


Xoutliers 
the X values of a few sample units that are very distant from the Xvalues of the other sample units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Outlier in the xdirection 

Youtliers 
the Y values of a few sample units that are very distant from the Yvalues of the other sample units. 
Memobust definition (2014) 
Outlier in the ydirection 

tARGUS 
Software program designed to protect statistical tables. 
Argus (2013) 

Links to sources used in the Memobust glossary
Source 
Website 

Argus (2013) 
http://neon.vb.cbs.nl/casc/glossary.htm. Retrieved 25 October 2013 

ESA (2010) 
Eurostat (2010), European system of accounts (forthcoming). 

ESS Regulation No 223 (2009) 

Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database (2013) 

Glossary on Statistical Disclosure Control (2014) 

Glossary, Adapting new technologies to census operations (2001) 
Adapting new technologies to census operations, Arij Dekker, Symposium on Global Review of 2000 Round of Population and Housing Censuses: MidDecade Assessment and Future Prospects, Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat New York, 710 August 2001, Glossary. 

Golden (1976) 
Golden, M.P. (1976), The research experience. F.E. Peacock Publishers Inc., Itasca, Illinois, USA 

Hacking & 
Hacking, W. and L. Willenborg (2012), Coding – interpreting short descriptions using a classification. Translation of a contribution to the CBS Methods Series, Report, Statistics Netherlands, The Hague and Heerlen. 

Hacking, W. and L. Willenborg (2012) 
Hacking, W. and L. Willenborg (2012), Coding – interpreting short descriptions using a classification. Translation of a contribution to the CBS Methods Series, Report, Statistics Netherlands, The Hague and Heerlen. 

Memobust definition (2014) 

NACE Rev.2 
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KSRA07015/EN/KSRA07015EN.PDF 

NUTS classification 
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/nuts_nomenclature/introduction 

OECD Glossary 

RAMON, Eurostat's metadata server 

SDMX (2009) 

SDMX (2009) 
http://sdmx.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/01/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf 

US Census Bureau 
US Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/srd/www/x13as/glossary.html 

US Department of Labour 

Wikipedia Cluster Sampling 

Wikipedia Multistage Sampling 