Energy dependence (t2020_rd320)

ESMS Indicator Profile (ESMS-IP)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Relevance
4. Statistical Indicator
5. Frequency and Timeliness of dissemination
6. Coverage and comparability
7. Accessibility and clarity
8. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
Eurostat Quality Profile
4.5. Source data


5.1. Frequency of dissemination Every year
5.2. Timeliness T+2 years
6.1. Reference area All EU MS
6.2. Comparability - geographical All EU MS
6.3. Coverage - Time > 10 years
6.4. Comparability - over time > 4 data points

Description of Eurostat quality grading system under the following link.

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

e-mail contact:

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 20/09/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 20/09/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 16/12/2020

3. Relevance Top

The indicator is part of the Resource Efficiency Scoreboard. It is used to monitor progress towards a resource efficient Europe, complementing the lead indicator on the area of carbon.

To accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system, countries need to facilitate access to clean energy research, promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology. Energy dependence on imports of energy carriers exposes the European economy to volatile world market prices and the risk of supply shortages, for example, due to geopolitical conflicts. The risks increase with dependency on single countries e.g. determined by the supply infrastructure.

There are several relevant EU policies for this indicator. The Energy Security Strategy outlines the need for domestic energy production, increased energy efficiency and completion of missing infrastructure and the Energy Union strategy highlights energy security as one of its five pillars. The EU Cohesion Policy invests EUR 29 billion in sustainable energy, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, smart energy infrastructure and low-carbon research and innovation. To lower final energy consumption, to increase the share of renewable energies produced by the economy and to increase the energy efficiency are objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. These objectives contribute to a lower energy dependency.

4. Statistical Indicator Top
4.1. Data description

The indicator shows the extent to which an economy relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs. It is calculated as net imports divided by gross available energy.

Energy dependence = Net imports / Gross available energy.

Net imports are calculated as total imports minus total exports. Gross available energy is a calculated value, defined as: Primary production + Recovered & recycled products + Imports – Exports + Stock changes.

Energy dependency may be negative in the case of net exporter countries while positive values over 100 % indicate the accumulation of stocks during the reference year.

4.2. Unit of measure

Percentage of imports in total energy consumption
i. Total
ii. Solid fossil fuels
iii. Oil and petroleum products (excluding biofuel portion)
iv. Natural gas

4.3. Reference Period

Calendar year.

4.4. Accuracy - overall

Indicator is produced according to the high-level quality standards of European Statistics. Details on accuracy can be found in the metadata of the source datasets (see link in "Related metadata").

4.5. Source data


Data source: European Statistical System (ESS)

Data provider: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), based on data reported by the countries: Energy imports dependency (nrg_ind_id). Complete energy balances (nrg_bal_c).

5. Frequency and Timeliness of dissemination Top
5.1. Frequency of dissemination

Every year

Indicator is updated annually.

5.2. Timeliness

T+2 years

New data points are disseminated within two years after the reference year.

6. Coverage and comparability Top
6.1. Reference area


Data are presented for all EU Member States plus the United Kingdom, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, Republic of North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.

The EU aggregate is also available.

6.2. Comparability - geographical


Data are comparable between all EU Member States.

6.3. Coverage - Time

> 10 years

Presented time series (including EU aggregates) starts in 1990.

6.4. Comparability - over time

> 4 data points

Length of comparable time series without methodological break is longer than 4 data points.

7. Accessibility and clarity Top
7.1. Dissemination format - Publications

Reports on the indicators of the Resource Efficiency Scoreboard

Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe

Several articles in the Energy theme of the Statistics Explained section exist for the energy domain.

7.2. Dissemination format - online database

See table t2020_rd320

7.3. Dissemination format - other

Eurostat dedicated section on Europe 2020 - Resource Efficient Europe

Eurostat dedicated section on Energy

Eurostat, Statistical Book, Energy, transport and environment indicators - 2019 edition.

8. Comment Top

Eurostat Copyright/License Policy is applicable.

Related metadata Top
nrg_bal_esms - Energy balances
nrg_ind_id_esms - Energy imports dependency

Annexes Top
Joint Annual Energy questionnaires and related methodology (Eurostat)
Joint Annual Energy questionnaires in the International Energy Agency