Obesity rate by body mass index (BMI) (sdg_02_10)

ESMS Indicator Profile (ESMS-IP)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Relevance
4. Statistical Indicator
5. Frequency and Timeliness of dissemination
6. Coverage and comparability
7. Accessibility and clarity
8. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
Eurostat Quality Profile
4.5. Source data


5.1. Frequency of dissemination Every 3+ years
5.2. Timeliness T+2 years
6.1. Reference area All EU MS
6.2. Comparability - geographical All EU MS
6.3. Coverage - Time < 5 years
6.4. Comparability - over time 3 to 4 data points

Description of Eurostat quality grading system under the following link.

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development

1.5. Contact mail address

e-mail contact : ESTAT-SDG-MONITORING@ec.europa.eu

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 17/06/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 27/04/2022
2.3. Metadata last update 27/04/2022

3. Relevance Top

The indicator is part of the EU Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator set. It is used to monitor progress towards SDG 2 on ending hunger and malnutrition and SDG 3 on good health and well-being; which are embedded in the European Commission’s Priorities under the 'European Green Deal', 'An economy that works for people' and 'Promoting our European way of life'.

SDG 2 - among other things - seeks to end all forms of malnutrition, and ensure access to safe and nutritious food. SDG 3 - among other things - aims to ensure health and well-being for all at all ages. Although the EU has largely overcome problems of hunger, new challenges related to nutrition are emerging, such as rising obesity.

The indicator can be considered as part of the global SDG indicator 2.2.2 "Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)".

EU food policy includes nutrition initiatives and work with EU Member States on the EU Action Plan on Childhood Obesity 2014-2020. The Commission will evaluate the Action Plan and propose a follow-up. Furthermore, the Commission will propose a revision of the EU school fruit, vegetables and milk scheme in 2023 to enhance its contribution to the promotion of sustainable food consumption as announced in the Farm to Fork Strategy.

4. Statistical Indicator Top
4.1. Data description

The indicator measures the share of obese people based on their body mass index (BMI). BMI is defined as the weight in kilos divided by the square of the height in meters.

People aged 18 years or over are considered obese with a BMI equal or greater than 30. Other categories are: underweight (BMI less than 18.5), normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and less than 25), and pre-obese (BMI between 25 and less than 30). The category overweight (BMI equal or greater than 25) combines the two categories pre-obese and obese.

4.2. Unit of measure

% of population aged 18 or over; by body mass index (BMI)

4.3. Reference Period

Calendar year

4.4. Accuracy - overall

The indicator is produced according to the high-level quality standards of European Statistics. Details on accuracy can be found in the metadata of the source datasets (see link to related metadata).

4.5. Source data


Data sources:

European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for data referring to 2008, 2014 and 2019. EHIS may be implemented as a separate national survey or can be integrated into an existing national survey (i.e. national health interview survey, labour force survey, other household survey). In such a way Member States have the maximum flexibility for implementation. However, across the EU the same data were collected according to a common list of variables.

Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) for data referring to 2017. The BMI question (variable PH110, compulsory) has been included in the test of the 3-year SILC health module 2017. Data from this source are used to bridge the gap between EHIS based data of 2014 and 2019.

Data provider: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), based on data collected via national surveys.

5. Frequency and Timeliness of dissemination Top
5.1. Frequency of dissemination

Every 3+ years

The latest data collection based on EHIS was conducted in 2019 (periodicity of 5 years). Complete and updated ESS data release information can be accessed via Eurostat release calendar.

5.2. Timeliness

T+2 years

The latest release of EHIS based data was published in 2021.

6. Coverage and comparability Top
6.1. Reference area


EHIS data 2014 are presented for all EU Member States plus Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom and Turkey.

SILC data 2017 are presented for all EU Member States except Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden (all pending); plus Norway, the United Kingdom, North Macedonia and Serbia.

EHIS data 2019 are presented for all EU Member States plus Iceland, Norway, Serbia and Turkey.

6.2. Comparability - geographical


Data are comparable between all EU Member States respectively other presented countries.

6.3. Coverage - Time

< 5 years

Presented time series (including EU aggregate) starts in 2014.

6.4. Comparability - over time

3 to 4 data points

Length of comparable time series without methodological breaks is 3 data points.

7. Accessibility and clarity Top
7.1. Dissemination format - Publications

Analysis of the indicator is presented in Eurostat's annual monitoring report on Sustainable development in the EU (progress towards SDGs in the EU context).

7.2. Dissemination format - online database

see table  sdg_02_10

7.3. Dissemination format - other

Eurostat dedicated section on SDGs: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/sdi/overview

8. Comment Top

Copyrights: Eurostat Copyright/Licence Policy is applicable.

Related metadata Top
hlth_det_esms - European Health Interview Survey (EHIS)

Annexes Top