Regional statistics by typology (reg_typ)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit E4: Regional statistics and geographical information

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 18/02/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 18/02/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 18/02/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The source for regional typology statistics are regional indicators at NUTS level 3 published on the Eurostat website or existing in the Eurostat production database.

The structure of this domain is as follows:

- Metropolitan regions (met)

   For details see https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/metropolitan-regions/background

- Other typologies (urt) includes data by urban-rural typology, coastal typology, border/non-border regions, island/non-island typology and mountain/non-mountain regions

   For details see https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/regions-and-cities

- Tourism statistics by coastal areas (mare)

   For details see https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/coastal-island-outermost-regions/methodology

3.2. Classification system

The regional breakdown of the countries into the NUTS3 regions is based on:

1. Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS).

The annexes to this Regulation that contain the regional breakdowns of the Member States are usually updated every three years. The version currently in force is NUTS 2016, applicable for data transmission from the Member States to Eurostat since 1 January 2018.

Latest consolidated version of the NUTS Regulation: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02003R1059-20180118.

 

The NUTS Regulation also gives the legal basis for  statistical grids and the following territorial typologies:

- grid based (urban centres, urban clusters and rural grid cells);

- LAU based (degree of urabanisation - cities, towns and suburbs and rural areas; functional urban areas - cities plus their commuting zones; coastal areas);

- NUTS3 based (urban-rural typology - predominantly urban regions, intermediate regions and predominantly rural regions; metropolitan typology and coastal typology).

2. Agreements between Eurostat and Acceding and Candidate Countries as well as between Eurostat and EFTA countries, for which statistical regions have been coded in a way that resembles NUTS.

For more details, please consult the https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nuts/background.

3.3. Coverage - sector

The indicators and variables published by regional typologies cover several statistical domains: Demography, Labour market, Economic accounts, Science and technology statistics, Tourism (from 2012 onwards by coastal area only), Business demography, Transport and Crimes.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

General information about the data

The data providers are the Eurostat units responsible for demography, economic accounts, labour market, tourism (from 2012 LAU aggregates by coastal/non-coastal area), science and technology statistics, business demography, transport and crimes providing the NUTS3 data as 'building blocks' for the aggregates. The data tables are updated automatically whenever one of these building blocks is being updated in the Eurostat reference database.
For source of the building blocks-data: please consult the information provided for the indicators in the relevant statistical themes. The typologies have been updated in 2018 implementing the NUTS 2016 version.

A) Metropolitan typology (included in the NUTS Regulation)

Metropolitan regions are are a single or an aggregation of NUTS level 3 region(s) in which at least 50% of the population live in Functional Urban Areas of at least 250 000 inhabitants and is named after the principle Functional Urban Area inside its boundaries.

Source data for the metropolitan data (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes: - Demography, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

More information on the definition of Metropolitan regions: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_metropolitan_regions.

B) Other typologies (included in the NUTS Regulation)

B.1) Coastal typology

NUTS level 3 regions that border the sea, or those in which at least 50% of the population live within 50 km from the coastline, as well as the NUTS level 3 region of Hamburg (Germany).More information on the definition of Coastal regions:

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_coastal_regions.

Source data for the maritime regions (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS 3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes:

- Demography, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

 B.2) Urban-rural typology

This typology uses several steps to classify the NUTS level 3 regions into 3 categories - predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions.

         Predominantly urban regions:

  • NUTS level 3 regions where at least 80% of the population live in urban clusters.
  • Intermediate regions:
  •  NUTS level 3 regions where between 50% and 80% of the population live in urban clusters.

Predominantly rural regions:

  • NUTS level 3 regions where at least 50% of the population live in rural grid cells.

More information on the Urban/rural typology:

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_urban-rural_typology

  Source data for the urban-rural typology (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes: - Demography, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

C) Other typologies (not included in the NUTS Regulation)

These are the island, mountain and border typology. For the detailed definitions please consult the 2018 edition of the Methodological manual on territorial typologies.

Source data for the island, mountain and border typology (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes: - Demography, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

D) Coastal areas (included in the NUTS Regulation)

Coastal areas are LAU level territorial units that border the sea or that have at least 50% of their surface within a distance of 10 km from the sea. Enclaves (non-coastal LAUs surrounded by adjacent coastal LAUs) are added.

ACoastal areas are used to aggregate tourism statistics concidering that the municipality data give a better picture of tourism compared to coastal regions data that would be based on NUTS 3.

More information on Coastal areas:

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_coastal_areas.



Annexes:
Urban-rural typology update workflow
3.5. Statistical unit

Statistical unit is a NUTS 3 region, a LAU and aggregates of them.

3.6. Statistical population

Regional typology statistics combine data from many source statistics. The concept of statistical population is not strictly applicable in a regional typology context.

3.7. Reference area

EU Member States, EFTA countries and Candidate countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Demography time series are available from 1990 onwards.

Economic accounts time series are available from 1995 onwards.

Labour market time series are available from 1999 onwards.

Tourism time series are available from 2012 onwards (based on coastal/non-coastal areas).

Patent (Science and technology statistics) time series are available from 1977 onwards.

Business demography time series are available from 2008 onwards.

Transport statistics time series are available from 2008 onwards.

Crime statistics time series are available from 2008 onwards (for three years only).

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measure Top

The unit of measurement varies from indicator to indicator; from variable to variable. In most cases the unit of measurement is included in the label.

For unit of measure, please consult metadata for each statistical theme individually:

Demography, Regional economic accounts - ESA2010, Regional labour market, Tourism and Patent (Science and technology statistics), Regional business demography, Transport and Crime statistics.


5. Reference Period Top

The reference period is the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

This particular metadata file refers to the metropolitan typology, the coastal typology, the urban-rural typology and the typology of coastal areas. The corresponding folder in the database contains also data aggregated by other typologies which are not included in the NUTS Regulation but are of policy and research interest. These are data by island/non-island regions, data by mountain/non-mountain regions and data by border/non-border regions (https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_island_regions; https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_mountain_regions; https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual_-_border_regions).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No release calendar.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual and whenever revised data are sent to Eurostat.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Not applicable.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting many statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up an encyclopaedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

The pages, which provide a clickable list of all articles in Statistics Explained on typology statistics, can be accessed under the following links:

Regional Yearbook (annual publication, current edition: 2018):

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-statistical-books/-/KS-HA-18-001

Methodological manual of territorial typologies, 2018 edition:

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Territorial_typologies_manual

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

The on-line visualisation tool 'Regions and Cities Illustrated' enables the users to visualise in several different way selected indicators on all typologies available in the on-line database.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

For a detailed description of methods and concepts used, as well as for other documents related to regional typologies, please consult the Methodological manual of territorial typologies (in Statistics explained).

For a detailed description of methods and concepts used, as well as for other documents related to the NUTS classification, please consult the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) webpage.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The quality of the data is assured by the implementation of the harmonised European definitions for the regional typologies as included in the NUTS Regulation. In 2017, a review of the quality of the data by regional typologies has been done.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

As regards NUTS 3 estimates used to publish labour market aggregates by typologies, the compilation methods differ among countries. While most countries provide the NUTS 3 code in the LFS micro data, some countries use combined information of the LFS and registers or base their NUTS 3 data on administrative data, small area estimation and other reliable sources. Due to non-sampling errors and the combined use of LFS data with the information from registers, it is currently difficult to assess the accuracy of this data according to scientific standards.

For those countries which do not provide the NUTS 3 code in the EU-LFS micro data, Eurostat uses the EU-LFS NUTS 2 results as a benchmark. In order to achieve comparability between the NUTS 3 data and the EU-LFS data at NUTS 2 level, Eurostat uses the relative weight of the NUTS 3 data received from Member States to split the EU-LFS NUTS 2 estimates into estimates at NUTS 3 level before aggregating the data by typologies.

EU-LFS statistics have overall high quality. National LFS surveys are considered as reliable sources applying high standards with regard to the methodology. However, the EU-LFS, like any survey, is based upon a sample of the population. The results are therefore subject to the usual types of errors associated with random sampling. Based on the sample size and design in the various Member States, Eurostat implements basic guidelines intended to avoid publication of figures that are unreliable or to give warning of the unreliability of the figures. 

In the domain of Regional typology statistics the EU-LFS reliability thresholds are applied directly to the labour market NUTS 3 data already aggregated by typologies.

For a detailed description of the publication thresholds used, please consult the EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) webpage.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Regional typologies are receiving particular attention by policy makers due to policy developments in relation to EU Cohesion Policy, the Treaty of Lisbon and the description of the European aim of territorial cohesion. This counts in particular for the types of territories mentioned in § 174 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU: rural areas; island, cross-border and other regions.

EU cohesion policy (https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/2021_2027/) aims to reduce disparities among EU regions and to promote growth, employment and sustainable development in disadvantaged regions and areas.

Over the past few years, there has been a greater focus on evidence-based policy interventions and more integrated territorial approaches that reflect the diversity of EU regions, e.g. in terms of employment, demography, poverty, education or economic activity. Analyses of regional policies emphasise the need to investigate the significant urban-rural differences, which are not uniform across Member States (see, for example, the Reports on economic, social and territorial Cohesion).

Cohesion policy emphasises territorial development strategies focusing on urban and rural, but also coastal development, stressing the relevance of promoting smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, and thereby reflecting the role of cities, urban, rural and coastal areas. Urban-rural linkages are taken into account as well.

Particularly disadvantaged regions like cross border ones are specifically targeted, for instance by the Interreg programmes.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not carry out satisfaction survey targeted at users of regional statistics by typology. The relevance of the regional typology statistics for the users can thus only be assessed by indirect means.

12.3. Completeness

Data completeness depends on the availability of the source data.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

High.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Timeliness for demography, economic accounts, tourism, patent (Science and technology statistics), business demography, transport and crime statistics aggregates: immediate (every update of a source table 'building block' by one of the production units results in automatic update of aggregates)

Timeliness for labour market aggregates: 3 months after receiving source data at NUTS 3 level from NSIs.

14.2. Punctuality

High.

Data dissemination depends on the punctuality of data delivery and the completeness of the datasets provided by the countries.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The geographical comparability is ensured through the application of common European definitions and methodologies for classification of all NUTS level 3 regions according to the regional typologies as well as the coastal and non-coastal areas.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time could be affected every three years by new versions of the NUTS classification as well as updates in the territorial typologies.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The coherence cross domains is ensured since the tables by regional typologies contain aggregates of the NUTS 3 datasets published by the production units.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Internal coherence (between time, age and sex) is ensured through various validations performed by the thematic units before publishing the data.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Data are revised in accordance with changes of the NUTS classification or according to data revisions or methodological changes implemented by the National Statistical institutes or other bodies.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Please consult metadata for each statistical theme individually.

 


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The source data for regional typology statistics are regional indicators at NUTS level 3 published on the Eurostat website or existing in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes:

- Demography,

- Economic accounts,

- Labour market,

- Science and technology statistics,

- Business demography,

- Transport and

- Crime statistics.

 Tourism data aggregated by coastal/non-coastal areas are based on the common definitions.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

NUTS 3 data needed for production of regional typology data are provided by the Eurostat units responsible for demography, economic accounts, labour market, science and technology statistics, business demography, transport and crime statistics.

Tourism statistics by coastal areas is provided by the National Statistical Institutes already aggregated.

For more details, please consult the information provided for the indicators in the relevant statistical themes.

18.4. Data validation

Although the data validation is considered to have been done by the production units during the creation phase, some additional verification of the validity of the data is done during the aggregation process. For example, the aggregate of the urban, rural and intermediate figures must be less than (in case of missing data) or equal to the national figure on a given variable. Analogically the aggregate of coastal and non-coastal figures must be less than or equal to the national figure. For the metropolitan regions applies a simply rule that the sum of all metropolitan figures must be less then the national figure.

18.5. Data compilation

Regional typology tables are created by aggregating the NUTS 3 source data. Different correspondence tables are used to classify each NUTS 3 region by the typologies as: metropolitan region (data on individual metropolitan regions are available) or part of non-metropolitan regions (recently included in the aggregated tables, one figure per country), predominantly rural, intermediate or predominantly urban region and coastal region. Corresponding tables for the typologies not included in the NUTS Regulation are also available on-line. Identically a correspondence table is behind the tourism aggregates based on coastal/non-coastal areas.

The source tables (building blocks) for the different statistical subjects are created in the Eurostat production database by the production units responsible for Demography, Regional economic accounts, Labour market, Tourism, Science and technology statistics, Business demography, Transport and Crime statistics. The production processes of the source data is the responsibility of the production units.

Also stored in the Eurostat production database are the formulas used to calculate the tables by territorial typologies. Thus, when a production unit has been updated any of the source data tables in the production database, the tables by territorial typologies have been also updated. 

18.6. Adjustment

Regional data by typologies are not adjusted.


19. Comment Top

No comments.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Urban-rural typology update workflow