Share of energy from renewable sources (nrg_ind_ren)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: European Commission - Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

European Commission - Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat
Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy
L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 12/02/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 12/02/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 12/02/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

This dataset covers the indicator for monitoring progress towards renewable energy targets of the Europe 2020 strategy implemented by Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

The annual data collection covers in principle all Member States of the European Union. Time series starts in the year 2004.

The calculation is based on data collected in the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics and complemented by specific supplementary data transmitted by national administrations to Eurostat.

In some countries the statistical systems are not yet fully developed to meet all requirements of Directive 2009/28/EC, in particular with respect to ambient heat captured from the environment by heat pumps.

This is indicator is a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. The data collection covers the full spectrum of the Member States of the European Union.

 The share of energy from renewable sources is calculated for four indicators:

  • Transport (RES-T)
  • Heating and Cooling (RES-H&C)
  • Electricity (RES-E)
  • Overall RES share (RES)

More details are available in the SHARES tool manual. In addition, more information (like detailed calculations used to obtain the results) are available in the Excel and zip file in the SHARES section.

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European system of statistics. Therefore, they also rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

The classification of the economic activities both in carrying out the surveys and in presenting the results is in accordance to NACE Rev.2.

Classification of energy products (commodities/carriers) is in general highly consistent with the UN’s International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (especially its chapter 3: “Standard International Energy Product Classification”).

3.3. Coverage - sector

The indicator is based on energy statistics data, which cover all major sectors of the economy that are involved in the production, trade, energy transformation and energy consumption (the energy sector, industrial sector, transport, commercial and public services, agricultural/forestry/fishing and residential).

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

For further detail information on NACE rev. 2 divisions, groups or class please consult the reporting instructions.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Definitions of Directive 2009/28/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 apply. For general information on statistical concepts and definitions, please see the Energy Statistics Manual.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

3.5. Statistical unit

Statistical unit may vary in the annual energy statistics. A statistical unit in energy statistics can be for example: enterprises, local units, establishment or household.

Reporting units in energy statistics might be: producers, importers, exporters of oil and petroleum products, households.  

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Not available - not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports. 

3.7. Reference area

Annual data series cover all Member States of the European Union. The EU aggregate is also shown. Additionally and sometimes at a later stage, EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway), some of the EU candidate countries (Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey) and potential candidate countries (Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/99)) are also displayed, depending on their transmissiosn.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series are starting from 2004.

As Annex II of Directive 2009/28/EC requires a normalisation for hydro power on 15 year's time horizon. The source data however derived from Regulation (EC) 1099/2008 starts from 1990, thus it is not possible to calculate the share of energy from renewable sources prior to the year 2004.

3.9. Base period

Not available


4. Unit of measure Top

The result indicator is expressed as the percentage. Basic data on energy quantities are in fuel specific units and for the purpose of calculation converted to common energy units (e.g. ktoe). Basic data are available in the SHARES section of the website.


5. Reference Period Top

These indicators refer to the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The annual data collection in the form of the SHARES tool developed by Eurostat is voluntary. Currently all EU Member States provide these data to Eurostat.

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

Commission Decision C(2013) 1082 establishing the guidelines for Member States on calculating renewable energy from heat pumps from different heat pump technologies pursuant to Article 5 of Directive 2009/28/EC.

Template for the progress reports on the share of energy from renewable sources based on Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC. (website of DG Energy)

FAQ document on the Template for the progress reports on the share of energy from renewable sources based on Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC. (website of DG Energy)

Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics.

Council Regulation (CE) No 322/97 of 17 February 1997 (OJ No L 52/1) and Council Regulation (EURATOM, EEC) no 1588/90 of 11 June 1990 on the transmission of the data subject to statistical confidentiality to the Statistical Office of the European Communities (OJ No L 151/ 1).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable. Eurostat does not have any agreements or procedures in place for data sharing of annual energy statistics. Eurostat copyright rules applies: free re-use, both for non-commercial and commercial purposes.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recitals 23-27, 31-32 and Articles 20-26) applies also to energy statistics. It stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data are not shown. The most common approach is to present only aggregation of the confidential data point with the non-confidential data that is the nearest point in the energy balance (e.g. in the case of biofuels, aggregate biodiesel with biogasoline).


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section.

The Share of energy from renewable sources is constructed on the basis of all datasets for annual energy statistics, whose transmission deadline is 30th November of each year t+1, (Elctricity and heat, Natural Gas, Oil and petroleum products, solid fossil fuels and renewables and wastes) plus an additional transmission of the SHARES tool file once a year. There is no legal obligation to transmit the SHARES file to Eurostat. On alternate years, Eurostat prefills the SHARES tool and next year the countries do it, resulting in 2 different transmission deadlines: 31st December of year t+1 and January/February t+2. This alternate release calendar depends on whether there is an obligation for countries to transmit progress reports to DG NER or not (only once every 2 years). When countries need to transmit the progress reports to ENER (deadline 31st December), they prefill the SHARES tool with their annual energy statistics and send it to Eurostat on 31st December. Eurostat can publish data in January t+2. In the next year, Eurostat prefills the SHARES tool and sends it to countries in January t+2. Countires complete the missing data and make the official transmission to Eurostat, who publishes around February t+2. 

 

8.2. Release calendar access

No particular provisions.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

Europe 2020 strategy: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/europe-2020-indicators/europe-2020-strategy

Energy data - database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

Energy data - main tables: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Data are disseminated on annual basis.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News release yearly. They are available in the SHARES website.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics explained article on Renewable energy statistics and Energy, transport and environment indicators (pocketbook) - 2018 edition

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

The concept of microdata is not applicable for energy statistics. No micro data are transmitted to Eurostat for data collected under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. All micro data are available only at the level of reporting countries.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Internet address: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

Statistics Explained Energy

DG ENERGY – Renewable energy

Statistics Explained: Energy from renewable sources

Detailed results in the format of MS Excel files (SHARES tool detailed results)

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The Energy dedicated section on Eurostat's website has additional methodological information. In general, the energy statistics transmitted to Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

Detailed information on the relevant methodology as well as documentation links can be found in the information attributed to the "Energy" data collections. More information about the renewable energy shares calculation methodology and its link to the Eurostat´s annual energy statistics can be found in the SHARES tool manual.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

See "10.6. Documentation on methodology" and consult the quality documentation on energy statistics website - section "QUALITY REPORTS".

Underlying annual energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

In addition, the following validation checks are performed on SHARES:

TRANSPORT SHEET

A. The total amount of compliant (sustainable) biofuels is less or equal to the total amount of biofuels (compliant + non-compliant).

B. The total amount of biofuels calculated with Annex III calorific values is very similar (but not equal) to the total amount of biofuels imported from the annual questionnaires (calculated with real CV).

C. Electricity used to produce non-biological renewable transport fuels is reported if hydrogen or synthetic fuels of renewable origin are reported.

D. Plausibility of all time series (including reasonable/justified variations across years, break in series, etc.).

OVERALL TARGET SHEET

A. For electricity, heating and cooling or derived heat production: The total amount of compliant (sustainable) bioliquids is less or equal to the total amount of bioliquids (compliant + non-compliant).

B. Plausibility of all time series (including reasonable/justified variations across years, break in series, etc.).

HEAT PUMPS SHEET

A. Plausibility of time series (including reasonable/justified variations across years, break in series, etc.).

B. Consistency of the climate zones in which heat pumps are reported with the map of climatic areas in the SHARES Tool Manual.

STAT. TRANSFERS SHEET

A. Verification across countries. Consistency of the information provided by partner countries in cooperation mechanisms. If available, this information is cross-checked with the bilateral agreements signed at Government level.

GAS SHEET

A. The amount of biogas injected in the natural gas grid to be consumed in transport with traceability requirements cannot exceed the total amount of biogas injected in the natural gas grid (as reported in the natural gas questionnaire under "Memo: Receipts from other sources – Renewables).

B. The amount of biogas injected in the natural gas grid to be consumed in transport with traceability requirements cannot exceed the total amount of methane (of all forms) consumed in transport (as reported in the natural gas questionnaire under "Total final consumption – Transport sector – Road").

REN SHEET

A. Generation without pumping in mixed hydro plants should reported (unless duly justified) when the country reports mixed hydro production.

B. Plausibility of time series for generation without pumping (including reasonable/justified variations across years, break in series, etc.).

OVERALL SUMMARY SHEET

A. Plausibility of all time series (including reasonable/justified variations across years, break in series, etc.).

 

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

 


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Eurostat carries out quality tests, mainly on the coherency of the provided information. In addition, the questionnaires used for data transmission also have built-in coherency tests.

This dataset is a part of the energy statistics defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. It is considered as European statistics and consequently the ESS framework for quality applies. In addition, they are integrated in the Quality Reporting cycle that takes place every five years. Quality reports for energy statistics are based on Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

Data is collected through the SHARES tool applying high standards with regard to the methodology and ensuring a high degree of comparability.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Renewable energy and data in SHARES are subject to several validation checks as indicated in 11.1. If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

There are some limitations regards a harmonized methodology because data collections systems and reporting is still in an early stage of development for some specific fuels in some countries (e.g. for heat pumps). However, the majority of data elements are based on solid methodology. Comparability over time and across countries is high, limitations in comparability can be attributed only to the limitations of available data.

(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Data on SHARES are collected and published by Eurostat in order to:

  • Provide the Commission with harmonised, reliable and relevant statistical information needed to define, implement, monitor and evaluate Commission policies in the renewable energy sector.
  • Provide the EU institutions, national administrations, enterprises, professional associations and EU citizens with high quality statistical services and products in the field of energy.

Key policy question:
What is the progress on EU level towards Europe 2020 target for renewable energies?

What is the progress on national level towards national targets defined in Directive 2009/28/EC?

How much has the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increased?

How fast is the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increasing?

Key message:
For an assessment of the progress that has been achieved towards the related key policy question see:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Renewable_energy_statistics

Rationale:
The indicator measures how extensive is the use of renewable energy and, by implication, the degree to which renewable fuels have substituted fossil and/or nuclear fuels.
In addition the use of renewable energy could improve the security of the energy supply by reducing the dependence on fuel imports. The production of renewable energy may also contribute to rural economic development and provide new income and employment opportunities in rural areas. Deployment of renewable energy sources could also contribute to reducing the GHG emissions from fuel combustion.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat conducts two types of evaluations that assess Eurostat's performance in general:

  • Evaluations of the Community Statistical Programmes
  • User Satisfaction Surveys

Please see more details on the Eurostat website.

 

12.3. Completeness

Published data are complete, since they contain the elements needed for the calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources according to Directive 2009/28/EC

See data table [nrg_ind_ren]


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country.

Medium

Data is submitted on the basis of a harmonised system, originating from data harmonised on international level (see for more details metadata on annual energy statistics). The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. In several countries and for most energy commodities data provision by the companies is required by law. However, emerging liberalisation process in some countries may to some extent negatively affect accuracy in some cases. From time to time detailed surveys targeted to single sub- items (e.g. Wood consumption in households) are carried out to improve the methodology.

In some countries statistical systems are not yet fully developed to monitor all energy from renewable sources. This concerns mostly ambient heat captured by heat pumps.

(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

13.2. Sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.

 

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

No legally binding timeliness exists for this data transmission to Eurostat. Data available approximately 13-14 months after the reference year.

14.2. Punctuality

Not applicable.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Most of the data for the calculation of SHARES are collected in the annual questionnaires (annual energy statistics). Energy domain provides highly comparable annual energy statistics. Eurostat verifies, to the extent possible, if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however the responsibility of the reporting countries. The methodology for reporting energy statistics is harmonised for all European countries (EU Member States, EFTA countries, EU Candidate Countries, Energy Community Contracting Parties) and also with the OECD energy statistics. In general, the energy statistics compiled by Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

Fully comparable source data due to the use of the joint questionnaire. Eurostat verifies to the extent possible if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however under the responsibility of the Member States. The methodology is harmonized within the European Union. See also 13.1. Overall accuracy.
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology harmonised that is stable over long periods and changes only with legal developments. Occasional breaks in time series are present due to the developments of statistical systems on national level and the level of detailed information (micro data) available at national level.

In general comparability is very high in last 10 years and for older periods slowly decreasing. In addition, introduction of new statistical information in the most recent data collections can lead to breaks in series until information is compiled and provided by reporting countries.

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology agreed with all EU Member States. In case of methodological changes, historic time series are recalculated to the highest possible extend. Possible breaks in series resulting from the application of agreed methodology are explained in the SHARES tool manual.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not available - information not produced by Eurostat.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the consistency of time series and detection of outliers.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available - information not produced by Eurostat.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

The Revision Policy for energy statistics and the revision pre-announcement form are implemented on the basis of a gentlemen's agreement (October 2015). It might be followed by the future amendment of the relevant legislation once the revision policy has been incorporated into national practice. This revision policy covers most of the data used to build the share of energy from renewable sources.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Data are updated when an error is identified, if a Member State transmits more up-to-date figures or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones.

Revisions of entire time series can be made by reporting countries due to their national specific circumstances. These revisions are then implemented by Eurostat in due time.

In recent years, the use of renewable energies and their real world deployments are dynamic developing in Europe.

Methodology and  data sources for renewables needs to be further developed and implemented, consequently renewables data could be subject of revisions. Reporting countries provide adjustments to previous data which are subsequently treated by Eurostat. Major changes in methodology are undertaken only in case of amendments to the basic legal act (Directive 2009/28/EC).

Data are updated in case an error would be identified, if a Member State transmits more up-to-date figures which modify the main indicators or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are obtained from the National Administrations competent for energy statistics. Depending on the reporting country and the specific monthly process, the data providers can be:

  • National Statistical Institutes
  • Ministries
  • Energy Agencies
  • Professional Associations

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual

18.3. Data collection

All data transfers to Eurostat come via Single Entry Point of data, which is currently implemented by EDAMIS.

For national practices:

National competent authorities collect the data by using census, surveys, administrative data, association's data, customs data and also by modelling including interpolation and extrapolation. Even estimates are occasionally submitted if real data is not available. The mixture of sources differs between countries. More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

For Eurostat:

The annual data cycle starts in July-August for the previous year's data by sending to reporting countries pre-filled annual energy questionnaires (email with MS Excel files attached). Starting in September, countries provide new data for the latest reference year and possible revisions for historical time periods. The legal deadline is 30 November. Data corrections and data revisions can arrive until April due to ongoing discussions on data validation issues and this might result in changes in disseminated data.

In the field of energy statistics no specific data collection technique is imposed by Eurostat. It is the responsibility of National Authorities to collect the relevant basic energy data required for filling-in the annual questionnaires and the SHARES tool. Subsequently these data are reported to Eurostat. National data collection methods vary from country to country.

Data in standardised electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

18.4. Data validation

Energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, utilization factor checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

Eurostat carries out quality tests, mainly on the coherency of the provided information: data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency, completeness checks and the plausibility checks.

18.5. Data compilation

Countries report to Eurostat basic data in the relevant units as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Country aggregations, such as European Union are formed by the aggregation of data from individual countries.

For the calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources Eurostat has developed the SHARES tool. The acronym SHARES stands for SHort Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources. The SHARES tool focuses on the harmonised calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources among Member States of the European Union. The detailed manual for the SHARES tool is available on Eurostat website

The SHARES tool is designed to collect and present the information — the energy data — that are needed for calculations as defined in Article 3 (transport target) and Article 5 (overall target) of the Directive. Thus, additional calculations are needed for electricity in order to implement Article 3(4), as well as for heating and cooling as defined in the templates of the progress report on the website of DG Energy.

The foremost advantage of the SHARES tool is that all Member States are supposed to use a common method in order to calculate the needed values. Its application prevents any irregularities from varying parameters and rules used in different calculation methods. For this reason, the SHARES tool approach is deemed to be a more efficient approach than individual estimations or calculations performed by each EU Member State.

The SHARES tool is based on the methodological framework using the information gained through annual statistics on energy as covered under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008. The joint annual energy questionnaires are the necessary prerequisite for the use of the SHARES tool.

Energy data from the above-mentioned questionnaires are linked with several formulas to calculate the various shares. Countries have to provide some additional information which is not covered by Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 (additional information that cannot be derived from the five annual energy questionnaires). Data from the following domains are needed:

- Compliant (sustainable) biofuels and bioliquids

- Heat pumps

- Mixed pumped storage power plants

- Cooperation mechanisms (statistical transfers)

18.6. Adjustment

For the publication of the EU aggregate, data from all Member States is needed. If a given country is missing, its annual energy data (these are always available) are loaded into SHARES. The remaining information is estimated based on the previous years tendency. These estimations are shown to the country for their comments.


19. Comment Top

Detailed methodology description for this indicators is available in the SHARES tool manual.

Note on national targets of Europe 2020 strategy.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top