Share of energy from renewable sources (nrg_ind_335a)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy

L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 10/02/2015
2.2. Metadata last posted 10/02/2015
2.3. Metadata last update 10/02/2015


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

This dataset covers the indicator for monitoring progress towards renewable energy targets of the Europe 2020 strategy implemented by Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

The annual data collection covers in principle the 28 Member States of the European Union. Time series starts in the year 2004.

The calculation is based on data collected in the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics and complemented by specific supplementary data transmitted by national administrations to Eurostat.

In some countries the statistical systems are not yet fully developed to meet all requirements of Directive 2009/28/EC, in particular with respect to ambient heat captured from the environment by heat pumps.

This is indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. The data collection covers the full spectrum of the 28 Member States of the European Union.

 The share of energy from renewable sources is calculated for four indicators:

  • Transport (RES-T)
  • Heating and Cooling (RES-H&C)
  • Electricity (RES-E)
  • Overall RES share (RES)

More details are available in the SHARES tool manual.

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics are an integral part of the European system of statistics. Therefore, they rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields while classifications proper to Energy statistics are fully harmonised with the classifications used in other fields of the European system of statistics. The classification of the economic activities both in carrying out the surveys and in presenting the results (Energy Balance Sheets) is in accordance to NACE Rev.2.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Energy statistics data covers all major sectors of the economy that are involved in the production, trade, energy transformation and energy consumption (the energy sector, industrial sector, transport, commercial and public services, agricultural/forestry/fishing and residential).

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

For further detail information on NACE rev. 2 divisions, groups or class please consult the reporting instructions.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Definitions of Directive 2009/28/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 apply. For general information on statistical concepts and definitions, please see the Energy Statistics Manual.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

3.5. Statistical unit

Statistical unit may vary in the annual energy statistics. A statistical unit in energy statistics can be for example: enterprises, local units, establishment or household.

Reporting units in energy statistics might be: producers, importers, exporters of oil and petroleum products, households.  

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Not available

3.7. Reference area

Annual data series cover the 28 Member States of the European Union. The EU-28 aggregate is also shown.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series are starting from 2004.

As Annex II of Directive 2009/28/EC requires a normalisation for hydro power on 15 year's time horizon. The source data however derived from Regulation (EC) 1099/2008 starts from 1990, thus it is not possible to calculate the share of energy from renewable sources prior to the year 2004.

3.9. Base period

Not available


4. Unit of measure Top

The result indicator is expressed as the percentage. Basic data on energy quantities are in fuel specific units and for the purpose of calculation converted to common energy units (e.g. ktoe).


5. Reference Period Top

Annual statistics refer to the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The annual data collection in the form of the SHARES tool developed by Eurostat is voluntary. Currently all EU Member States provide these data to Eurostat.

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

Commission Decision C(2013) 1082 establishing the guidelines for Member States on calculating renewable energy from heat pumps from different heat pump technologies pursuant to Article 5 of Directive 2009/28/EC.

Template for the progress reports on the share of energy from renewable sources based on Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC. (website of DG Energy)

FAQ document on the Template for the progress reports on the share of energy from renewable sources based on Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC. (website of DG Energy)

Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics.

Council Regulation (CE) No 322/97 of 17 February 1997 (OJ No L 52/1) and Council Regulation (EURATOM, EEC) no 1588/90 of 11 June 1990 on the transmission of the data subject to statistical confidentiality to the Statistical Office of the European Communities (OJ No L 151/ 1).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not available


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data are not shown. The most common approach is to present only aggregation of the confidential data point with the non-confidential data that is the nearest point in the energy balance.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

The precise date of data release is disseminated on Eurostat´s website (select language and release calendar).

8.2. Release calendar access

No particular provisions.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

Europe 2020 strategy: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/europe-2020-indicators/europe-2020-strategy

Energy data - database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

Energy data - main tables: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Data are disseminated on annual basis.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News release yearly (example)

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Energy, transport and environment indicators (pocketbook) - 2014 edition

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurobase data table

Eurobase graph

Eurobase map

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Statistics Explained: Energy from renewable sources

Detailed results in the format of MS Excel files (SHARES tool detailed results)

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Detailed information on the relevant methodology as well as documentation links can be found in the information attributed to the "Energy" data collections. More information about the renewable energy shares calculation methodology and its link to the Eurostat´s annual energy statistics can be found in the SHARES tool manual.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Data is collected through the SHARES tool applying high standards with regard to the methodology and ensuring a high degree of comparability.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Medium

There are some limitations regards a harmonized methodology because data collections systems and reporting is still in an early stage of development in some countries (especially for heat pumps). However, the majority of data elements are based on solid methodology. Comparability over time and across countries is high, limitations in comparability can be attributed only to the limitations of available data.

(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Key policy question:
What is the progress on EU level towards Europe 2020 target for renewable energies?

What is the progress on national level towards national targets defined in Directive 2009/28/EC?

How much has the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increased?

How fast is the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increasing?

Key message:
For an assessment of the progress that has been achieved towards the related key policy question see:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Energy_from_renewable_sources

Rationale:
The indicator measures how extensive is the use of renewable energy and, by implication, the degree to which renewable fuels have substituted fossil and/or nuclear fuels.
In addition the use of renewable energy could improve the security of the energy supply by reducing the dependence on fuel imports. The production of renewable energy may also contribute to rural economic development and provide new income and employment opportunities in rural areas. Deployment of renewable energy sources could also contribute to reducing the GHG emissions from fuel combustion.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available.

12.3. Completeness

See data table [nrg_ind_335a]


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Medium

Data is submitted on the basis of a harmonised system, originating from data harmonised on international level (see for more details metadata on annual energy statistics). The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. In several countries and for most energy commodities data provision by the companies is required by law. However, emerging liberalisation process in some countries may to some extent negatively affect accuracy in some cases. From time to time detailed surveys targeted to single sub- items (e.g. Wood consumption in households) are carried out to improve the methodology.

In some countries statistical systems are not yet fully developed to monitor all energy from renewable sources. This concerns mostly ambient heat captured by heat pumps.

(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

13.2. Sampling error

Not available

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

No legally binding timeliness exists for voluntary data collection. Annual data available approximately 15-18 months after the reference year.

14.2. Punctuality

Not available


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Fully comparable source data due to the use of the joint questionnaire. Eurostat verifies to the extent possible if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however under the responsibility of the Member States. The methodology is harmonized within the European Union. See also 13.1. Overall accuracy.
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology agreed with all EU Member States. In case of methodological changes, historic time series are recalculated to the highest possible extend. Possible breaks in series resulting from the application of agreed methodology are explained in the SHARES tool manual.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Dissemination is maintained on Eurostat's database on an annual basis for the energy statistics on quantities. Very detailed analysis of energy balances at national level provides assurance of consistency of many of the quantitative data included in this dissemination.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the consistency of time series and detection of outliers.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

There is no legally binding data revision policy in place.

17.2. Data revision - practice

In recent years, the use of renewable energies and their real world deployments are dynamic developing in Europe.

Methodology and  data sources for renewables needs to be further developed and implemented, consequently renewables data could be subject of revisions. Reporting countries provide adjustments to previous data which are subsequently treated by Eurostat. Major changes in methodology are undertaken only in case of amendments to the basic legal act (Directive 2009/28/EC).

The annual questionnaires provide data on the last reference year and revisions for the years before (maximum back to 1990). Revisions of entire time series can be made by Member States in case of national specific circumstances.

Data are updated in case an error would be identified, if a Member State transmits more up-to-date figures or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are obtained from the National Administrations competent for Energy Statistics. In Austria, Sweden, Finland, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Malta, Estonia, Slovenia, Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria Turkey and Norway it is the Statistical Office that sends the questionnaires to Eurostat, while for the remaining Member States it is the Ministry responsible for Energy or a National Agency/Authority that is providing the energy data.

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

In the field of energy statistics no specific data collection technique is imposed by Eurostat. It is the responsibility of National Authorities to collect the relevant basic energy data required for filling-in the annual questionnaires and the SHARES tool. Subsequently these data are reported to Eurostat. National data collection methods vary from country to country.

Data in standardised electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

18.4. Data validation

Eurostat carries out quality tests, mainly on the coherency of the provided information: data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency, completeness checks and the plausibility checks.

18.5. Data compilation

For the calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources Eurostat has developed the SHARES tool. The acronym SHARES stands for SHort Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources. The SHARES tool focuses on the harmonised calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources among Member States of the European Union. The detailed manual for the SHARES tool is available on Eurostat website

The SHARES tool is designed to collect and present the information — the energy data — that are needed for calculations as defined in Article 3 (transport target) and Article 5 (overall target) of the Directive. Thus, additional calculations are needed for electricity in order to implement Article 3(4), as well as for heating and cooling as defined in the templates of the progress report on the website of DG Energy.

The foremost advantage of the SHARES tool is that all Member States are supposed to use a common method in order to calculate the needed values. Its application prevents any irregularities from varying parameters and rules used in different calculation methods. For this reason, the SHARES tool approach is deemed to be a more efficient approach than individual estimations or calculations performed by each EU Member State.

The SHARES tool is based on the methodological framework using the information gained through annual statistics on energy as covered under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008. The joint annual energy questionnaires are the necessary prerequisite for the use of the SHARES tool.

Energy data from the above-mentioned questionnaires are linked with several formulas to calculate the various shares. Countries have to provide some additional information which is not covered by Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 (additional information that cannot be derived from the five annual energy questionnaires). Data from the following domains are needed:

- Compliant (sustainable) biofuels and bioliquids

- Heat pumps

- Mixed pumped storage power plants

- Cooperation mechanisms (statistical transfers)

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments of data are performed in a systematic way.


19. Comment Top

Detailed methodology description for this indicators is available in the SHARES tool manual.

Note on national targets of Europe 2020 strategy.


Related metadata Top
nrg_10_esms - Energy statistics - supply, transformation and consumption


Annexes Top
Note on national targets