2008. Labour market situation of migrants (lfso_08)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unit Unit F-3, Labour Market statistics
1.5. Contact mail address 2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 20/06/2014
2.2. Metadata last posted 20/06/2014
2.3. Metadata last update 20/06/2014

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Results from the 2008 LFS (Labour Force Survey) ad hoc module on the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants.

There is high political and scientific interest in comparative information on the labour market situation of migrants. For this reason it was logical to dedicate a LFS AHM to this subject. The aim of the module is to get a comprehensive and comparable set of data on the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants in order to monitor progress towards the common objectives of the European Employment Strategy and of the Social Inclusion Process.

3.2. Classification system

The EU-LFS results are produced in accordance with the relevant international classification systems. The main classifications used are NACE Rev.1 (NACE Rev.1.1 from 2005) and NACE Rev. 2 (from 2008) for economic activity, ISCO 88 (COM) for occupation and ISCED 1997 for the level of education. Actual coding in the EU-LFS may deviate to some extent from those general standards; for more details on classifications, levels of aggregation and transition rules, please consult EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Methodology.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Country of origin

Based on the country of birth of the father and the mother a country of origin is determined. If both parents are born abroad this is the country of birth of the mother. If one of the parents is born abroad it is the country of birth of this parent. If the country of birth of the parents is unknown, country of birth of the person determines origin.

In case of Germany the country of birth of the parents is approximated by the nationality of the parents. In case of the Nordic Countries (DK, FI, SE, and NO) data is collected via registers. As a result data about the country of birth of the parents of persons that migrated before the registers were founded could be missing. This could lead to an underestimation of the number of migrants or descendants of migrants. However since migration was low at that time, it is expected that this underestimation will be limited.

Human Development Index (HDI)

The HDI - human development index - is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Health is measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; and standard of living by GDP per capita (PPP US$). Reference:http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/

Reason for migration

The main reason for migration is measured for persons that have migrated age 15 years or older. It refers to the last migration. This information is collected for a limited number of countries. This is information is not available for The Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania  Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Romania and Bulgaria.

In the graphs and tables the cases with category 'unknown' is excluded. The shares refer to the total of the target population excluding 'unknown'.

Detailed information on the relevant methodology for the ad-hoc module (including the Commission regulation and explanatory notes) as well as to national documentation (national questionnaires and interviewers instructions) can be found on EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

3.5. Statistical unit

The statistical units consist in the individuals living in private households.

3.6. Statistical population

The target group of the module consisted of all persons aged between 15 and 74.

3.7. Reference area

European Union and Euro area + CH, NO. Data for Cyprus refer only to the areas of Cyprus controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. Data for France do not include the overseas departments (DOM).

3.8. Coverage - Time

Differences between countries: second quarter 2008, third quarter 2008 or all four quarters 2008.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top

Number of persons, generally expressed in thousands and distributions in %.

5. Reference Period Top


Detailed information on the relevant methodology for the ad-hoc module can be found on EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

At European level: Commission Regulation (EC) No 384/2005 adopting the programme of ad hoc modules, covering years 2007 to 2009, to the labour force sample survey provided by Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 and Commission regulation (EC) No 102/2007 adopting the specifications of the 2008 ad hoc module on the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants provided for by Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 and amending Regulation (EC) No 246/2003.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

No international agreements for data sharing.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

EU-LFS micro data as received by Eurostat from the national statistical institutes does not contain any administrative information such as names or addresses that would allow direct identification. Access to this micro data is nevertheless strictly controlled and limited to specified Eurostat staff. After data treatment, records are aggregated for all further use.

For more information on publications guidelines and thresholds, please consult: EU-LFS - Data and publications.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

LFS data for ad-hoc modules are released after the end of the reference period once data processing and validation is terminated. This is not scheduled in a release calendar.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Not applicable.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

A evaluation report summarizes the 2008 LFS (Labour Force Survey) ad hoc module on 'the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants'. To access the report, please consult EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or address to ESTAT-LFS-USER-SUPPORT@ec.europa.eu.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

 EU-LFS anonymised microdata are available for research purposes. Please consult access to microdata.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

For a detailed description of methods and concepts used, as well as for other documents related to the EU-LFS, for general information please consult the  EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) webpage. 

The EU-LFS disseminates also publications on the methodology of the survey. For more information please consult: Quality reports and methodological publications.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Please consult the evaluation report at EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The concern for the quality of labour statistics in general and of the Labour Force Survey in particular has been expressed in Regulations, reflected in harmonised definitions and discussed in Working groups (such as the Labour Markey Statistics Working Group and its predecessor the Employment Statistics Working Group), workshops and seminars within the European statistical system.

Concerning the Labour Force Survey, major milestones in the improvement of its quality have been the adoption of Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a continuous, quarterly sample survey in the Community; the adoption of Commission Regulation (EC) No 1897/2000 concerning the operational definition of unemployment and the 12 principles for formulating questions on labour status; the adoption of Regulation (EC) No 1991/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council making the continuous survey mandatory from 2003 onwards (except Italy from 2004 and Germany from 2005) and the adoption of Regulation (EC) No 2257/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council extending the survey characteristics and introducing the distinction between structural and quarterly variables.

Eurostat and the Member States have continuously worked also on a voluntary basis to improve the quality of the Labour Force Survey. Annual quality reports were introduced in 2002 and quarterly accuracy reports were introduced in 2004. Standards and rules for preparing ad hoc modules were adopted in 2004. At the initiative of Member States, a programme of annual LFS workshops was started in 2005.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

The overall quality of LFS statistics is considered as high. LFS surveys are considered as reliable sources applying high standards with regard to the methodology. However, the LFS, like all surveys, is based upon a sample of the population. The results are therefore subject to the usual types of errors associated with random sampling. Based on the sample size and design in the various Member States, Eurostat implements basic guidelines intended to avoid publication of figures that are unreliable or to give warning of the unreliability of the figures.

A Task Force composed of several national experts, policy representatives and Eurostat analyses the outcome of the module.  The results are published in the evaluation report. Please consult EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

A multiannual ad hoc module programme is agreed between Eurostat, the National Statistical Institutes and the main policy users (basically Commission services).

EU-LFS results are used mainly by the DG Employment and a number of other Directorates of the Commission for measurement and monitoring of policy agendas purposes. Key users include NSI's, international organizations, news agencies and researchers which use of various aspects of EU-LFS data for international or intra EU comparisons. Finally, LFS data are used by Eurostat for compiling detailed regional indicators, for estimates on current education and education levels, higher education and research, and for accurate estimates of labour input of national accounts.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not carry out any satisfaction survey targeted at users of labour markets statistics. The relevance of the LFS statistics for the users can thus only be assessed by indirect means. These requests are subject to scrutiny by the national experts and representatives of the NSIs. For major topics of interest, the instrument of ad hoc modules has proven to be useful and flexible. For users other than the Commission, anecdotal evidence for relevance can be found in positive feedbacks from individual users, or even in the absence of complaint. The main institutional users, however, are known to the unit for Labour Market Statistics. Many of them are frequently consulted on various aspects of development and dissemination of labour force statistics.

12.3. Completeness

Even if otherwise adhering to the EU-regulations on the EU-LFS, countries do not always provide data for all the variables. This can be for various reasons, such as assessment that the variable in question is irrelevant to the labour market situation in the country or (temporary) inability to implement the variable in the national questionnaire. Some NSIs implement the full set of questions only in the spring or to a certain survey wave.

For more details please consult the evaluation report at EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The overall accuracy is considered as high. The LFS covers persons aged 15 years and over, living in private households to ensure a comparable coverage for all countries. The sampling designs in the LFS are chosen on a country by country basis (sampling rates vary between 0.3% and 3.3%). Most of the National Statistical Institutes employ multi-staged stratified random sample design, especially those that do not have central population registers available. As the results are based on a sample of population they are subject to the usual types of errors associated with sampling techniques and interviews.

13.2. Sampling error

For the sample size per country please consult the evaluation report at EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

According to Commission Regulation (EC) No 384/2005 of 7 March 2005 on a multi-annual program of ad hoc modules 2007-2009, the deadline for the transmission of results of the AHM 2008 was 31 March 2009. The release of EU-LFS data is not bound by an advance calendar of publication.

14.2. Punctuality

Of the 29 participating countries, 27 delivered the data on time while Switzerland and Norway transmitted the data files a few weeks later. Several countries sent revisions after the initial transmission. Initial validation of the data sets was finished in October 2009. Due to the work of the Task Force a second round of validation was initiated with revised files from some countries transmitted until November 2010.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

For details on comparability please consult the evaluation report at EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) - Ad-hoc modules.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Not applicable.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Other datasets on this topic are not available.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Published estimates stemming from the LFS are considered fully internally coherent, since arithmetic and accounting identities in the production of LFS datasets are observed.

16. Cost and Burden Top

The duration of the extra interview time of the AHM varied from 1 to 8 minutes on average between countries.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

LFS data for ad-hoc modules, once released, are not usually revised, unless major errors are identified in the data delivered or in their processing. Exceptional revisions may happen e.g. after new estimates of population from a population census.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Not applicable.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The source of the data is the European Union Labour Force Survey (EU LFS). The EU LFS is a rotating random sample survey of persons in private households. It is organised in thirteen modules, covering their demographic background, labour status, employment characteristics of the main job, hours worked, employment characteristics of the second job, time-related underemployment, search for employment, education and training, previous work experience of persons not in employment, situation one year before the survey, main labour status, income, and technical items relating to the interview. An additional so-called ad-hoc module can be added to address specific subjects that change from year to year. For details see Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 of 9 March 1998 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community (OJ No L 77/3).

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Data collection is quarterly or annually.

18.3. Data collection

The data is acquired by interviewing the sampled individuals directly. For the sample design and rotation patterns applied in each country, please consult the EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) webpage.

18.4. Data validation

Prior to the dissemination of national data, LFS results are validated by the Member States and checked for plausibility by Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation

EU and Euro area aggregates are calculated on the basis of quarterly population totals. For the data expressed in absolute values for each quarter (i.e. number of persons) no weighting is used - aggregate figures are calculated by adding up all the national data series.

Rates/Ratios are subsequently calculated from the data expressed in absolute values (i.e. number of persons).

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments.

19. Comment Top

No notes.

Related metadata Top
employ_esms - Employment and unemployment (Labour Force Survey)

Annexes Top
EU-LFS - ad hoc modules webpage (additional metadata information)