Recorded offences by offence category - police data (crim_off_cat)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: European Commission - Eurostat


Eurostat metadata
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1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

European Commission - Eurostat

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F4: Income and living conditions; Quality of life

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.F.4: Income and living conditions; Quality of life

L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 21/06/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 21/06/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 21/06/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The figures from 2008 onwards for police-recorded offences are based on the joint Eurostat-UNODC data collection. It is available at country level for European Union Member States, EFTA countries, EU Candidate countries, and EU Potential Candidates.

 The statistics include:

  • Police-recorded offences by crime such as : homicide, assault, kidnapping,sexual violence, rape, sexual assault, robbery, burglary, burglary of private residential premises, theft, theft of a motorized land vehicle and drug crimes.
3.2. Classification system

Crimes are classified by the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS).

Regions are classified by Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS).

Legal status is classified according to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime definitions.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable. 

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

OFFENCES RECORDED BY THE POLICE

Intentional Homicide (country and largest city)
Definition: Unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury. Data on intentional homicide should also include murder, honour killing, serious assault leading to death, death as a result of terrorist activities, dowry-related killings, femicide, infanticide, voluntary manslaughter, extrajudicial killings, killings caused by excessive use of force by law enforcement/state officials. It should exclude death due to legal interventions, justifiable homicide in self-defence, attempted intentional homicide, homicide without the element of intent is non-intentional homicide, non-negligent or involuntary manslaughter, assisting suicide or instigating suicide, illegal feticide, euthanasia.

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Intentional Homicide 

ISO Country Honour
killing
 Serious assault leading to death  Death as a result of terrorist offences  Dowry-related killings  Femicide  Infanticide
BE Belgium : : : : : Included
BG Bulgaria : : : : : Included
CZ Czechia : Included Included : : :
DK Denmark : Excluded Included : : :
DE Germany Included Included Included Included Included Included
EE Estonia : Excluded Excluded : : Excluded
IE Ireland : : : : : :
EL Greece : Excluded : : : :
ES Spain Included Included Included Included Included Included
FR France Included Included Included Included Included Included
HR Croatia Included Included Included Included Excluded Included
IT Italy Included Included : Included Included Included
CY Cyprus Included Included Included Included Included Included
LV Latvia Included Included Excluded Included Included Included
LT Lithuania : : Included : : Included
LU Luxembourg : Included : : : :
HU Hungary : Excluded Excluded : : Included
MT Malta Included Excluded Excluded Included Included Excluded
NL Netherlands Included Included Included Included Included :
AT Austria Included Included Included Included Included Included
PL Poland Included Excluded Excluded Included Included Included
PT Portugal Included Excluded Excluded : : Included
RO Romania : : Excluded : : Included
SI Slovenia : Excluded : : : Excluded
SK Slovakia Included Excluded Included Included Included Included
FI Finland Included Included Included Included Included Included
SE Sweden Included Included Included Included Included Included
IS Iceland Included Excluded Included Included Included Included
LI Liechtenstein  : : : : : :
NO Norway : Excluded Excluded : : :
CH Switzerland  Included Included Included Included Included Included
ME Montenegro : Included Included : : Included
MK North Macedonia : : : : : :
AL Albania Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
RS Serbia Included Included Included Included Included Included
TR Turkey : : : : : :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  : Included Excluded : Excluded Included
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included Excluded Included Included Excluded :
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales : : : : : :
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland : : : : : :
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland : : Included : : Included

 : not applicable/not provided 

 

ISO Country  Voluntary Manslaughter Attempted intentional homicide Non-intentional homicide Non-negligent or involuntary manslaughter Assisting suicide or instigating suicide  Illegal feticide Euthanasia
BE Belgium : Excluded : : : : Excluded
BG Bulgaria Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
CZ Czechia Excluded Included Excluded Included Excluded : :
DK Denmark : Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded : Excluded
DE Germany Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
EE Estonia : : Excluded Excluded : : :
IE Ireland Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded : : :
EL Greece : Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
ES Spain Included Included Included Excluded Included Included Included
FR France Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
HR Croatia Included Included Included Included Excluded Excluded Excluded
IT Italy Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
CY Cyprus Included Included Included Included Included Included Included
LV Latvia Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
LT Lithuania : : : Excluded Excluded : Excluded
LU Luxembourg : Included Excluded Excluded : Excluded Excluded
HU Hungary : Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded :
MT Malta : Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
NL Netherlands Included Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
AT Austria Included Excluded Included Included Included Included Included
PL Poland Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
PT Portugal Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded :
RO Romania Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
SI Slovenia : : Included : Excluded Included :
SK Slovakia Excluded Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded :
FI Finland Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
SE Sweden Included Excluded Included Included Included Excluded Included
IS Iceland Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
LI Liechtenstein  : : : : : : :
NO Norway Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
CH Switzerland  Included Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included
ME Montenegro : Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
MK North Macedonia : : : : : : :
AL Albania Included Excluded Excluded Included Excluded Excluded Included
RS Serbia Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
TR Turkey : : : : : : :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded :
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  : : : : : : :
UKC-L  United Kingdom - England and Wales : : : : :
 UKM  United Kingdom - Scotland : Excluded : :  : : :
 UKN  United Kingdom - Northern Ireland : Excluded : :  :  :

  : not applicable/not provided 

 

ISO Country  Extrajudicial killings  Killings caused by excessive use of force by law enforcement/state officials Death due to legal interventions Justifiable homicide in self-defence
BE Belgium : : : :
BG Bulgaria : Included : Included
CZ Czechia : : : :
DK Denmark : : : :
DE Germany Included Included Included Included
EE Estonia Excluded Included Excluded :
IE Ireland : : : :
EL Greece Included Included Included Included
ES Spain Included Included Excluded Included
FR France Included Included Excluded Included
HR Croatia : : : :
IT Italy Excluded : : Included
CY Cyprus Included Included Included Included
LV Latvia Excluded Included : Excluded
LT Lithuania : : : :
LU Luxembourg : : : :
HU Hungary : : : :
MT Malta Included Included Included Included
NL Netherlands : : : :
AT Austria Included Included Included Included
PL Poland Included Included Excluded Included
PT Portugal : : : :
RO Romania Included Excluded : :
SI Slovenia : : : :
SK Slovakia Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
FI Finland Included Included Excluded Included
SE Sweden Included Included Excluded Excluded
IS Iceland Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
LI Liechtenstein  : : : :
NO Norway : Excluded Excluded Included
CH Switzerland  : : : :
ME Montenegro : : : Excluded
MK North Macedonia : : : :
AL Albania : Included Included Included
RS Serbia : : : :
TR Turkey : : : :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  : : : :
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales : : : :
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland : : : :
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland : : : :

 : not applicable/not provided 

 

Intentional homicide can be registered:  

-at the time the offence is FIRST reported to the police ('INPUT' statistics)

-after the offence is first reported but BEFORE a full investigation ('PROCESS' statistics)

-after the offence has been investigated ('OUTPUT' statistics)

 

The table below shows the stage of the investigation of data on intentional homicide collected for inclusion in offence statistics.

 
ISO Country  Stage of investigation on Intentional Homicide 
BE Belgium INPUT
BG Bulgaria OUTPUT
CZ Czechia OUTPUT
DK Denmark INPUT
DE Germany OUTPUT
EE Estonia PROCESS
IE Ireland INPUT
EL Greece INPUT
ES Spain OUTPUT
FR France INPUT
HR Croatia INPUT
IT Italy INPUT
CY Cyprus INPUT
LV Latvia PROCESS
LT Lithuania INPUT
LU Luxembourg INPUT
HU Hungary OUTPUT
MT Malta INPUT
NL Netherlands INPUT
AT Austria OUTPUT
PL Poland OUTPUT
PT Portugal INPUT
RO Romania OUTPUT
SI Slovenia OUTPUT
SK Slovakia INPUT
FI Finland OUTPUT
SE Sweden PROCESS
IS Iceland INPUT
LI Liechtenstein  :
NO Norway INPUT
CH Switzerland  INPUT
ME Montenegro INPUT
MK North Macedonia :
AL Albania INPUT
RS Serbia INPUT
TR Turkey INPUT
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  OUTPUT
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  INPUT
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales INPUT
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland INPUT
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland INPUT

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries - Intentional homicide 

DE : Source: German Police Crime Statistics (data for Berlin; table 01, keys 010000, 020000, 221000). Included are data on completed acts of murder (sect. 211 Penal Code (PC)), murder (sect. 212 PC), Murder under mitigating circumstances (sect. 213 PC), killing a person at the person's own request (sect. 216 PC), and bodily injury resulting in death (sects. 227, 231 PC); excluded are data on victims of non-intentional homicide (homicide by negligence (sect. 222 PC)), assisting or instigating suicide, illegal feticide and other acts leading to death or intending to cause death, such as, rape/sexual coercion attended by death (sect. 178 PC), sexual abuse of children resulting in death (sect. 176b PC), robbery resulting in death (sect. 251 PC), stalking acc. to sect. 238 (3) PC (resulting in death), arson resulting in death (sect. 306c PC), people smuggling resulting in death (sect. 97 (1) Residence Act) or negligently causing another´s death by handing over, etc. of drugs (sect. 30 (1) no. 3 Narcotics Act)

EE: Includes the number of victims (not offences) according to the mortality statistics

IE: Includes recorded incidents of murder only

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

LU: Assassinations and murders

PL: Completed homicides

RO: Homicide (art.188-189 Penal Code). Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

SK: Attempts included

UKC-L: The data year 2016 include 96 victims of the Hillsborough disaster

CH: Art. 111-113, 116 Swiss  Criminal Code

BA: Federal police, Police of Republika Srpska and Distric Brcko included

 

Attempted intentional Homicide

Definition: Attempt to inflict unlawful death upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury. Data on attempted intentional homicide should also include attempted murder, attempt to inflict death as a result of terrorist activities, attempted infanticide, attempted femicide and exclude conspiracy to procure or commit illegal feticide .

 

Comments by countries - Attempted Intentional homicide

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – keys 010000, 020000, 221010). Included are data on attempted acts of Murder under specific aggravating circumstances (sect. 211 PC), Murder (sect. 212 PC), Murder under mitigating circumstances (sect. 213 PC), killing a person at the person's own request (sect. 216 PC), and bodily injuries resulting in death (sects 227 PC (Offences acc. to sect. 231 PC (participation in a brawl resulting in death) are misdemeanours without legal provision relating to the punish ability of an attempt); excluded are data on cases of attempted acts of non-intentional homicide, assisting or instigating suicide, illegal feticide and other acts leading to death or intending to cause death, as listed under 1.1.1

IE: Includes Attempted Murder only

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year due to the change in data counting rules

LU: Assassinations and murders

AT: Changes from previous version: revised data 2013-2016

UKC-L: All data provided includes corporate manslaughter

CH: Art. 111-113, 116 Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Federal police, Police of Republika Srpska and Distric Brcko included

 

Assault

Definition: Physical attack against the body of another person resulting in serious bodily injury, wounding, aggravated assault, inflicting bodily harm under aggravating circumstances, battery, acid attacks, female genital mutilation, poisoning, assault with a weapon, forced sterilization, taking human blood, organs or tissues by use of violence. Excluding ‘Assault’ leading to death, indecent/sexual assault, threats, torture and slapping/punching.

 

 The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Assault.

ISO Country Serious assault
 leading to death 
Comment Injurious acts
of sexual nature
Comment Serious threat Comment Minor assault Comment
BE Belgium Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
BG Bulgaria Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CZ Czechia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
DK Denmark Excluded   Included   Included   Excluded  
DE Germany Excluded Classification as "11 intentional homicide" acc. to the German correspondence table to ICCS-section 1 Excluded Will be classified acc. to ICCS-section 3 after implementing the German correspondence table (exception sexual offences causing death, which are classified acc. to the German correspondence table to ICCS-section 1 (division 19) Excluded   Excluded  
EE Estonia Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
IE Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
EL Greece Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
ES Spain Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
FR France Excluded They're accounted for with homicides Excluded   Excluded   Excluded All assaults are taken into account if the victim is specifically vulnerable or in the case of domestic violence
HR Croatia Included Article 12 of the Penal Code  Included Chapters 16 and 17 of the Penal Code  Included Article 139 of the Penal Code  Included Article 117 of the Penal Code 
IT Italy Excluded   Included   Excluded   Included Police statistics data  cannot separate the minors assaults from aggravated ones
CY Cyprus Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LV Latvia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LT Lithuania Excluded Serious assault leading to death is registered as homicide Included   Excluded CC RL article 145 Excluded CC RL articles 138, 14
LU Luxembourg :   :   :   :  
HU Hungary Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
MT Malta Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
NL Netherlands Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
AT Austria Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
PL Poland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
PT Portugal Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
RO Romania Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SI Slovenia Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
SK Slovakia Included   Excluded Separate offence Included   Excluded Separate offence
FI Finland Included In most cases police record two offences serious assault and (grossly) negligent homicide Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SE Sweden Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
IS Iceland Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :   :  
NO Norway Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CH Switzerland  Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
ME Montenegro Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :   :  
AL Albania Included   Included   Included   Excluded  
RS Serbia Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
TR Turkey :   :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Excluded   Excluded   Included   Excluded  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Excluded   Included   Included   Included  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries - Assault    

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – key 222000). Included are data on completed and attempted acts of dangerous and serious bodily injury (sects. 224, 226, 231 PC (but not resulting in death)) as well as female genital mutilation (sect. 226a PC); not included are the data on bodily injury resulting in death (sects. 227, 231 PC), mistreatment of persons under offender´s care (sect. 225 PC), slight bodily injury with intent (Sect. 223 PC) and negligent/unintentionally bodily injury (sect. 229 PC). - It is noted that a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 02 has not been implemented in Germany up to now

EE: Penal Code § 118

IE: Includes Assault Causing Harm, Poisoning, FGM

IT:It is not included serious assault

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

MT: Includes cases of Bodily Harm and Domestic Violence (involving Grievous injuries)

RO: The entry into force of the new Criminal Code on 1st February 2014  brought substantial changes to the offences, both in terms of legal content, and in terms of enactment, so that the new regulation of the offence of “Battery or other violence” expands the scope, depending on the number of care days from "more than 20” to "at most 90", overlapping the old regulation which provided the inclusion in the offence of “Bodily harm” for the facts that caused an injury requiring between 20 and 60 days of medical care

SK: §155+ §156

CH: Art. 122 (attempted and accomplished) Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Federal police, Police of Republika Srpska and Distric Brcko included

 

Sexual Violence (Rape and Sexual Assault)

Definition: Unwanted sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or contact or communication with unwanted sexual attention without valid consent or with consent as a result of intimidation, force, fraud, coercion, threat, deception, use of drugs or alcohol, or abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability. It should exclude acts of abuse of a position of vulnerability, power or trust, or use of force or threat of force, for profiting monetarily, socially or politically from the prostitution or sexual acts of a person, coercion, prostitution offences, pornography offences and other acts against public order sexual standards such as incest not amounting to rape and exhibitionism, assaults and threats, slavery and exploitation not amounting to injurious acts of a sexual nature, TiP( trafficking in human beings) for sexual exploitation, harassment and stalking.

In practice sexual violence figures are the sum of rape and sexual assault.

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Sexual Violence .

ISO Country Sexual exploitation Comment Coercion Comment Prostitution offences Comment TiP for sexual expoitation Comment
BE Belgium Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
BG Bulgaria Included   Included   Excluded   Included  
CZ Czechia Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
DK Denmark Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
DE Germany Excluded   Excluded Only data on sexual coercion acc. to sect. 177 PC (in the version valid until 1 Nov. 216) are Included, but not those on coercion acc. to sect. 24 PC Excluded   Excluded  
EE Estonia Included Depends on circumstances Included Depends on circumstances Excluded   Excluded  
IE Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
EL Greece Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
ES Spain Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
FR France Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
HR Croatia Excluded Sexual violence include articles: 153; 153 in connection to 154; 152; 158 paragraphs 1 and 5; 158 paragraphs 1 and 5 in connection to article 166; 159; 156; 155; 158 paragraphs 2 and 6 Excluded   Excluded   Excluded Article 16 Paragraph 1 of the Penal Code 
IT Italy Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CY Cyprus Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
LV Latvia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LT Lithuania Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded CC RL article 147
LU Luxembourg Included   Excluded   Included   Excluded  
HU Hungary Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
MT Malta Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
NL Netherlands Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
AT Austria Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
PL Poland Included   Included   Included   Excluded  
PT Portugal Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
RO Romania Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SI Slovenia Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SK Slovakia Included   Included   Excluded No crime, pimping separate crime Excluded  
FI Finland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SE Sweden Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
IS Iceland Included   Included   Included   Excluded  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :   :  
NO Norway Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CH Switzerland  Excluded   Included Art. 189 Swiss Criminal Code Excluded   Excluded  
ME Montenegro Included   Included   Excluded   Included  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :   :  
AL Albania Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
RS Serbia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
TR Turkey :   :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Included   Included   Included   Included  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included   :  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  

  : not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries - Sexual violence              

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – keys 110000, 130000). Included are data on completed and attempted offences against sexual self-determination with use of violence or exploiting a state of dependence (sects. 174, 174a-c, 177, 178 PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016), as well as sexual abuse acc. to sects. 176, 176a, 176b, 179, 182, 183, 183a PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016; not included are data on exploiting sexual inclinations (sects. 180, 180a, 181a, 184, 184a-f PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016). - The implementation of a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 03 is still being processed in Germany. Until the finalization data on injurious acts of a sexual nature are collected for CTS-purposes according to explanations provided above

DK: The increase from year 2015 to year 2016 must be seen in connection with changes in the police registration practice

EE: Penal Code §§ 141-146

EL: Excludes attempts

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

MT: Includes sexually related offences with the exception of Indecent exposure offences

RO: Chapter VIII – Offenses against sexual freedom and integrity (Rape - art.218 Penal Code , Sexual assault - art.219 Penal Code, Sexual intercourse with a juvenile - art.220 Penal Code, Sexual corruption of juveniles - art.221 Penal Code, Recruitment of juveniles for sexual purposes - art.222 Penal Code, Sexual harassment - art.223 Penal Code). Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

SK: §199+§200, §201-§203

SE: Data refers to reported offences regarding: Rape (including attempted), Sexual coercion, exploitation, abuse etc. Sexual molestation (excluded Indecent exposure)

IS: Includes sexual offences against children, indecent sexual behaviour and prostitution

NO: Compared to previously reported figures, sexual violence now include sexually abusive behaviour (ICCS 030122 and 030129) and more offences for Sexual act

CH: Art. 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 (attempted and accomplished) Swiss Criminal Code

BA:  Police of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Police of Republika Srpska included

 

Rape

Definition: Sexual penetration without valid consent or with consent as a result of intimidation, force, fraud, coercion, threat, deception, use of drugs or alcohol, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of benefits.

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Rape

ISO Country Sexual penetration with physical force Comment Rape without force Comment Statutory rape Comment
BE Belgium Included   Included   Included  
BG Bulgaria Included   Included   Included  
CZ Czechia Included   Included   Excluded  
DK Denmark Included   Included   Included  
DE Germany Included Rape was defined in former sect. 177 (2) no. 1 PC (version valid until 1 Nov. 216 as the basis for the data collection) in the way, that the perpetrator carries out sexual intercourse/cohabitation or similar sexual acts on the victim or let the victim carry out these actions on himself, whereby the victim becomes notable humiliated, especially in cases of penetrating the body Excluded Rape was defined in former sect. 177 (2) no. 1 PC (version valid until 1 Nov. 216 as the basis for the data collection) in the way, that the perpetrator carries out sexual intercourse/cohabitation or similar sexual acts on the victim or let the victim carry out these actions on himself, whereby the victim becomes notable humiliated, especially in cases of penetrating the body Excluded Classified as "sexual assault"
EE Estonia Included   Included   Included  
IE Ireland Included   Included   Excluded  
EL Greece Included   Included   Excluded  
ES Spain Included   Excluded   Included  
FR France Included   Included   Included  
HR Croatia Included Article 153 and 153 in connection to Article 154 Included Article 152 of the Penal Code  Included Article  158 paragraphs 1 and 5; Article  158 paragraphs 1 and 5 in connection to Article 166; Article 159
IT Italy : Rape does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation : Rape does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation : Rape does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation
CY Cyprus Included   Included   Included  
LV Latvia Included   Included   Included  
LT Lithuania Included   Included   Included  
LU Luxembourg Included   Included   Included  
HU Hungary Included   Included   :  
MT Malta Included   Included   Included  
NL Netherlands Included   Included   Included  
AT Austria Included   Included   Included  
PL Poland Included   Included   Excluded  
PT Portugal Included   Included   Excluded  
RO Romania Included   Included   Included  
SI Slovenia Included   Included   Excluded  
SK Slovakia Included   Included   Included  
FI Finland Included   Included   Excluded When victim of a rape is under 16 rape is counted statutory
SE Sweden Included   Included   Included  
IS Iceland Included   Included   Included If rape then Included, if other sexual offences (like sexual harassment) then not included
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :  
NO Norway Included Including making someone having sexual intercourse with another person by threats or violence Included Rape without force includes sexual intercourse by threats, sexual intercourse with children aged 14 years or under, sexual intercourse with a unconscious/sleeping person, making someone doing sexual acts with themselves Included Included for victims under the age of 14, as this is the age limits for the legal definition of rape without force
CH Switzerland  Included   Included   Included  
ME Montenegro Included   Included   Included  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :  
AL Albania Included   Excluded   Excluded  
RS Serbia Included   Included   :  
TR Turkey :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Included   Included   Included  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Included   Included   Included  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Included   Included   Excluded  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Included   Included   Included  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries – Rape

DE: Included are data on completed and attempted acts of rape and sexual coercion according to former sects. 177 (2-4), 178 PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016 (PCS; table 01 – key 111000). The recent revision of the German Penal Code with regard to rape and other sexual offences will only be considered in the subsequent years according to the  implementation of a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 03, which is still being processed in Germany.  So, in the moment section 178 PC it is counted twice. On the one hand section 178 PC is counted in ICCS 0109 as an act leading to death according to the already implemented German Correspondence table to ICCS and on the other hand section 178 PC is counted in ICCS 03011 as rape causing death)

EE: Penal Code § 141

EL: Excludes attempts

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

LU: Only accomplished facts

RO: Rape - art.218 Penal Code. Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office.  Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

SK: §199

SE: Rape is when a person by means of violence, or threat of violence or other "criminal action", forces another person to intercourse or to perform or endure another sexual act that, considering the degree of violation and other circumstances, is comparable to intercourse

UKM: Excludes attempted rape. This is included in sexual assault figures

UKN: Previously excluded attempt offences

NO: From the new definition of rape in the new Norwegian penal code of 2015, all incidents of sexual intercourse with children under the age of 14 years are considered as rape - regardless of use of force. This makes up the increased shown in revised figures for rape

CH: Art. 190 (attempted and accomplished) Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Police of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Police of Republika Srpska included

 

Sexual Assault 

Definition: Sexual violence not amounting to rape. It includes an unwanted sexual act, an attempt to obtain a sexual act, or contact or communication with unwanted sexual attention not amounting to rape. It also includes sexual assault with or without physical contact including drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual assault committed against a marital partner against her/his will, sexual assault against a helpless person, unwanted groping or fondling, harassment and threat of a sexual nature

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Sexual Assault

ISO Country Rape with force Comment Rape without force Comment Non-physical sexual assault (sexual harassment) Comment
BE Belgium Included   Excluded   Excluded  
BG Bulgaria Included   Included   Included  
CZ Czechia Excluded   Excluded   Included  
DK Denmark Excluded   Excluded   Included Offences against public decency
DE Germany Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
EE Estonia Excluded   Excluded   Included Depends on circumstances
IE Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
EL Greece Excluded   Excluded   Included  
ES Spain Excluded   Included   Included  
FR France Excluded   Excluded   Included  
HR Croatia Excluded Article 153 and 153 in connection to Article 154 Excluded Article 152 of the Penal Code  Excluded Article 156 of the Penal Code 
IT Italy : Sexual assault does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation : Sexual assault does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation : Sexual assault does not exist separately from sexual violence in Italian legislation
CY Cyprus Excluded   Excluded   Included  
LV Latvia Excluded   Excluded   Included If it has a threshold of being a crime
LT Lithuania Excluded   Excluded   Included CC RL article 152 
LU Luxembourg Included   Included   Excluded  
HU Hungary Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
MT Malta Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
NL Netherlands Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
AT Austria Included   Included   Excluded  
PL Poland Included   Included   Excluded  
PT Portugal Excluded   Excluded   Included  
RO Romania Excluded   Excluded   Included  
SI Slovenia Included   Included   Included  
SK Slovakia Excluded Separate offence Excluded Different crime no as rape Excluded Unknown crime
FI Finland Excluded   Excluded   Included By definition of Finnish law sexual harassment requires touching
SE Sweden Excluded   Excluded   Included  
IS Iceland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :  
NO Norway Excluded Included in "sexual assault" is attempted rape and sexual act Excluded   Included Included: Sexually abusive behaviour (incl. voyeurism, indecent exposure and the like)
CH Switzerland  Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
ME Montenegro Included   Included   Included  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :  
AL Albania Excluded   Excluded   Included  
RS Serbia Excluded   Excluded   Included  
TR Turkey :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Excluded   Excluded   Included  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries – Sexual assault

DE: Included are data on completed and attempted sexual coercion offences according to sect. 177 (1 and 5) PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016, and sexual abuse offences acc. to sects. 174, 174a-c, 176, 176a, 176b, 179, 182, 183, 183a PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016; excluded are rape and sexual coercion acc. to sects. 177 (2-4), 178 PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016, as well as exploiting sexual inclinations (sects. 180, 180a, 181a, 184, 184a-f PC in the version valid until 10 Nov. 2016).  (PCS; table 01 – keys 112000, 113000, 130000). The recent revision of the German Penal Code with regard to rape and other sexual offences will only be considered in the subsequent years according to the  implementation of a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 03, which is still being processed in Germany

EE: Penal Code §§ 142-146

AT: Law changed for data reported in 2016. That explains the significant change compare to previous years 

IE: All other sexual assault, where definition includes attempted rape

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

RO: The data regarding “Sexual assault” reported during the 2008-2014 comprises the data cumulated of the offences regarding sexual violence criminalized in the old Criminal Code (art. 198 Statutory rape, art. 199 Grooming, art. 201 Sexual perversion, art. 202 Sexual corruption, art. 203 Incest, art. 203^1 Sexual harassment), except ”Rape” (art. 197 of the old Criminal Code), reported separately.The offence of “Sexual assault” (art. 219 and art.223 of the Criminal Code) was criminalized during the year 2014, the date of entry into force of the new Criminal Code, therefore the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police has reported the complete data starting with 2015. The data for 2015-2017 represent the number of offences for “Sexual assault”. 

SK: §200

SE:  Sexual coercion, exploitation, abuse etc. , sexual molestation (excluded Indecent exposure)

UKM: Includes attempted rape

UKN: Previously included all sexual offences excluding rape

NO: Included : Attempted rape, Sexual act and Sexually abusive behaviour

CH: Art. 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193 (attempted and accomplished) Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Police of Republika Srpska included only

 

Robbery 

Definition: Theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or threat of force. Where possible, the category “Robbery” should include muggings (bag-snatching) and theft with violence, but should exclude pick pocketing and extortion.

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Robbery

 

ISO Country Robbery of a car or vehicle Comment Robbery of an establishment Comment Theft without violence Comment Burglary without violence against the person Comment
BE Belgium Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
BG Bulgaria Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
CZ Czechia Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
DK Denmark Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
DE Germany Included Not included are thefts of cars or vehicles Included   Excluded   Excluded  
EE Estonia Excluded If no violence was used Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
IE Ireland Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
EL Greece Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
ES Spain Included Only the crimes which are executed with violence Included Only the crimes which are executed with violence Excluded   Excluded  
FR France Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
HR Croatia Included Article 23 Paragraph 1 (vehicles cannot be separated) Included   Excluded   Excluded Article 229 Paragraph 1, items 1, 2 and 3 of the Penal Code
IT Italy Included   Included   Excluded  If there is  violence on the person in the dynamic of the theft is considered a robbery Excluded If there is  violence on the person in the dynamic of the burglary is considered a robbery
CY Cyprus Excluded   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
LV Latvia Included   Included   Excluded Robbery is Included as a theft related to violence or threatened violence. : Robbery is included as a theft related to violence or threatened violence.
LT Lithuania Included   Included   Excluded CC RL article 178  Excluded CC RL article 178
LU Luxembourg Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
HU Hungary Included   Included   Included   Included  
MT Malta Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included Cases of Snatch and Grab.
NL Netherlands Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
AT Austria Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
PL Poland Included   Included   Included   Excluded  
PT Portugal Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
RO Romania Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
SI Slovenia Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
SK Slovakia Excluded Robbery is crime against person only Excluded Robbery is crime against person only Excluded Robbery is crime against person only Excluded Robbery is crime against person only
FI Finland Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
SE Sweden Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
IS Iceland Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :   :  
NO Norway Included   Included   Included Theft/robbery without violence is here limited to robbery with threats Excluded  
CH Switzerland  Included   Included   Included Yes, but only  if the theft has been committed under threat of violence Excluded  
ME Montenegro Included   Included   Included   Included  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :   :  
AL Albania Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
RS Serbia Included   Included   Included   Included  
TR Turkey :   :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Included   Included   Excluded   Excluded  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries – Robbery

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – key 210000). Included are data on completed and attempted acts of robbery, extortion accompanied by violence, and assault on motorists with intent to rob (sects. 249-252, 255, 316a PC); not included are extortionate kidnapping or hostage taking (sect. 239a-b PC) in connection with robberies as well as extortion (sect. 253 PC) and pick pocketing (if there is no use of force or threat of immediate danger to life or limb for offences acc. to sects. 249-251 PC).- It is noted that a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 04 has not been implemented in Germany up to now. Data include cases of robbery resulting in death (2013: 7, 2014: 2, 2015: 1, 2016: 0)

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

MT: Includes cases of Armed robbery, Mugging and Snatch & Grab

RO: Robbery (art.233, art.234, art.236 Penal Code). Offences solved by the police /declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

SK: §188

FI: Previous year included Preparation of aggravated robbery, in 2016 data has been removed

SE: Bag-snatching without use of threat or violence is not included

CH: Attempted and accomplished acts Art. 140 Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Federal police, Police of Republika Srpska and Distric Brcko included

 

Kidnapping 

Definition: Unlawfully detaining a person or persons against their will (including through the use of force, threat, fraud or enticement) for the purpose of demanding for their liberation an illicit gain or any other economic gain or other material benefit, or in order to oblige someone to do or not to do something. “Kidnapping” excludes disputes over child custody,abduction of a minor, TIP, illegal adoption, taking a hostage.

 

The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Kidnapping 

ISO Country Abduction
 of a minor
Comment Trafficking in Persons Comment Illegal
adoption
Comment Taking a
 hostage
Comment
BE Belgium Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
BG Bulgaria Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CZ Czechia Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
DK Denmark :   :   :   :  
DE Germany Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
EE Estonia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included Probably
IE Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
EL Greece Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
ES Spain Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included It also excludes those who violently seize an aircraft, vessel or other type of vessel or platform at sea, which will be considered as piracy. Another fact that is not included is the use of hostages as "human shields" in a warlike conflict
FR France Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
HR Croatia Excluded Article 174 of the Penal Code  Excluded Article 16 of the Penal Code  Excluded Article 16 Paragraph 2 of the Penal Code  Excluded Article 97 Paragraph 1 Item 3 of the Penal Code 
IT Italy Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
CY Cyprus Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LV Latvia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LT Lithuania Excluded   Excluded CC RL article 147 Excluded CC RL article 156  Excluded CC RL article 252 
LU Luxembourg Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
HU Hungary Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
MT Malta Excluded The elements of this offence falls under illegal/unlawful arrest in Malta Excluded The elements of this offence falls under illegal/unlawful arrest in Malta Excluded The elements of this offence falls under illegal/unlawful arrest in Malta Excluded The elements of this offence falls under illegal/unlawful arrest in Malta
NL Netherlands Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
AT Austria Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
PL Poland : A breakdown of data according to criteria specified in this section is not possible : A breakdown of data according to criteria specified in this section is not possible : A breakdown of data according to criteria specified in this section is not possible : A breakdown of data according to criteria specified in this section is not possible
PT Portugal Included   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
RO Romania Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SI Slovenia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
SK Slovakia Included Kidnapping of minor only, kidnapping of adult is different article  Excluded Separate offence Excluded No crime Excluded Separate offence
FI Finland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Included  
SE Sweden :   :   :   :  
IS Iceland :   :   :   :  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :   :  
NO Norway :   :   :   :  
CH Switzerland  Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
ME Montenegro Included   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :   :  
AL Albania Excluded Article 19, 19/a of Criminal Code Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
RS Serbia Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
TR Turkey :   :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Excluded   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Included   Excluded   : Inclusion dependent on interpretation of crime as a kidnapping  Included  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Included Includes disputes over child custody Excluded   Excluded   Included  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded   :  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries –Kidnapping   

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – keys 231100, 232100, 233000). Included are data on completed and attempted acts of kidnapping (sect. 234 PC), deprivation of liberty (sect. 239 PC) and extortionate kidnapping (sect. 239a PC); excluded are data on a. o. hostage taking (sect. 239b PC), child abduction (under 18 years) (sect. 235 PC), trafficking in children (sect. 236 PC), trafficking in human beings with intent to exploit prostitution or manpower (sects. 232, 233 PC) and encouraging trafficking in human beings (sect. 233a PC). - It is noted that a national correspondence table to the ICCS-section 02 has not been implemented in Germany up to now

EE: Penal Code § 135

IE: Includes False Imprisonment only. Excludes Abduction of Person under 16 and Human Trafficking offences

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

LU: Tentative are included

PL: A breakdown of data according to criteria specified in this section is not possible

RO: Illegal deprivation of freedom (art.205 Penal Code). Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

SK: §182+ §183

SE: Only available with much wider definition, not comparable with this definition

UKM: Crimes of abduction. This can include disputes over custody

CH: Art. 184  (attempted and accomplished) Swiss Criminal Code

BA: Police of Republika Srpska included only

 

Theft 

Definition: Unlawfully taking or obtaining of property with the intent to permanently withhold it from a person or organization without consent and without the use of force, threat of force or violence, coercion or deception.“Theft” excludes burglary, housebreaking and robbery, which are recorded separately. Excludes possession of stolen goods or money; receiving, handling, disposing, selling or trafficking stolen goods; using stolen parts for producing other goods; concealment of stolen goods, obtaining money or other benefit or evading a liability through deceit or dishonest conduct,robbery, property damage , theft after unauthorized access to premises, theft of intellectual property, identity theft.“Theft” excludes burglary, housebreaking and robbery, which are recorded separately.

 

 The tables below shows if offences are included / excluded in the data provided for Theft 

ISO Country Burglary/breaking and entering Comment Theft with force or the threat of force (robbery) Comment Theft of a motorized land vehicle Comment
BE Belgium Excluded   Included   Included  
BG Bulgaria Included   Excluded   Excluded  
CZ Czechia Included   Excluded   Included  
DK Denmark Excluded   Excluded   Included  
DE Germany Excluded   Excluded   Included Included only in cases of simple theft, but not in cases of serious theft (under aggravating circumstances)
EE Estonia Included   Excluded   Included  
IE Ireland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
EL Greece Included   Excluded   Included  
ES Spain Included   Excluded   Included  
FR France Excluded   Excluded   Included  
HR Croatia Included Article 229 Paragraph 1, items 1, 2 and 3 of the Penal Code Included Articles 23 and 231 of the Penal Code Included Article 229 Paragraph 1, items 1, 2 and 3 of the Penal Code
IT Italy Included   Excluded   Included  
CY Cyprus Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
LV Latvia Excluded   Excluded   Included  
LT Lithuania Included   Excluded   Included  
LU Luxembourg Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
HU Hungary Included   Excluded   Included  
MT Malta Included   Included   Included  
NL Netherlands Excluded   Excluded   Included  
AT Austria Excluded   Excluded   Included  
PL Poland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
PT Portugal Excluded   Excluded   Included  
RO Romania Included   Excluded   Included  
SI Slovenia Excluded   Excluded   Included  
SK Slovakia Included   Excluded Robbery can be against person only, burglary is theft with violence from house Included  
FI Finland Excluded Breaking and entering to vehicle (car etc.) Included Excluded   Included  
SE Sweden Excluded   Excluded   Included  
IS Iceland Excluded   Excluded   Included  
LI Liechtenstein  :   :   :  
NO Norway Excluded   Excluded   Included  
CH Switzerland  Excluded   Excluded   Included  
ME Montenegro Excluded   Excluded   Included  
MK North Macedonia :   :   :  
AL Albania Included   Excluded   Included  
RS Serbia Included   Included   Included  
TR Turkey :   :   :  
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  Included   Included   Excluded  
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  Included   Included   Included  
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales Included   Included   Included  
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland Excluded   Excluded   Excluded  
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland Included   Excluded   Included  

: not applicable/not provided 

 

Comments by countries – Theft               

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – key 3***00). Included are data on all types of completed and attempted acts of theft without aggravating circumstances acc. to sects. 242, 247, 248a-c PC, namely various forms of simple thefts, such as those of motor vehicles, mopeds, motorbikes and bicycles (each incl. unauthorized use, but without theft under aggravating circumstances), those from the exterior/interior of a/m vehicles, simple theft in/from banks, post offices, and the like, simple thefts in/from duty, manufacturing, workshops and storage premises, simple thefts in/from restaurants, canteens, hotels and boarding houses, simple thefts in/from kiosks, department stores, sales rooms, self-service shops, etc., simple thefts in/from dwellings, in/from attics, basements, laundry rooms, predominantly unoccupied new or unfinished buildings, pharmacies, doctor´s practices, hospitals, etc., as well as simple pickpocketing

EL: The sources of data are:The Hellenic Police (Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reconstruction) and The Hellenic Coast Guard (Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Insular Policy)

AT: Law changed for data reported in 2016. That explains the significant change compare to previous years 

CY: Theft of motorized vehicle is not included

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years.

LT: All criminal offences (crimes and misdemeanours). Also included Burglary (05011, 05013 and 05019). Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year.

RO: Theft (art.228, art.229, art.230 Penal code). Total offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

CH: Attempted and accomplished acts

BA: From the Police of Federation and Republika of Srpska

 

Theft of a Motorised Land Vehicle 

Definition: Removal of a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner of the vehicle. Motor vehicles include all land vehicles with an engine that run on the road, such as cars, motorcycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles. Exclude robbery of a car or vehicle

 

Comments by countries –Theft of a Motorised Land Vehicle 

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – keys 3**100, 3**200, 4**100, 4**200) Included are data on completed and attempted acts of simple theft and theft under aggravating circumstances of motor vehicles, mopeds and motorbikes including their unauthorized use (sects. 242-244a, 248b PC); not included are e. g. obtaining motor vehicles by fraud (sect. 263 PC), misappropriation of motor vehicles (sects. 246, 247 PC), feigning a theft of a motor vehicle (sect. 145d PC) and receiving stolen motor vehicles (sects. 259-260a PC)

EE: Data include unauthorised use

AT: Law changed for data reported in 2016. That explains the significant change compare to previous years 

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

RO: As a result of the entry into force of the new Penal Code on 1st February 2014, the punishment for the offence of theft was reduced (Articles 228, 229, 230 in the Penal Code), thus the limitation period of criminal liability was also reduced, so that many criminal cases were solved by classification, following the prescription.Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

FI: Includes joyriding, previous numbers didn't include

CH: Attempted and accomplished acts

BA: From the Police of Federation and Republika of Srpska

CZ: Until 2013 only stolen motorized vehicles as whole were counted, since 2013 are also counted stolen parts and components of a motorized vehicles

 

Burglary

Definition: Gaining unauthorised access to a part of building/dwelling or other premises, including by use of force, with the intent to steal goods (breaking and entering). “Burglary” should include, where possible, theft from a house, apartment or other dwelling place, factory, shop or office, from a military establishment, or by using false keys. It should exclude theft from a car, from a container, from a vending machine, from a parking meter and from fenced meadow/compound.

 

Comments by countries –Burglary

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS table 01 – keys 405*00, 410*00, 415*00, 425*00, 435*00, 440*00, 445*00). Included are data on completed and attempted offences of theft committed under aggravating circumstances in/from banks, savings banks, post offices (and the like), offices, manufacturing, workshops, storage premises, restaurants, bars, canteens, hotels, boarding houses, kiosks, department stores, sales rooms, self-service stores, store windows, showcases/display cases, attics, basements, laundry rooms, predominantly unoccupied new or unfinished buildings, construction sites and site huts (sects. 244 (1) no. 1 and 2, 244a PC), as well as theft by burglary of a dwelling (sect. 244 (1) no. 3 PC); not included are all other types of theft committed under aggravating circumstances not mentioned above, a. o. theft committed under aggravating circumstances according to sects. 244 (1) no. 1 and 2, 244a PC from the exterior/interior of motor vehicles, of narcotics from pharmacies , doctors' practices, hospitals, manufacturers and wholesale dealers, and of prescription forms to procure narcotics. The data on burglary may have inaccuracies which have to be accepted until the implementation of a national correspondence table to ICCS-section 05 (division 0501)

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT: Includes only data by category "Burglary of private residential premises (05012). Data are not classified  by separate categories: 05011, 05013 and 05019.  These data are included in category  Theft (0502)

AT: Law changed for data reported in 2016. That explains the significant change compare to previous years 

RO: Theft (art.228, art.229, art.230 Penal code) from housing and commercial companies. Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

FI: Theft from vehicle through unlawful entering excluded

UKM: Housebreaking category

NO: Due to changes in penal law and police codes, figures on burglary with intent to commit theft cannot be stated

CH: Attempted and accomplished acts

BA: From the Police of Federation and Republika of Srpska

 

Burglary of Private Residential Premises (Domestic Burglary) 
Definition: Burglary of a house, apartment or other dwelling place.

 

Comments by countries –Burglary of Private Residential Premises 

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – key 3***00). Included are data on theft by burglary of a dwelling acc. to sect. 244 (1) no. 3 PC.

EE: Included in the number of thefts

EL: Reported data for the previous years do not correspond to the data reported from Greece for those years

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

LT : Following the change in the data counting rules, data on criminal offences recorded in 2016 are not comparable with those for the respective period of the previous year

RO: The values for the previous years (2013 - 2015) are displaced / offset by one year. 15292 represents the number of offences in 2012, 15085 represents the number of offences in 2013 and 25592 represents the number of offences in 2014. In 2015, 15115 offences were for burglary of private residential premises. Offences solved by the police / declined to the Prosecutor's Office. Source: General Inspectorate of Romanian Police within the Ministry of Internal Affairs

IS: Information regarding type of housing missing in 120 offences

NO: Due to changes in penal law and police codes, figures on burglary with intent to commit theft cannot be stated

CH: Attempted and accomplished acts

 

Unlawful Acts Involving Controlled Drugs or Precursors

Definition: Unlawful handling, possession, purchase, use, trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors for personal consumption and for non-personal consumption.Illegal possession, cultivation, production, supplying, transportation, importing, exporting, financing etc. of drug operations which are not solely in connection with personal use. Exclusions: Operating a vehicle under the influence of psychoactive substances, causing death by driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

 

 Comments by countries –Unlawful Acts Involving Controlled Drugs or Precursors 

AT: From year 2008-2012 have used the definition for ICCS 06011(Unlawful possession, purchase, use, cultivation or production of controlled drugs for personal consumption), from 2013-2016 the definition correspond ICCS 0601

FR: From year 2008-2015 data correspond with ICCS 06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption), from 2016-2017 the definition correspond ICCS 0601

IE: The all-time series data correspond with ICCS 06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption)

UKC-L: The all-time series data correspond with ICCS 06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption)

UKN: The all-time series data correspond with ICCS 06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption)

BA: Year 2016 break in series corresponds with ICCS 0601

HR: Break in series in 2013-2016 corresponds with ICCS 06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption)

LV: Data for year 2016 compiled according to ICCS, therefore data is not comparable with previous years

SK: From year 2008-2012 have used the definition according to ICCS06012 (Unlawful trafficking, cultivation or production of controlled drugs or precursors not for personal consumption), from 2013-2016 the definition correspond ICCS 0601

DE: Source: German Police Crime Statistics (PCS; table 01 – key 730000). Included are data on completed and attempted drug offences acc. to the Narcotics Control Act (NCA), such as general violations (so called “consumer-oriented offences”) under sect. 29 NCA, unauthorized trafficking in, and smuggling of drugs under sect. 29 NCA, unauthorized importation of (significant amounts of) drugs (sect. 30 (1) no. 4 NCA) and other violations of the NCA, specifically unauthorized cultivation of drugs under sect. 29 (1) no. 1 NCA, cultivation of/production of/trafficking in drugs as a member of a gang (sects. 30 (1) no. 1, 30a NCA), making available funds or other assets (sect. 29 (1) no. 13 NCA), advertising drugs (sect. 29 (1) no. 8 NCA), dispensing, administering, or making available drugs to minors (sect. 29a (1) no. 1; where appropriate sect. 30 (1) no. 2 NCA), negligently causing another´s death by handing over, etc. of drugs (sect. 30 (1) no. 3 NCA (even if this is an act leading to death or intending to cause death acc. to. ICCS-section 01, division 0109), unauthorized prescription and administration by physicians (sect. 29 (1) no. 6 NCA, and unauthorized trafficking, production of, dispensing, and possession of (not insignificant amounts) of drugs (sect. 29a (1) no. 2 NCA); excluded are data on offences directly aimed at procuring drugs or substitutes, such as robbery committed to obtain narcotics, simple theft of narcotics from pharmacies, doctors´ practices, hospitals, manufacturers and wholesale dealers, simple theft of prescription forms to procure narcotics and forgery committed to obtain narcotics. Data refer to those of the German annual drug report

 

 

3.5. Statistical unit

There are three different statistical units:

  • Offence: reported criminal act
  • Case: criminal trial, and other types of court hearings
  • People, depending on the stype of statistics: employees, victims, offenders, suspects, prosecuted, convicted, prisoners

For police data the statistical unit is offence.

3.6. Statistical population

For administrative data, the statistical population for each statistic is the complete register (all the relevant records). The group of individuals depends on the type of unit (see 3.5).

For people, all ages and nationalities are usually counted.

3.7. Reference area

European Union Member States, EFTA countries Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, EU Candidate countries Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Turkey, Serbia, and the EU Potential Candidate countries Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.

Certain territories are excluded and more details are provided in metadata attached to Crime and Criminal Justice (crim)databse section 10.6

England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) are different territories of jurisdiction for criminal law, and separate figures are presented.

3.8. Coverage - Time

The current tables are available  from 2008 onwards.

3.9. Base period

Publications 2008 – 2015 used 2008 as base year.


4. Unit of measure Top
  • Absolute number.
  • Rate by 100.000 population size.

 Population size defined as resident population January 1st according to Eurostat database population figures.


5. Reference Period Top

Crime offences - the standard reference period is the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The 2004 Hague Programme November: Strengthening freedom, justice and security in the European Union.

The Hague Programme, OJ C 53 of 3.3.2005, p.11 at

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52005XG0303(01)

 

The 2009 Stockholm Programme: An open and secure Europe serving and protecting citizens.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:115:SOM:EN:HTML

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

In general, data are released approximately 18 months after the reference year.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Ad hoc news releases 2-3 times per year.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

"Crime and Criminal Justice" - Statistics Explained  published May 2017

 Publication Crime section - http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/crime/publications

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Tables are available on-line in Eurostat webpage  Crime Database  and are updated annually. 

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Statistics Explained articles.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Each country determines the methodology and is responsible for its documentation and  which authority or statistical office that should collect, check, and send data and documentation.

Geographical coverage 
Methodological rules – Stage of data collection 
Methodological rules – Counting unit 
Methodological rules – Counting rule for multiple (serial) offences of the same type (Police)
Methodological rules – Counting rule for when an offence is committed by more than one person
(Police)
Methodological rules – Use of Principal Offence Rule
Methodological rules – Counting of persons for multiple (serial) offences of the same type
Methodological rules – Counting the same person multiple times in the same year
Methodological rules – Adult and juvenile age thresholds

  • EU guidelines for the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes — 2017 edition  This booklet presents the structure of the ICCS, its classification principles and its relations to existing classifications, to facilitate the implementation of the ICCS. It provides a brief overview of concrete organizational and technical tasks for a successful implementation of the ICCS at the national level, which should engage all crime data users and data providers. In addition, an implementation strategy through the creation of a correspondence table, a tabulation of all offence categories in the ICCS linked to all offences on the national level, is briefly described.
  • Monitoring EU crime policies using the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) This publication is the second in a series of Eurostat booklets to support the implementation of the ICCS, with the first booklet providing general remarks, a roadmap for the implementation as well as translations of ICCS category titles in all official EU languages. The overall purpose of this second booklet is to describe how the specific criminal offences defined in the legislation passed at EU level should be mapped to the ICCS. For these offences, a common approach towards the alignment with the ICCS needs to be developed, where possible, to ensure that all EU Member States treat these offences consistently when applying the ICCS at national level. 

 

Each country determines the methodology and is responsible for its documentation and determine which authority or statistical office that should collect, check, and send data and documentation.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not applicable.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Data are provided to Eurostat by a contact designated by each country. Notably, this contact can be another authority than the national statistical office. Each country determine its own procedures for gathering data from several different authorities (see metadata attached to Crime and Criminal Justice (crim) database point 10.6 ).

11.2. Quality management - assessment

No assessment has been made.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The need to provide information on the development of crime in the European Union was recognised in the Hague Programme adopted by the European Council in 2004.

Some EU institutional users communicate statistical needs to Eurostat on a regular basis.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user satisfaction survey has been done .

12.3. Completeness

Data is missing for some countries, for some or all years, in nearly all tables, for all types of statistics.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Principally, police statistics indicates the registration and handling of cases by police.

Relative to the administrative data used, the accuracy is largely unknown.

Relative to total crime occurrence, it is generally considered that administrative crime statistics is less accurate.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable - data are from administrative records.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Data from administrative records are likely to contain some random errors (mistakes) as well as systematic errors (bias).


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

 Data for the reference year 2017 was published in June 2019.

14.2. Punctuality

No delay in 2019.  


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Comparability is affected by many factors, such as differences in:

  • Legal system and criminal justice system
  • Legislation, criminal law and legal definitions
  • Organisation and efficiency of police, prosecution, courts and prisons
  • Recording stage, input-,  process- or output data
  • Recording system, reporting system, and production system
  • Relation between national crime definition and international statistical definition
  • Statistical unit and statistical population
  • Statistical definition, reference time, counting methods and calculation methods
  • Reporting rate for the crime
15.2. Comparability - over time

See the list of factors in 15.1. Changes in any of the factors can affect the comparability over time.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not examined.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The internal coherence of the data is checked with basic validation rules (see section 18.4. Data validation). Figures for categories may not add up to the total, because information for some categories is missing.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not estimated.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Revisions to the data are possible at any time, but only based on new data received from national contact.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Revisions are incorporated into the database after being confirmed by national contact.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data source:police.

The source data type is records in administrative registers.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

Since their data requests largely overlap, Eurostat cooperates with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.  Eurostat forward the United Nations request (Survey on Crime Trends), with the addition of the European Union request, to EU Member States, EFTA Countries, EU Candidate Countries, and EU Potential Candidates. In each country, figures from different authorities are collected into one file. The files are sent to Eurostat by a common procedure, the electronic Data file Administration and Management Information System.

18.4. Data validation

The data are checked for completeness, internal consistency, and consistency over time and coherence with other relevant data sources. For internal consistency the following are checked:

- The sum of the subtotals (e.g. men and women) to the total.

- Large revisions (new figures for earlier years)

- Large variation between years

- Large change from previous to current reference year- Inconsistencies between data and metadata

Any issue revealed by the checking is pointed out to the national contact, by email. The national contact may either confirm the validity of data or send new data. No editing, estimation, imputation, weighting, seasonal adjustment, or other statistical modifications are carried out by Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation

EU totals are not published in the database.

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments are made.


19. Comment Top

None.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top