Crime and criminal justice (crim)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: European Commission - Eurostat


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

European Commission - Eurostat

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F4: Income and living conditions; Quality of life

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.F.4: Income and living conditions; Quality of life

L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 01/10/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 01/10/2018
2.3. Metadata last update 01/10/2018


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

For crime and criminal justice there are several different types of statistics from different sources: police, prosecution, courts, prisons. The figures from 2008 onwards are based on the joint Eurostat-UNODC data collection. It is available at country level for European Union Member States, EFTA countries, EU Candidate countries, and EU Potential Candidates.

 

From 2008 onwards, the statistics include:

  • Police-recorded offences by crime, such as homicide, assault, sexual violence, robbery, burglary, theft, drug crimes.
  • Homicide victims by age, gender, and relationship to offender.
  • Offenders by justice process stage: suspected, prosecuted, convicted; and by age and gender.
  • Personnel by institution: police, prosecution, courts, and prisons; and by gender.
  • Legal cases by type: criminal, civil, commercial, administrative.
  • Legal cases by stage: brought to court, resolved, and pending.
  • Prisoners by age, gender, and citizenship.
  • Prison capacity and occupancy.

 

For the period 1993 – 2007:

  • Number of police-recorded crimes by type:
    homicide, violence, robbery, home burglary, car thefts, and drug crimes.

For the period 1950 – 2000:

  • Total number of police-recorded crimes.
3.2. Classification system

Crimes are classified by the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS).

Regions are classified by Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS).

Legal status is classified according to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime definitions.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Each country is asked to provide details of any divergence from standard definition.

This information is found in the metadata files correspond to database table section 3.4 Recorded offences by offence category - police data (crim_off_cat) Persons in the criminal justice system (crim_just) and Court processes (crim_crt).

3.5. Statistical unit

There are three different statistical units:

  • Offence: reported criminal act
  • Case: criminal trial, and other types of court hearings
  • People, depending on the stype of statistics: employees, victims, offenders, suspects, prosecuted, convicted, prisoners

 

The following list shows the statistical unit for each database table:

 

Label

Code

Unit

Recorded offences by offence category - police data

crim_off_cat 

offence

Intentional homicide and sexual offences by legal status and sex of the person involved - number and rate for the relevant sex group

crim_hom_soff 

people

Intentional homicide victims by victim-offender relationship and sex - number and rate for the relevant sex group

crim_hom_vrel 

people

Intentional homicide victims by age and sex - number and rate for the relevant sex and age groups

crim_hom_vage 

people

Intentional homicide victims in largest cities by sex

crim_hom_vcit 

people

Intentional homicide offences in largest cities

crim_hom_ocit 

offence

Suspects and offenders by sex - number and rate for the relevant sex group

crim_just_sex 

people

Suspects and offenders by age - number and rate for the relevant age group

crim_just_age 

people

Suspects and offenders by citizenship

crim_just_ctz 

people

Personnel in the criminal justice system by sex - number and rate for the relevant sex group

crim_just_job 

people

Legal cases processed in first instance courts by legal status of the court process

crim_crt_case 

case

Persons brought before criminal courts by legal status of the court process

crim_crt_per 

people

Prisoners by offence category and sex - number and rate for the relevant sex group

crim_pris_off 

people

Prison capacity and number of persons held

crim_pris_cap 

people

Prisoners by age and sex - number and rate for the relevant sex and age groups

crim_pris_age 

people

Prisoners by citizenship

crim_pris_ctz 

people

Prisoners by legal status of the trial process

crim_pris_tri 

people

Crimes recorded by the police by by offence category

crim_gen 

offence

Crimes recorded by the police by NUTS 3 regions

crim_gen_reg 

offence

Crimes recorded by the police: homicide in cities

crim_hom_city 

offence

Crimes recorded by the police

crim_hist 

offence

Police officers

crim_plce 

people

Prison population

crim_pris_pop

people

3.6. Statistical population

For administrative data, the statistical population for each statistic is the complete register (all the relevant records). The group of individuals depends on the type of unit (see 3.5).

For people, all ages and nationalities are usually counted.

3.7. Reference area

European Union Member States, EFTA countries Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, EU Candidate countries Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Turkey, Serbia, and the EU Potential Candidate countries Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.

Certain territories are excluded and more details are provided in 10.6

 

England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) are different territories of jurisdiction for criminal law, and separate figures are presented.

3.8. Coverage - Time

The current tables are available  from 2008 onwards.

Before 2008:

Total crime are available from 1950 for Denmark, Germany, Estonia, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Finland, England and Wales; from 1980 for most other countries.

Selected offences - are available from 1993.

Police officers - are available from 1993.

Prison population - are available from 1987.

3.9. Base period

Publications 2008 – 2015 used 2008 as base year.


4. Unit of measure Top
  • Absolute number.
  • Rate by 100.000 population size.

 Population size defined as resident population January 1st according to Eurostat database population figures.

  Publications 2008 – 2015 used a simple index (100*yt/y0)


5. Reference Period Top

Crime offences - the standard reference period is the calendar year.

Criminal Justice Personnel – the standard reference date is 31 December.

Prison figures - the reference date in a given year differs across jurisdictions.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The 2004 Hague Programme November: Strengthening freedom, justice and security in the European Union.

The Hague Programme, OJ C 53 of 3.3.2005, p.11 at

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52005XG0303(01)

 

The 2009 Stockholm Programme: An open and secure Europe serving and protecting citizens.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:115:SOM:EN:HTML

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

In general, data are released approximately 18 months after the reference year.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Ad hoc news releases 2-3 times per year.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

"Crime and Criminal Justice" - Statistics Explained  published July 2018.

 Publication Crime section - http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/crime/publications.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Tables are available on-line in Eurostat webpage  Crime Database  and are updated annually. 

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Statistics Explained articles.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Each country determines the methodology and is responsible for its documentation. Data are produced by official authorities such as the police, prosecution, court administration, the ministry of the interior, the ministry of justice and the prison administration. Each country determine which authority or statistical office that should collect, check, and send data and documentation.

Geographical coverage

The table below shows the geographical coverage of the crime and criminal justice statistics provided in the joint Eurostat-UNODC data collection, for the relevant jurisdictions.

 

Different national criminal justice authorities may have different geographical coverages.

ISO Country POLICE PROSECUTION COURTS
BE Belgium TOTAL^ Until 01.04.2014 Reform,27/28 Judicial DistrictsIn 2009, 25/27 Youth districts Since 2010, 26/27 Youth districts
Since 2010, 26/27 Youth districts^
TOTAL^
BG Bulgaria TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
CZ Czech Republic TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
DK Denmark TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
DE Germany TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
EE Estonia TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
IE Ireland TOTAL TOTAL^ :
EL Greece TOTAL : TOTAL^
ES Spain TOTAL : TOTAL
FR France Only the European part of French territory is taken into account: the overseas territories are excluded from these statistics TOTAL TOTAL
HR Croatia TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
IT Italy TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
CY Cyprus TOTAL They cover only the Government-controlled-area of Cyprus They cover only the Government-controlled-area of Cyprus
LV Latvia TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
LT Lithuania TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
LU Luxembourg TOTAL : :
HU Hungary TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
MT Malta TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
NL Netherlands The three (Dutch) Caribbean islands Bonaire, St Eustatius, and Saba are NOT covered TOTAL TOTAL
AT Austria TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
PL Poland TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
PT Portugal TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
RO Romania TOTAL TOTAL^ TOTAL^
SI Slovenia TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
SK Slovakia TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
FI Finland TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
SE Sweden TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
IS Iceland TOTAL TOTAL :
LI Liechtenstein  TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
NO Norway Offences reported to the Norwegian police committed abroad included.
Offences reported to The Norwegian Bureau for the Investigation of Police Affairs, not included^
TOTAL TOTAL
CH Switzerland  TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
ME Montenegro TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia TOTAL^ : TOTAL^
AL Albania TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
RS Serbia Exclude Region Kosovo and Metohija Exclude Region Kosovo and Metohija Exclude Region Kosovo and Metohija
TR Turkey : TOTAL TOTAL
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL

: = no information given   

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

 

 

Methodological rules – Stage of data collection

The point in time when the offence is recorded in the statistics differs among countries.

Offences recorded by the Police can be registered:

-         at the time the offence is first reported to the police ('INPUT' statistics);

-         after the offence is first reported, but before a full investigation ('PROCESS' statistics);

-         after the offence has been investigated ('OUTPUT' statistics).

Court statistics can also be counted BEFORE or AFTER a case is appealed.

 

ISO Country POLICE COURTS
BE Belgium INPUT ^ AFTER APPEALS^
BG Bulgaria INPUT AFTER APPEALS
CZ Czech Republic INPUT AFTER APPEALS
DK Denmark OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
DE Germany OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
EE Estonia PROCESS AFTER APPEALS
IE Ireland INPUT AFTER APPEALS^
EL Greece INPUT :
ES Spain OUTPUT BEFORE APPEALS
FR France INPUT  AFTER APPEALS
HR Croatia PROCESS AFTER APPEALS
IT Italy INPUT AFTER APPEALS
CY Cyprus INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
LV Latvia PROCESS AFTER APPEALS
LT Lithuania INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
LU Luxembourg INPUT :
HU Hungary OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
MT Malta INPUT AFTER APPEALS
NL Netherlands INPUT BEFORE APPEALS^
AT Austria OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
PL Poland OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
PT Portugal INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
RO Romania OUTPUT BEFORE APPEALS^
SI Slovenia OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
SK Slovakia PROCESS BEFORE APPEALS
FI Finland INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
SE Sweden INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
IS Iceland INPUT BEFORE APPEALS^
LI Liechtenstein  INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
NO Norway PROCESS AFTER APPEALS
CH Switzerland  OUTPUT AFTER APPEALS
ME Montenegro PROCESS BEFORE APPEALS
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia PROCESS^ BEFORE APPEALS^
AL Albania PROCESS BEFORE APPEALS
RS Serbia PROCESS AFTER APPEALS
TR Turkey : BEFORE APPEALS
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  INPUT BEFORE APPEALS
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  INPUT BEFORE APPEALS

: = no information given   

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

 

 

 

Methodological rules – Counting unit

Police, prosecution and courts authorities in jurisdictions use different units for recording offences. For instance police usually count the offence but in some jurisdictions the case or investigation is also used.

According to the statistical unit used, figures may differ from one country to another. For example a case may include several offences, or a decision may refer to more than one offence.

The counting unit used by the prosecution and courts may be for instance, the number of people charged or proceedings.

 

Different national criminal justice authorities may have different counting rules.

 

ISO Country POLICE PROSECUTION Courts 
BE Belgium OFFENCE^ OTHER
(Accused person may be involved
 in several cases and is counted in each case)^
:
BG Bulgaria OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
CZ Czech Republic OFFENCE PROCEEDING PEOPLE
DK Denmark OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES CONVICTIONS
DE Germany CASE

PROCEEDING

PROCEEDING

EE Estonia OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
IE Ireland INCIDENT PEOPLE-CHARGES^ :
EL Greece OFFENCE : :
ES Spain OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES (i)
FR France OTHER
(Depending on the nature of the offence, the unit of account is either the victim, the offence, the procedure or the perpetrator)
PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
HR Croatia OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
IT Italy OFFENCE The year corresponds to the Pubblic prosecutor office decision about archiviation or start of the penal action after the investigation on the person  reported PEOPLE
CY Cyprus OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
LV Latvia OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
LT Lithuania OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
LU Luxembourg OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES :
HU Hungary OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
MT Malta CASE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
NL Netherlands OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
AT Austria CASE PEOPLE-CHARGES

CONVICTIONS

(A person who is convicted more than once in one year, is counted as more than one person)

PL Poland OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
PT Portugal OFFENCE

PEOPLE-CHARGES

PEOPLE
RO Romania OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES :
SI Slovenia OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
SK Slovakia OFFENCE Prosecution unit is counting cases with people charges as well as proceedings - commited crimes with unknown offender due to the formal decission isued by police officer and sending for the supersvision to prosecutor CASE
FI Finland OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
SE Sweden OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES Descions by court regarding people, the same person is counted for each conviction during a year
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
IS Iceland OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES :
LI Liechtenstein  OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
NO Norway OFFENCE OTHER
(Offences investigated and charged people.)
PEOPLE
CH Switzerland  OFFENCE : PEOPLE
ME Montenegro OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia OFFENCE^ : :
AL Albania OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
RS Serbia OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
TR Turkey : PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  OFFENCE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  CASE PEOPLE-CHARGES PEOPLE

 : = no information given  

 ^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

 

 

Methodological rules – Counting rule for multiple (serial) offences of the same type (Police)

Jurisdictions have different rules regarding how multiple (serial) offences of the same type are recorded: multiple offences of the same type can be counted as ‘one offence’ or as ‘two or more offences’. 

For instance if an offender has robbed on ten separate occasions, it is important to know if this is counted as one offence or ten offences.

 

ISO Country Police 
BE Belgium AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE ^
BG Bulgaria AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
CZ Czech Republic  AS ONE OFFENCE
DK Denmark AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
DE Germany OTHER
(Multiple offences of the same type are recorded as one case only if the same person(s) is/are suspected to have committed all crimes against the same victim(s) or the same person(s) is/are suspected of all crimes and there are no natural person(s) as victim(s)
EE Estonia OTHER
(Depends on time lag between the offences etc.) 
IE Ireland OTHER

(Incidents with same victim and same offenders is counted as single incident if is reported the same time)

EL Greece AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
ES Spain  AS ONE OFFENCE
FR France OTHER
(The situation varies according to the number of victims and the number of proceedings initiated)
HR Croatia AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
IT Italy AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
CY Cyprus  AS ONE OFFENCE
LV Latvia AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
LT Lithuania AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
LU Luxembourg  AS ONE OFFENCE
HU Hungary AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
MT Malta AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
NL Netherlands AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
AT Austria AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
PL Poland AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
PT Portugal  AS ONE OFFENCE
RO Romania AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
SI Slovenia AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
SK Slovakia  AS ONE OFFENCE
FI Finland AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE
(However series of embezzlements, frauds and narcotics offences are counted as one crime.)
SE Sweden AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales  AS ONE OFFENCE
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland OTHER
(Offences are counted separately rather than only the most serious (especially when they are different types of offence). However depending on the circumstances, we do subsume some less serious offences where they form part of a continuous course of action. For example where someone was sexually assaulted, then raped in one course of conduct at one location - one crime of rape would be recorded)
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland  AS ONE OFFENCE
IS Iceland AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
LI Liechtenstein  AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
NO Norway AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
CH Switzerland  OTHER
(If a crime is perpetrated on the same victim several times by the same offender, the offense counts once, but we set a multiple flag)
ME Montenegro AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE ^
AL Albania AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
RS Serbia AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
TR Turkey :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  AS MORE THAN ONE OFFENCE 
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)   AS ONE OFFENCE

   

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

: = no information given  

 

Methodological rules – Counting rule for when an offence is committed by more than one person (Police)

An offence can also be counted different when more than one person commits the offence.

For instance if a robbery is committed by three persons, some jurisdictions count one offence, while others count one offence for each offender.

 

ISO Country POLICE
BE Belgium AS ONE OFFENCE^
BG Bulgaria AS ONE OFFENCE
CZ Czech Republic AS ONE OFFENCE
DK Denmark AS ONE OFFENCE
DE Germany AS ONE OFFENCE
EE Estonia AS ONE OFFENCE
IE Ireland AS ONE OFFENCE
EL Greece AS ONE OFFENCE
ES Spain AS ONE OFFENCE
FR France AS ONE OFFENCE
HR Croatia AS ONE OFFENCE
IT Italy AS ONE OFFENCE
CY Cyprus AS ONE OFFENCE
LV Latvia AS ONE OFFENCE
LT Lithuania AS ONE OFFENCE
LU Luxembourg AS ONE OFFENCE
HU Hungary AS ONE OFFENCE
MT Malta AS ONE OFFENCE
NL Netherlands AS ONE OFFENCE
AT Austria AS ONE OFFENCE
PL Poland AS ONE OFFENCE
PT Portugal AS ONE OFFENCE
RO Romania AS ONE OFFENCE
SI Slovenia AS ONE OFFENCE
SK Slovakia AS ONE OFFENCE
FI Finland AS ONE OFFENCE
SE Sweden AS ONE OFFENCE
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales AS ONE OFFENCE
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland AS ONE OFFENCE
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland AS ONE OFFENCE
IS Iceland AS ONE OFFENCE
LI Liechtenstein  AS ONE OFFENCE
NO Norway AS ONE OFFENCE
CH Switzerland  AS ONE OFFENCE
ME Montenegro AS ONE OFFENCE
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia AS ONE OFFENCE^
AL Albania AS ONE OFFENCE
RS Serbia AS ONE OFFENCE
TR Turkey :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  AS ONE OFFENCE
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  AS ONE OFFENCE

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

: = no information given  

 

 

 

Methodological rules – Use of Principal Offence Rule

A “Principal Offence Rule” means that where more than one offence is committed simultaneously, only the most serious offence is recorded.

 

Different criminal justice authorities may have different “Principal Offence Rules”.

ISO Country Police
counting offences 
BE Belgium :
BG Bulgaria YES
CZ Czech Republic NO
DK Denmark NO
DE Germany YES
EE Estonia NO
IE Ireland NO
EL Greece NO
ES Spain NO
FR France YES
HR Croatia YES
IT Italy NO
CY Cyprus YES
LV Latvia NO
LT Lithuania NO
LU Luxembourg NO
HU Hungary NO
MT Malta YES
NL Netherlands YES
AT Austria NO
PL Poland :
PT Portugal YES
RO Romania :
SI Slovenia NO
SK Slovakia YES
FI Finland NO
SE Sweden NO
UKCL United Kingdom  England and Wales YES
UKM United Kingdom  Scotland NO
UKN United Kingdom  Northern Ireland YES
IS Iceland NO
LI Liechtenstein  NO
NO Norway NO
CH Switzerland  NO
ME Montenegro NO
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia :
AL Albania NO
RS Serbia :
TR Turkey :
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  NO
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  NO

: = no information given  

 

 ISO   
 Country
Counting persons 
Police Prosecution  Courts   Prisons  
Total
number brought into Formal Contact  
In reference
 to an Offence 
Total
number persecuted 
In reference
 to an Offence 
Total
number convicted
In reference
 to an Offence 
Total
number of persons held 
In reference
 to an Offence 
BE Belgium : : : : : : : :
BG Bulgaria YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES
CZ Czech Republic NO YES YES NO YES NO NO NO
DK Denmark YES YES NO : YES YES YES YES
DE Germany YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES
EE Estonia NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES
IE Ireland : : : : : : : :
EL Greece YES NO : : : : YES YES
ES Spain NO NO : : YES YES YES YES
FR France YES YES YES NO YES : YES YES
HR Croatia YES : YES YES YES YES YES YES
IT Italy YES NO NO NO YES NO YES NO
CY Cyprus YES : YES YES YES YES YES YES
LV Latvia YES NO NO NO YES YES NO NO
LT Lithuania NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES
LU Luxembourg NO : : : : : : :
HU Hungary YES YES NO : NO NO NO NO
MT Malta YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO
NL Netherlands YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
AT Austria YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO
PL Poland YES YES NO : YES YES YES YES
PT Portugal YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
RO Romania YES : : : : : YES YES
SI Slovenia NO NO YES : YES : YES YES
SK Slovakia YES YES YES NO YES : NO YES
FI Finland YES NO YES YES YES : YES YES
SE Sweden NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES
UKCL United Kingdom  England and Wales YES : YES YES YES : YES YES
UKM United Kingdom  Scotland : : YES : YES : YES YES
UKN United Kingdom  Northern Ireland : : YES YES YES YES YES YES
IS Iceland YES YES YES YES : : YES :
LI Liechtenstein  YES YES NO : YES : : :
NO Norway YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
CH Switzerland  NO NO : : NO NO YES YES
ME Montenegro NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : : : : : : : :
AL Albania YES YES YES : : : YES YES
RS Serbia : : YES : YES : : YES
TR Turkey : : YES NO YES NO YES NO
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  : : : : YES : NO NO

: = no information given  

Methodological rules – Counting of persons for multiple (serial) offences of the same type

The counting rules applied when an offender has committed several offences of the same type (serial offences) can differ by jurisdiction and according to the registering authority. For instance in some jurisdictions an offender who is accused of committing two robberies is counted as one person, while in others the offender is counted separately for each of the two offences.

Different national criminal justice authorities may have different counting rules.

 

 ISO  Country Total number  In reference to an offence 
Police Prosecution  Courts   Police Prosecution  Courts  
BE Belgium : : : : : :
BG Bulgaria AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
CZ Czech Republic AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW
DK Denmark AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
DE Germany AS ONE PERSON : : AS ONE PERSON : :
EE Estonia AS ONE PERSON OTHER AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON OTHER AS ONE PERSON
IE Ireland : : : : : :
EL Greece AS ONE PERSON : : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : :
ES Spain AS ONE PERSON : OTHER AS ONE PERSON : OTHER
FR France AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
HR Croatia AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
IT Italy AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
CY Cyprus AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
LV Latvia AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
LT Lithuania AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
LU Luxembourg : : : : : :
HU Hungary AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON
MT Malta DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW
NL Netherlands AS ONE PERSON : : AS ONE PERSON : :
AT Austria AS ONE PERSON : : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : :
PL Poland AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON : :
PT Portugal AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
RO Romania OTHER : : : : :
SI Slovenia AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : :
SK Slovakia AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON :
FI Finland AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW :
SE Sweden AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
UKCL United Kingdom  England and Wales AS ONE PERSON : : : : :
UKM United Kingdom  Scotland : AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : :
UKN United Kingdom  Northern Ireland : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
IS Iceland AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW : AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW :
LI Liechtenstein  AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON : :
NO Norway AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
CH Switzerland  AS ONE PERSON : DON’T KNOW AS ONE PERSON : DON’T KNOW
ME Montenegro AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : : : : : :
AL Albania AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON : :
RS Serbia : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : : :
TR Turkey : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW AS ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  : : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : :

: = no information given  

 

Methodological rules – Counting the same person multiple times in the same year

This rule refers to the question of how a person who has committed offences more than once (on separate occasions) in one year is counted for statistical purposes. For example if a person is brought into formal contact with the police for the offence of assault at the beginning of a particular year and is then arrested, prosecuted and convicted for another assault in the same year, it is important to know whether the offender is counted as one person or as two persons.

 

Different national criminal justice authorities may have different counting rules.

 

 ISO  Country Total number    In reference to an offence   
Police Prosecution  Courts   Police Prosecution  Courts  
BE Belgium : : : : : :
BG Bulgaria AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
CZ Czech Republic AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
DK Denmark AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
DE Germany AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : :
EE Estonia AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
IE Ireland : : : : : :
EL Greece AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : :
ES Spain AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
FR France AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
HR Croatia AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
IT Italy AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
CY Cyprus AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
LV Latvia AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
LT Lithuania AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON DON’T KNOW
LU Luxembourg : : : : : :
HU Hungary AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
MT Malta AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
NL Netherlands AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
AT Austria AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
PL Poland OTHER AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON OTHER : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
PT Portugal AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
RO Romania OTHER : : : : :
SI Slovenia AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : :
SK Slovakia AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON :
FI Finland AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON :
SE Sweden AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
UKCL United Kingdom  England and Wales AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON :
UKM United Kingdom  Scotland : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : :
UKN United Kingdom  Northern Ireland : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
IS Iceland AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON :
LI Liechtenstein  AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : :
NO Norway AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON
CH Switzerland  AS ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
ME Montenegro AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : : : : : :
AL Albania AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : :
RS Serbia AS ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : :
TR Turkey : AS ONE PERSON AS ONE PERSON : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  : : AS MORE THAN ONE PERSON : : :

: = no information given  

 

 

Methodological rules – Adult and juvenile age threshold

 

Police relates to persons brought into formal contact with police and / or criminal justice system.

Prosecution relates to persons prosecuted.

Courts relates to persons convicted

Prisons relates to persons held.

 

Different criminal justice authorities may have different age thresholds for defining adults and juveniles.

 

Juvenile

 

This table highlights MINIMUM age of Juvenile and if the MAXIMUM age is different from “under 18 years of age”.

 

 ISO  Country POLICE  PROSECUTION  COURTS  PRISONS 
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
BE Belgium : (d)^ 12^ (d)^ 16^ (d)^ : :
BG Bulgaria 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
CZ Czech Republic 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d)
DK Denmark 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d)
DE Germany 0 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
EE Estonia 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
IE Ireland 12 (d) 12 (d) 12 (d) 17 (d)
EL Greece 7 (d) : : 14^ (d)^ 15 (d)
ES Spain 14 (d) : : : (d)^ : :
FR France 13 (d) 10 (d) 10 (d) 13 (d)
HR Croatia 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
IT Italy 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
CY Cyprus 14 16 14 16 14 16 14 16
LV Latvia 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
LT Lithuania 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
LU Luxembourg 0 21 16^ (d)^ : : 16^ 25^
HU Hungary 0 (d) 14 (d) 12 (d) 14 21
MT Malta 14 16 14 16 14 16 14 21
NL Netherlands 12 (d) 12 (d)^ 12 (d)^ 12 (d)
AT Austria 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
PL Poland 13 17 13 17 13 17 15 21
PT Portugal 12 15 16 20 16 20 12 20
RO Romania 14 (d) 14^ (d)^ 14^ (d)^ 14 (d)
SI Slovenia 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
SK Slovakia 0 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
FI Finland 0 (d) 15 17 15 17 15 17
SE Sweden 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d)
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales 0 (d) 10 17 10 17 15 (d)
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland 12 (d) 12 (d) 12 (d) 16 (d)
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland 10 (d) 10 (d) 10 (d) 10 (d)
IS Iceland 5 14 15 (d) : : : :
LI Liechtenstein  14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
NO Norway 5 (d) 5 (d) 15 (d) 15 (d)
CH Switzerland  10 (d) : : 10 (d) 17 (d)
ME Montenegro 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 17^ (d)^ : : : : : :
AL Albania 17 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
RS Serbia 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
TR Turkey : : 12 (d) 12 (d) 12 (d)
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 16
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)

: = no information given

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

(d) = MAXIMUM age is “under 18 years of age”

 

Adult

 

This table highlights if the definition used for adults is “18 years or older” or not.

ISO Country POLICE PROSECUTION COURTS PRISONS
BE Belgium (d)^ (d)^ (d)^ (d)^
BG Bulgaria (d) (d) (d) (d)
CZ Czech Republic (d) (d) (d) (d)
DK Denmark (d) (d) (d) (d)
DE Germany (d) 21 21 21
EE Estonia (d) (d) (d) (d)
IE Ireland (d) (d)^ (d)^ (d)
EL Greece (d) : : 21
ES Spain (d) : (d) 21
FR France (d) (d) (d) (d)
HR Croatia (d) (d) (d) (d)
IT Italy (d) (d) (d) (d)
CY Cyprus (d) 16 16 21
LV Latvia (d) (d) (d) (d)
LT Lithuania (d) (d) (d) (d)
LU Luxembourg (d) (d)^ (d)^ (d)^
HU Hungary (d) (d) (d) (i)
MT Malta (d) (d) (d) (d)
NL Netherlands (d) (d) (d) (d)
AT Austria (d) (d) (d) (d)
PL Poland 17 17 17 21
PT Portugal 16 21 21 21
RO Romania (d) (d)^ (d)^ (d)
SI Slovenia (d) (d) (d) (d)
SK Slovakia (d) (d) (d) (d)
FI Finland (d) (d) (d) 21
SE Sweden (d) (d) (d) (d)
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales (d) (d) (d) (d)
UKM United Kingdom - Scotland (d) (d) (d) 21
UKN United Kingdom - Northern Ireland (d) (d) (d) (d)
IS Iceland 15 (d) : (d)
LI Liechtenstein  (d) (d) (d) (d)
NO Norway (d) (d) (d) (d)
CH Switzerland  (d) : (d) (d)
ME Montenegro (d) (d) (d) (d)
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : : : :
AL Albania (d) (d) (d) (d)
RS Serbia (d) (d) (d) (d)
TR Turkey : (d) (d) (d)
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina  (d) (d) (d) (d)
XK Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99)  (d) (d) (d) (d)

: = no information given

^ = information received during previous data collection and not available in current one

(d) = MAXIMUM age is “under 18 years of age”

(i) In the Hungarian legal system the definition of 'adult' is not strictly connected to age. The judge/prosecutor can decide in which regime the verdict has to be carried out

 

"Persons held" refers to  different date from 31 December

DK Denmark 1st of September
IE Ireland 30th of November 
NL Netherlands 30th of September
SI Slovenia 1st of September
FI Finland 1st of May
SE Sweden 1st of October
UKC-L United Kingdom - England and Wales 30th of June
NO Norway 1st of January 
CH Switzerland  1st of September
TR Turkey 2nd of January
10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not applicable.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Data are provided to Eurostat by a contact designated by each country. Notably, this contact can be another authority than the national statistical office. Each country determine its own procedures for gathering data from several different authorities (see point 10.6.).

11.2. Quality management - assessment

No assessment has been made.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The need to provide information on the development of crime in the European Union was recognised in the Hague Programme adopted by the European Council in 2004.

Some EU institutional users communicate statistical needs to Eurostat on a regular basis.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user satisfaction survey has been done .

12.3. Completeness

Data is missing for some countries, for some or all years, in nearly all tables, for all types of statistics.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Principally, administrative crime statistics indicates the registration and handling of cases by authorities such as police, prosecution, courts, and prisons.

Relative to the administrative data used, the accuracy is largely unknown.

Relative to total crime occurrence, it is generally considered that administrative crime statistics is less accurate.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable - data are from administrative records.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Data from administrative records are likely to contain some random errors (mistakes) as well as systematic errors (bias).


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

 Data for the reference year 2016 was published in July 2018.

14.2. Punctuality

No delay in 2018.  


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Comparability is affected by many factors, such as differences in:

  • Legal system and criminal justice system
  • Legislation, criminal law and legal definitions
  • Organisation and efficiency of police, prosecution, courts and prisons
  • Recording stage, input-,  process- or output data
  • Recording system, reporting system, and production system
  • Relation between national crime definition and international statistical definition
  • Statistical unit and statistical population
  • Statistical definition, reference time, counting methods and calculation methods
  • Reporting rate for the crime
15.2. Comparability - over time

See the list of factors in 15.1. Changes in any of the factors can affect the comparability over time.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not examined.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The internal coherence of the data is checked with basic validation rules (see section 18.4. Data validation). Figures for categories may not add up to the total, because information for some categories is missing.

For regional data (2008-2010) the data source or reference period may differ from national figures.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not estimated.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Revisions to the data are possible at any time, but only based on new data received from national contact.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Revisions are incorporated into the database after being confirmed by national contact.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

There are several different data producing sources, such as police, prosecution, courts , the ministry of the interior, the ministry of justice and prison administration.

The source data type is records in administrative registers.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

Since their data requests largely overlap, Eurostat cooperates with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.  Eurostat forward the United Nations request (Survey on Crime Trends), with the addition of the European Union request, to EU Member States, EFTA Countries, EU Candidate Countries, and EU Potential Candidates. In each country, figures from different authorities are collected into one file. The files are sent to Eurostat by a common procedure, the electronic Data file Administration and Management Information System.

18.4. Data validation

The data are checked for completeness, internal consistency, and consistency over time and coherence with other relevant data sources. For internal consistency the following are checked:

- The sum of the subtotals (e.g. men and women) to the total.

- Large revisions (new figures for earlier years)

- Large variation between years

- Large change from previous to current reference year- Inconsistencies between data and metadata

Any issue revealed by the checking is pointed out to the national contact, by email. The national contact may either confirm the validity of data or send new data. No editing, estimation, imputation, weighting, seasonal adjustment, or other statistical modifications are carried out by Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation

EU totals are not published in the database.

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments are made.


19. Comment Top

None.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top