Candidate countries and potential candidates (cpc)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

B3: Enlargement, neighbourhood and development cooperation

1.5. Contact mail address

L-2920 Luxembourg

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 03/07/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 17/03/2020
2.3. Metadata last update 17/03/2020

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The focus of this domain is on candidate countries and potential candidates, in other words the following groups:

  • candidate countries — Albania (AL), North Macedonia (MK), Montenegro (ME), Serbia (RS) and Turkey (TR)
  • potential candidates — Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), and Kosovo* (XK)

An extensive range of indicators is presented in this domain, including indicators from almost every theme covered by European statistics. Only annual data are published in this domain.

Data supplied by and under the responsibility of the national statistical authorities of each of the countries or territories.


* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.

3.2. Classification system

The vast majority of the indicators that have been collected are ones that are also collected for EU Member States. As such, the definitions that data suppliers have been asked to follow are based on international and EU standards, for example the ESA (or SNA) or the IMF manual on balance of payments.

3.3. Coverage - sector

This domain covers a wide range of subject areas, including:

  • Economy and finance
  • Population and social conditions
  • Industry, trade and services
  • Agriculture and fisheries
  • International trade
  • Transport
  • Energy and environment
  • Science, technology and digital society

The sectoral coverage varies according to subject.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The definitions of the indicators that data suppliers have been requested to follow can be found (in English) in the annex Definitions used for the data collection exercise at the bottom of this page.

3.5. Statistical unit

See definitions and footnotes (at the bottom of the page) for each indicator.

3.6. Statistical population

See definitions and footnotes (at the bottom of the page) for each indicator.

3.7. Reference area

Candidate countries and potential candidates:

  • Candidate countries: Albania (AL), North Macedonia (MK), Montenegro (ME), Serbia (RS) and Turkey (TR);
  • Potential candidates: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), and Kosovo (XK)
3.8. Coverage - Time

The time-series start from 2005. For some older datasets that are no longer updated the time series might start in 2000.

3.9. Base period

See definitions and footnotes (at the bottom of the page) for each indicator where applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top

See definitions and footnotes (at the bottom of the page) for each indicator.

5. Reference Period Top

All data are annual, referring either to the year as a period, or to a representative date in the year, typically the first or last day of the year.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

For information about the EU’s statistical cooperation with the candidate countries and potential candidates please consult the relevant article on Statistics Explained.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Data suppliers only provide non-confidential data.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No formal calendar: data are disseminated on Eurobase once a year. Previously this was around October/November. After a major change in the data collection in 2017, dissemination is now in February or March of the year following the collection: for example February or March 2020 for data collected in Winter 2019/20.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 — 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

All data are annual.

More recent and updated data on the candidate countries and some potential candidates may be found in other themes on Eurobase: Economy and finance, Population and social conditions, Industry, trade and services, Agriculture and fisheries, International trade, Transport, Environment and energy, as well as Science, technology, digital society.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Online news releases accompany publications.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data are published in the Statistical book "Key figures on the enlargement countries" (2019) as well as in one or more leaflets published each year.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable — no micro data.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Data are published on Eurostat’s Statistics Explained website in a set of articles.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Data are provided (at Eurostat’s request) directly by the national statistical authorities of the candidate countries and potential candidates. No information is available on the primary sources of these indicators.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

A list of the footnotes for this domain can be found at the bottom of this page.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

No information available.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

After receipt, data are validated using a set of automatic validation procedures. In case the validation procedure discovers data exceeding the conditions/thresholds set in the validation program, data suppliers are contacted by e-mail in order to explain the values in question. If necessary data are revised. These revised data are then integrated in the final dataset. Metadata are also checked.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Every year the European Commission’s Directorate-General for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations prepares progress reports describing the political and economic developments in each candidate country or potential candidate. For this purpose the progress reports include statistical annexes — provided by Eurostat — with key statistical data. A core subset of the collected indicators are based on the requirements for these annexes.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No information available.

12.3. Completeness

Approximately two thirds to three quarters of data are available for recent years.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not available.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

A request for updated data is sent to data suppliers twice a year. The first wave concerns a subset of key indicators. The second wave collects data for the full set of indicators. Data are uploaded to the database only after the second wave of data collection. The freshness of the data varies somewhat between data suppliers and between indicators, as the data comes from a wide range of sources. Generally data are relatively complete for the calendar year two before the year of data collection. For example, data collected in 2019/20 will have relatively complete data for 2017, with 2018 data available for a more limited number of indicators.

14.2. Punctuality

No information available.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

When data suppliers have indicated divergences from the definitions requested these are indicated in a list of the footnotes for this domain which can be found at the bottom of this page.

15.2. Comparability - over time

When data suppliers have indicated breaks in series these are indicated with the ‘b’ flag in the database.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The large number of indicators collected allows many cross checks within the data set. Care should however be taken, for example when analysing per head ratios where a different employment or population measure may have been used to compile the ratio than the employment and population figures given in this data set.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Generally only a few indicators are collected for each statistical subject area. However in some cases the internal coherence can be verified when data for detailed indicators should sum to the data value for more aggregated indicators. Checks of such internal coherence are also included in the validation procedures that are performed.

16. Cost and Burden Top

No information available.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

All values from the beginning of the time series are potentially subject to revision.

17.2. Data revision - practice

For the national data collection the data suppliers are asked to update their data. Several data suppliers identify data that have been forecasted and in these cases this fact is indicated in the database.

From the 2012 round of data collection, the time series from 2000 onwards were updated annually. 

Since the 2017 round of data collection, the time series from 2005 onwards have been updated.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Most of the data are provided by the national statistical authorities of the candidate countries and potential candidates on a tailor-made questionnaire. The data comes from a wide range of sources.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual. Two rounds of data collection are performed each year. The first contains a subset of the indicators; this is followed by the second round in which a more extensive set of indicators are compiled.

18.3. Data collection

Data are collected using tailor-made Excel questionnaires.

18.4. Data validation

The data received from data suppliers are validated. Various types of validation tests are performed.

1. Respect of the data format: are missing data correctly coded, is the distinction between data that has a value of '0' and data that is not available or confidential clear, have all footnote references got a corresponding footnote text?

2. Respect of the units and listed scales: are the data provided in the unit and scale requested?

3. Cross-check of basic data: do the basic data agree with other sources and with data published on web sites of the national statistical offices?

4. Time series: check of growth rates between reference periods for particularly high and low values — this is done in absolute terms and in percentage terms.

5. Order of magnitude: does the data seem credible in terms of scale? This can be checked by comparison to an expected range of values directly, or after dividing by another indicator (such as population or GDP).

6. Coherence between totals and components: when an aggregate is requested, as well as its elements these are checked; when an exhaustive list of elements is available in percentage terms, the total is checked to be 100%.

7. Between derived indicators and their components: a number of indicators can be compiled from other indicators in the data set, and it is reasonable to assume that they should be coherent. In fact they may not be coherent for a number of reasons, for example the derived indicators may have been compiled using data from different sources.

8. Between indices and base year: does the value for the base year equal 100? Small divergences may be possible due, for example, to working day adjustment.

18.5. Data compilation

No geographical aggregates are compiled. A number of indicators are derived from the collected data, although most indicators to be published are collected directly.

18.6. Adjustment

Apart from data validation (which may lead to corrections of errors) no adjustments are made to the data.

19. Comment Top

When data suppliers have indicated divergences from the definitions requested these are indicated in a list of the footnotes (in English) for this domain which can be found in the annex concerning Footnotes at the bottom of this page.

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top
Definitions used for the 2019/20 data collection exercise
Footnotes related to the 2019/20 data collection exercise