Dwellings (cens_01ndws)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unit Unit F2: Population
1.5. Contact mail address 2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 01/12/2012
2.2. Metadata last posted 01/12/2012
2.3. Metadata last update 01/12/2012


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Census round 2011

The tables presented cover the total dwellings for 33 countries.

  • The "traditional" census, with enumeration based on questionnaires through door-to-door visits - with interviews of respondents by enumerators or self-compilation of the forms by the respondents - and manual data entry by operators;
  • The "Register based" census which enumerate population on the basis of administrative sources of information. Data collection is based on the use of registers (inhabitants' registers, registers of buildings and dwellings, geographical co-ordinates, school registers, social security, tax, business and company registers). In addition, countries that produce their population statistics from population-register information automatically seem to follow the de jure population concept. Indeed, it must at least be assumed that population registers include only residents who habitually live in the country;
  • The "mixed" census, the third possible census method based on a combination of statistical inquiries and sources. In this case enumeration is always carried out on specific topics or on a sample of the population, and is combined with existing regular statistical surveys, registers, lists, or ad hoc organised activities.

(See R 763/2008 Article 4)

Census round 2001

The tables presented cover the total dwellings for 31 countries.

In the census round 2001 four ways of collecting census data were used, namely:

- the traditional method of using census questionnaires (exhaustive census);

- the method of using registers and/or other administrative sources;

- a combination of registers and/or other administrative sources and

- surveys (complete enumerations or sample surveys).

Census round 1991

The tables presented in the census 1990/1991 round cover the total dwellings for 19 countries. Five main topics are covered: structure of population, active population, education level, households and dwellings. The level of completeness of the tables depends largely on the availability of data at the respective national statistical institutes.

3.2. Classification system

Census 2001

For the 2001 census round, the Statistical Programme Committee formally approved at its 27th Session in November 1997 the Guidelines and Table Programme for the Community Programme of Population and Housing Censuses in 2001. The decision was a "gentleman's agreement" rather than a legal obligation.

For detailed information on the classification systems used by the countries see the Recommendations for the 2000 census of population and housing in the ECE region.

Census 2011

The census round 2011 is ruled by five Regulation:

- R 763/2008 (L 218/14 du 13.08.2008)

- R 1201/2009 (L 329/29 du 15.12.2009)

- R 519/2010 (L 151/1 du 17.06.2010)

- R 1151/2010 (L 324/1 du 09.12.2010)

3.3. Coverage - sector

Housholds by size

Occupied conventional dwellings by number of rooms

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The household is a socio-economic unit. It consists of individuals who live together. The aim of the core variable on household composition is to collect information about the size and composition of the private household to which the respondents belong, on the relationship between household members and the economic activity status of household members of working age. In addition, the household arrangements of an individual could be considered as an indirect measure of the social situation of the individual itself. Statistical definitions of the household vary.

So, countries are recommended to use the place of usual residence as the basis of household membership (UNECE, Recommendations for the 2000 censuses of population and housing in the ECE region, 1998). The existence of shared expenses in the household (including benefiting from expenses as well as contributing to expenses) is used to determine who is regarded as household members (Eurostat, Task Force on Core Social Variables, 2007).

On "HistoCens" database, which covers four censuses exercises related to years 1981/1991/2001/2011, these units are cross-tabulated with the following topics:

 1. Households by size 1991-2011

2. Occupied conventional dwellings by number of rooms 1991-2011

Households by size 1991-2011

Private households are classified by the total number of household members. So, the size of a household is a count of those people who are usually resident in the household, irrespective of whether or not they are present at the time of the census. Furthermore, those who are present at the time of census but who are members of another household should be excluded.

A household is either:

  • a one-person household, i.e. a person who lives alone in a separate housing unit or who occupies, as a lodger, a separate room (or rooms) of housing unit but does not join with any of the other occupants of the housing unit to form part of a multi-person household;
  • a multi-person household, i.e. a group of two or more persons who combine the whole or part of a housing unit and to provide themselves with foods and possibly other essentials for living. When a private household contains several persons, they are called members of the household and one of them will be the head of the household. The group may pool their income to a greater or lesser extent. The group may be composed of related persons only or unrelated persons or a combination of both, including boarders (who are persons other than a domestic servant, which are unrelated to other members of the household and which habitually take their meals with the household and generally are allowed to use all the available household facilities).

This concept of a private household may be referred to as the housekeeping unit. Some countries use a different concept of the private household, which is referred to as a household-dwelling concept, and is defined as the aggregate number of persons occupying a housing unit.

Although certain housing topics have been included in the characteristics of private households, the principal units of enumeration for housing topics are usually living quarters and, additionally in some countries, buildings, rather than households.

Living quarters are defined generally as structurally separate and independent premises which are either designed for permanent human habitation at a fixed location and not used for other purposes at the time of the census or actually used as the principal residence of at least one person at the time of the census (whether or not so designed, whether fixed or mobile, and whether permanent or temporary).

A dwelling is a statistical abstraction denoting housing accommodation appropriate for occupation by one household.

It is useful to distinguish as far as possible housing units used as a primary residence from those that are used as a secondary residence. This is particularly important if the secondary residence has markedly different characteristics from the primary residence, as is the case, for example, when persons in agricultural households move during certain seasons of the year from their permanent living quarters in a village to rudimentary structures located on agricultural holdings (United Nations, 2008, para. 2.466). The recommended classification of occupancy status for conventional dwellings is as follows:

a) Occupied dwellings are dwellings which are the principal usual residence of at least one person at the time of census;

b) Vacant dwellings are dwellings which have no usual residents at the time of the census but are available to become the principal usual residence of at least one person. Vacant dwellings could be either:

  • Seasonally vacant
  • Holiday homes
  • Seasonal workers' quarters
  • Other
  • Non-seasonally vacant
  • Secondary residences
  • For rent
  • For sale
  • For demolition
  • Other

A further distinction is made between:

  • Conventional dwelling which is a room or a suite of rooms and its accessories in a permanent building or structurally separated part thereof which by the way it has been built, rebuilt or converted; it is designed for habitation by one private household all the year round and is not at the time of the census used wholly for non-residential purposes;
  • Non-conventional dwelling all the other housing kinds that do not appear above but homelessness.

Occupied conventional dwellings by number of rooms 1991-2011

A room is defined as a space in a housing unit, or in living quarters other than housing units, enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, or at least to a height of 2 metres above the ground, of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult (4 square metres at least) and at least 2 metres high over the major area of the ceiling. Thus, normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, habitable cellars and attics, servants' rooms, kitchens and other separate spaces used or intended for habitation all count as rooms. Passageways, verandas, lobbies, bathrooms, and toilet rooms should not be counted as rooms, even if they meet the criteria (United Nations, 2008).

 (Source: Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, 1990; Eurostat documentation on 1991, 2001 and 2011 census exercises; UNECE, Recommendations for the 2000 censuses of population and housing in the ECE region, 1998; UN Handbook on Population and Housing Census Editing, 2010)

3.5. Statistical unit

Private households - Living quarters - Housing units - Conventional dwellings

The household is a socio-economic unit. It consists of individuals who live together. The aim of the core variable on household composition is to collect information about the size and composition of the private household to which the respondents belong, on the relationship between household members and the economic activity status of household members of working age. In addition, the household arrangements of an individual could be considered as an indirect measure of the social situation of the individual itself. Statistical definitions of the household vary.

A dwelling is a statistical abstraction denoting housing accommodation appropriate for occupation by one household.

3.6. Statistical population

Households and dwellings

3.7. Reference area

Census 2011

European Union 27 Member States, European Free Trade Association Member States (4), Macedonia and Turkey. In total the data are collected in 33 countries.

Census 2001

European Union Member States, European Free Trade Association Member States, and Turkey. In total the data are collected in 31 countries.

Census 1991

European Union Member States and European Free Trade Association Member States. In total the data are collected in 19 countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Data availability varies from country to country, depending on the year the census was carried out in each country. Please consult the different National Statistical Institutes' websites to be informed about the exact time coverage of each national census exercise.

3.9. Base period

When figures are available, the period covers from year 1991 to 2011.


4. Unit of measure Top

Data are expressed in absolute numbers.


5. Reference Period Top

It is important to note that the census data were mostly collected from spring to autumn of each census exercise.Please consult the different National Statistical Institutes' websites to be informed about the exact time coverage of each national census exercise.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Census 1991

For the 1990/91 census round, the Statistical Programme Committee formulated the "Recommendations for the 1990 Censuses of population and housing in the ECE region". This decision was a "gentlemen's agreement" rather than a legal obligation.

The countries that changed their system of collecting statistical data, moving gradually from the classic method (exhaustive census) to the use of administrative sources, base their operations on a legal framework that was created in the 1980s and early 1990s.

Census 2001

For the 2001 census round, the Statistical Programme Committee formally approved at its 27th Session in November 1997 the Guidelines and Table Programme for the Community Programme of Population and Housing Censuses in 2001. This decision was a "gentlemen's agreement" rather than a legal obligation.

The countries, however, agreed to create the appropriate legal framework on a national level, in order to ensure the provision of comparable statistical data on the basis of the principle of the protection of personal data.

The countries that have changed their system of collecting statistical data, moving gradually from the classic method (exhaustive census) to the use of administrative sources, base their operations on a legal framework that was created in the 1980s and early 1990s.

Census 2011

The Council of the European Union and the European Parlaiment have adopted in 2008 the Regulation (EC) N. 763/2008 on Population and Housing Census containing the concepts to be used in the census exercises. The methodogical elements of this Regulation acknowledge the Conference of European Statician (CES) Recommendations for 2010 Round of Population and Housing Censuses [ Source: Lanzieri G. (2009), A Framework for the EU Census Quality Reporting and Assessment].

Regulation (EC) N. 763/2008 lists all the topics to be covered in census exercises which are: geographic, demographic, economic and educational characteristics of persons, internatioanal and internal migration characteristics as well as household, family and housing characteristics.

However, Regulation (EC) N. 763/2008 does not stipulate how the census topics are to be broken down. Nor does it specify the census topics in any further detail. Article 5(4) asks the European Commission to do this by means of an implementing Regulation which, for the 2011 round, is Commission Regulation (EC) N. 1201/2009. The aim of this Regulation is that in every Member State the data about the census topics should follow the same definitions and technical specifications and the same breakdowns should be published. This is a pre-condition for Europe comparability [Source: Eurostat (2011), EU legislation on the 2011 Population and Housing Censuses, ISBN: 978 - 92 - 79 - 19717 - 8] .

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

The Fourth 2012 annual report by the European Statistical Governance Advisory Board to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of the European Statistics Code of Practice by Eurostat and the European Statistical System as a whole, states:

"... the government departments must enhance cooperation in sharing registers for statistical purposes under the application of the data-protection provisions."


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

done at Member State level


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Census exercises 1991/2001 are over.

As regard to census exercise 2011, the Census Hub platform is planned to be opened in the second half of year 2013. The Census Hub platform allows dissemintating detailled data on the Census 2011 exercise. Before the Census Hub will be used, data providers are disseminating part of the census 2011 results at national level on their respective websites.

Eurostat makes available on its website the calendar of census 2011 national data releases which is regularly updated according to the National Statistical Institutes websites' information.

8.2. Release calendar access

Please see point 8.1

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Not applicable for this collection.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Please consult Eurostat's website.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line on Eurostat's website.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

none

10.5. Dissemination format - other

 http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

10.6. Documentation on methodology

2011 Census

Information on the methodology can be found in the Eurostat document: "EU legislation on the 2011 Population and Housing Censuses - Explanatory notes" Edition 2011 ref. ISBN 978-92-79-19717-8

2001 Census

Information on the methodology can be found in the Eurostat document: "Population and Housing Cesuses 2001 - Results at national and Regional Level with Documentation" Edition 2005 (available on CD-ROM)

1991 Census

Information on the methodology can be found in the Eurostat document: "Population, Households and Dwellings in Europe - Main results of the 1990/1991 censuses" Edition 1996 ref. ISBN 92-827-8838-5

10.7. Quality management - documentation

2011 Census

Relevant quality information by country can be found in the document "Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing" Edition 2006 ref. ISSN 0069-8458

2001 Census

Relevant quality information by country can be found in the document "Recommendations for the 2000 census of population and housing in the ECE region" Edition 1998 ref. ISBN 92-1-116685-3


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Done at country level.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Census 2011

Eurostat is producing a framework for the EU census quality reporting aimed at helping the data providers and users to assess data quality.

Census 2001

Data were extracted from individual countries' reports, being prepared during the second half of 2002. Most of the reports follow a similar structure, but country-specific paragraphs (e.g. for Spain and Italy, on the comparison of census results with data from population registers) or formats (e.g. Switzerland) are also present. For countries not undertaking a census, alternative reporting formats have been chosen.

The comparative analysis is mostly based on a survey questionnaire prepared by LDSA (Laboratory of Demographic and Social Analyses). A total of 26 National Statistical Institutes responded. Three countries (Germany, Sweden and Iceland), having not implemented a census, were unable to complete the questionnaire, while three others (Netherlands, Liechtenstein and Romania) did not respond. For all the questions concerning directly the census process and treatment, the tables used for the comparative analysis don't include Liechtenstein and obviously Germany, Sweden and Iceland.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

HistoCens data base aims at informing a large public on the evolution of the main characteristics of population and dwellings from 1991 to 2011.

Eurostat selected only part of the topics concerned by these different census exercises in order to provide a quick userfriendly set of data adapted to the major interest of potential users. Time dimension is one of the main characteristics of this exercise.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Concerning censuses exercises 1991/2001: figures were directly available

Concerning census exercise 2011: through HistoCens database preliminary information is made available to users. After the second part of 2013, the Census Hub platform will provide detailled and comprehensive information on the census round 2011.

12.3. Completeness

The completeness of data on the dwellings is effected by the usage of different data sources used to enumerate this data.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

 

Households by size

In order to harmonise 1991 and 2001 figures, the latter were computed dividing the ammounts provided by the censuses by the average households size (EU15 averages from the Labour Force Survey of 2001 and for the potential candidates countries, from the Labour Force Survey of 2003).

13.2. Sampling error

not evaluated

13.3. Non-sampling error

not evaluated


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Not applicable

14.2. Punctuality

Not applicable


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

All the figures are reported at national level.

The comparability on data on the dwellings is strongly effected by different methodologies and data sources used to enumerate this data.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Over time figures of censuses 1991 and 2001 are rather complete and harmonised using estimates only when appropriate.

As regard 2011 census results, Eurostat will keep through HistoCens, the same variables and concepts as for 1991 and 2001 in order to spread the preliminary information of census 2011.

Dissemination of 2011 census data will be implemented through the following ways:

1. HistoCens (in Eurobase, Eurostat's website): please see above;

2. In Eurobase (Eurostat's website) a specific folder "census 2011" containting a selection of the main demographic figures on population and households (starting in 2013);

3. The "Census Hub" which allows dissemination very detailled information crossing a huge number of variables (starting in 2013).

Because of the big and detailled amount of statistical figures made available by the last 2011 census round, the "Census Hub" interface will be devoted to the dissemintation of the aforesaid information.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

-

15.4. Coherence - internal

Households by size

In order to harmonise 1991 and 2001 figures, the latter were computed dividing the ammounts provided by the censuses by the average households size (EU15 averages from the Labour Force Survey of 2001 and for the potential candidates countries, from the Labour Force Survey of 2003).

Occupied conventional dwellings by number of rooms

In order to harmonise figures of 1991 and 2001 census rounds, rooms until and over of 10 were taken into account.


16. Cost and Burden Top

not evaluated


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Not applicable

17.2. Data revision - practice

Not applicable.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Census round 2011

The tables presented in the topic of active population cover the total population for 33 countries.

  • The "traditional" census, with enumeration based on questionnaires through door-to-door visits - with interviews of respondents by enumerators or self-compilation of the forms by the respondents - and manual data entry by operators;
  • The "Register based" census which enumerate population on the basis of administrative sources of information. Data collection is based on the use of registers (inhabitants' registers, registers of buildings and dwellings, geographical co-ordinates, school registers, social security, tax, business and company registers). In addition, countries that produce their population statistics from population-register information automatically seem to follow the de jure population concept. Indeed, it must at least be assumed that population registers include only residents who habitually live in the country;
  • The "mixed" census, the third possible census method based on a combination of statistical inquiries and sources. In this case enumeration is always carried out on specific topics or on a sample of the population, and is combined with existing regular statistical surveys, registers, lists, or ad hoc organised activities.

(See R 763/2008 Article 4)

Census round 2001

The tables presented in the topic of active population cover the total population for 31 countries.

In the census round 2001 four ways of collecting census data were used, namely:

- the traditional method of using census questionnaires (exhaustive census);

- the method of using registers and/or other administrative sources;

- a combination of registers and/or other administrative sources and

- surveys (complete enumerations or sample surveys).

Census round 1991

The tables presented in the census 1990/1991 round cover the total population and housing for 19 countries. Five main topics are covered: structure of population, active population, education level, households and dwellings. The level of completeness of the tables depends largely on the availability of data at the respective national statistical institutes.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Not applicable

18.3. Data collection

Eurostat selected only part of the topics concerned by these different census exercises in order to provide a quick userfriendly set of data adapted to the major interest of potential users. Time dimension is one of the main characteristics of this exercise.

18.4. Data validation

Figures reported in this database are supposed to be validated by the data providers prior sending them or making them available through Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation

Not applicable

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable


19. Comment Top

After validating the tables and figures, comments will be added

For Slovenia some data have been protected for confidentiality reasons. Instead of confidential data, the letter 'z' is given. Totals include confidential data. Data confidentiality is determined by the Act Regulating the Census of Population, Households and Housings in the Republic of Slovenia in 2002 (OJ RS No. 66/00 and 26/01), the National Statistics Act (OJ RS No. 45/95, 09/01) and the Personal Data Protection Act (OJ RS No. 59/99).

For more information see Census 2001 - Dwellings (National) and Census 2001 - Dwellings (Regional) in the annex at the bottom of the page.

Germany did not have a census at all around 2001 (the latest census is from 1987). For this country, only the tables that could be produced on the basis of existing sources are provided. For reasons of comparability between tables, the Micro-census (an annual survey of 1% sample of the resident population) is used in the national level tables (1 - 28). Tables on dwellings are from an additional Micro-census module from spring 2002 (undertaken every 4th year). Deviations from the definitions and instructions of the Table Programme are presented in footnotes. Due to sampling errors, the figures from the Micro-census are not very reliable for small population groups (less than 5000) and are thus expressed in 1000s. No accurate validation was therefore possible for most of the tables. In the other tables the figures are based on current population statistics and employment registers.

The following two flags are used in the database:

:c = not available due to confidentiality reasons

i = more information attached in explanatory texts

"e" = estimated


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Census 2001 - Dwellings