Turnover in services (sts_os_t)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: INS (National Institute for Statistics) is responsible for the data collection and dissemination.  

Time Dimension: 2018-A0

Data Provider: RO1


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

INS (National Institute for Statistics) is responsible for the data collection and dissemination.  

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Department of Short term Business Statistics

1.5. Contact mail address

Institutul National de Statistica (INS)
Bulevardul Libertatii 16, Bucharest 5

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 30/04/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 30/04/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 30/04/2019

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Services turnover.

3.2. Classification system

NACE Rev. 2.

3.3. Coverage - sector

The following activities are covered divisions 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 68, 71, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 92 of NACE Rev. 2, groups 811, 812, 813 and sum of Division 69 and Group 70.2, as well as classes 9313, 9329, 9603, 9604, 9609, 9313, 9329. From the size classes point of view for:

Division 68 units with less than 0 employee have been excluded.

Divisions  69, 70, 73, 74: units with less than 1 employee have been excluded.
Divisions  59, 63, 71, 77, 93, 96: units with less than 2 employees have been excluded.
Divisions 43, 49, 56, 62, 79, 81, 82 : units with less than 3 employees have been excluded.
Remaining divisions: units with less than 4 employees have been excluded.

The thresholds are modified every year depending of the turnover weights of the excluded units.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Services turnover as defined in CR 1503/2006. 

3.5. Statistical unit

Legal unit.

3.6. Statistical population

The sampling frame used for the sample selection is drawn from the Romanian Business Register (REGIS), which contained all enterprises, authorities and organisations as well as their local units that carried out any economic activity irrespective of their size or if they belong to the private or public sector. The Business Register is updated, yearly, on the balance sheets and contains the latest information on each enterprise in the statistical population such as the identification items (unique identification code, address etc.), economic activity codes (NACE Rev.2), number of employees (giving the enterprise size class). There are around 9100 units which are surveyed each month.

3.7. Reference area

All regions of Romania are covered. 

No data of statistical units that are located abroad are included.

3.8. Coverage - Time


3.9. Base period


4. Unit of measure Top

Indices (%)

5. Reference Period Top

Monthly data.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Council regulation (EC)  no 1165/1998 concerning short term statistics with subsequent amendments. The Government Ordinance no 9/1992 regarding the organisation of official statistics, republished in Romanian's Official Journal fisrt part, no 763/18.10.2002, modified and updated through the Government Ordinance no 957/2005. Statistical Law no. 226/2009 regarding the organisation of official statistics. According to Law no. 226/2009 all individuals and legal units are required to submit data to the INS on request. Sanctions are possible but the INS prefers to use persuasion to gain the necessary data. All statistical data are collected on the basis of national legal acts approved by Romanian Governmet (i.e the "Programme of Statistical Surveys of National Statistics). 

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Under the provision of the statistical law, INS cannot publish, or otherwise make available to one individual or organisation, statistics that could enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. No government official outside the National Institute of Statistics has access to the data before release to the public.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

All statistics collected and published by INS are governed by the statistical Law no. 226/2009 regarding the organisation of official statistics.
The Law specifies that: the official statistical services are authorised to ask for and receive free of charge statistical data and information from all natural and legal persons who are located, hold any kind of capital or carry out any type of activity on the Romanian territory.
Also under the provision of this law, INS cannot publish, or otherwise make available to one individual or organisation, statistics that could enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity.
INS has been repeatedly and publicly recognised by the government as fully intellectually independent: it decides by itself which data to collect, which methodology to use, and which results, methodological notes and commentaries are published.
The most important aspects on the organisation of the official statistics in Romanian are posted on the National Institute of Statistics Internet website (http://www.insse.ro). Copies of the statistical laws are available in Romanian from the library of the National Institute of Statistics, 16, Libertatii Avenue, Bucharest, District 5. 

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

No data are considered to be confidential.  

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

There is an advance release calendar of data dissemination which can be found on the website (http://www.insse.ro).
The results of the monthly survey are disseminated at M+43 (for G45) and M+44 (for turnover services) days by press release and via INS Internet website (http://www.insse.ro) and published at M+54 days in the Monthly Statistical Bulletin. The data can be found also in the TEMPO data base.  

8.2. Release calendar access

The release calendar is available on the NIS website (http://www.insse.ro/cms/en).

8.3. Release policy - user access

Monthly data are available to all users simultaneously at the time of release through the press release and via INS Internet website (http://www.insse.ro). No organisation or person outside the INS has access to the data before release to the public. Data are transmitted to Eurostat as an index by e-DAMIS using GESMES/TS format within 45 days (calendar days) after the reference month.  

9. Frequency of dissemination Top


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

The results of the monthly survey are disseminated at M+43 (for G45) and M+44 (for turnover services) by press release and via INS Internet website (http://www.insse.ro). 

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

The specific publications: "Sinteza principalilor indicatori economico-sociali" (Main Economic and Social Indicators) and “Buletinul Statistic Lunar” (Monthly Statistics Bulletin).  

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

The turnover index are available also in our on line data base TEMPO  which is available both in Romanian and English.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

No microdata are disseminated.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Data on services turnover indices are sent monthly to Eurostat both to be used in European aggregates as well as to be released as national data.  

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Brief details of the methodology are included with the published data. A detailed description of the indicators are available in the Metadata Database (http://colectaredate.insse.ro/metadata/public.htm?locale=en).

10.7. Quality management - documentation

PEEI in Focus- Services turnover (2009)

The statistical process is monitoring regarding relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality coherence and comparability. Self assesment of the survey manager are carried out from time to time.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The system of official statistics follows international and European quality standards. NIS Romania has adopted the UN Fundamental Principles for Official Statistics as well as the European Statistics Code of Practice.  

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Not available.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Data are relevant because are required by Europen legislation and Eurostat.

The main national users are grouped as following: Presidential administration, Governmental bodies; National Commission for Prognosis; mass-media; other users.

Their main needs: The Monthly Survey on Short-Term Statistics outcomes, in relation with the information provided by other surveys, are used by policy makers in establishing the actions and measures for economic development strategies.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

We conduct a user satisfaction survey every three years. The latest one was in 2018.

The publication can be found at the following link: http://www.insse.ro/cms/sites/default/files/field/publicatii/analiza_gradului_de_satisfactie_al_utilizatorilor_2018.pdf.

This publication presents the way in which the statistical data produced and the methodological information of the INS meet the information needs of the various user categories. It includes a presentation of the main results of the statistical survey on the "Satisfaction of statistical data users”, respectively the profile of INS statistical data users, the confidence in the INS and the statistical data produced by INS, the assessment of the quality of the data produced by INS.

12.3. Completeness

Data are compliant with European legislation and Eurostat requirments. All breakdowns and variable forms are provided, according to the EU regulations in force.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

There are negligible non sampling errors concerning coverage, measurement and non response. The CVs for September 2015 are presented in the annex.The response rate is around 92%.

CVs for September 2015
13.2. Sampling error

There  is an exaustive survey for enterprises employing 50 persons and more. For the remainder a sample is drawn. Units with less than 4 employees are excluded.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Usually the typing errors could appear in the processing  stage and the data  are revised the next month. The difference between initial figures and revised figures represents about +/-3.0 % of the initial figures for total retail trade index , gross series.  

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

All the activities carried out by INS during a year are scheduled through the Activity Plan with several months earlier. Annually, INS issues for the users a press release calendar and a catalogue of statistical products and services containing the names, periodicity, short descriptions and release dates for all publications. The press release is issued 36/38 days after the end of the reference month. The publication is ready within 54 days from the end of the reference month. The questionnaires are prefilled with identification data about reporting units and sent to them at the beginning of each quarter of the year. The enterprises are requested to answer by the 25th day following the reference month. Data collection is normally closed 2 days before publication.  

14.2. Punctuality

The process concerning the deadlines for the respondents to reply was performed as follows:

  • the units have to fill in the paper questionnaires and send them to the territorial statistical offices until 15th of the month following the reference month.
  •  the units can also fill in the on line questionnaires until around 23rd of the month following the reference month.

The process concerning the covering recalls and follow-ups was performed as follows:

  • from 15th till the 25th of the month following the reference month, the territorial statistical offices had to perform data entry and data checking.

In this phase, the covering recalls and follow-ups are taking place. The statisticians from the local offices contact or re contact the units/respondents who did not sent the data, irrespective of their size classes, but the stress was more on the enterprises with more than 50 employees, who are exhaustively surveyed and on those from the public sector. Since not all respondents comply with the deadline requested, a small proportion of questionnaires reach with delay the territorial statistical offices.

Data processing steps and the related periods were:

At local level (regional/county statistical office) the data processing consisted in:

  • data collection – until 15th of the following month of the reference month;
  • data entry and validation-  from 15th of the following month of the reference month till the 25th day of the month;

At central level (INS) the data processing consisted in:

  • data validation – errors were detected and sent for correction or explanations to the statistical offices;
  • comparative analysis with the previous month, the same month of the previous year and with other data sources (surveys and administrative data);
  • the analysis of the non-weighted data;
  • the weighting procedures;
  • the analysis of the weighted data;
  • data tabulation;
  • monthly data preparation for dissemination in the press releases, the Monthly Statistical Bulletin, the TEMPO (on-line) database;
  • transposing into the STS standard format for data transmission designed by Eurostat;
  • transmission of final results to Eurostat.

The publication dates for the monthly indicators were disseminated in accordance with the legal requirements as follows:

  • European level (Eurostat): M+45 of each month;
  • National level:
    • Press releases - M+43 (for G45) and M+44 (for turnover services) of each month;
    • Monthly Statistical Bulletin (MSB) - M+54 and TEMPO data base - M+45 of each month.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Definition of statistical units - There is no deviation from European concepts:

The unit of selection was the legal unit defined according to the communitarian rules for enterprises statistics as: ,,the smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making, especially for the allocation of its current resources. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit”.

The observation unit of the Monthly survey on short term statistics was close to local unit.

Populations - There is no deviation from European concepts:

The Romanian Business Register was designed and implemented based on the administrative files (REGIS, which is the Fiscal Register, updated annually) and statistical sources in addition (Trade Register, Balance Sheet files, VAT files, feedback from other surveys, used as consultation data sources for improving the quality of the register data).

According to the Council Regulations, REGIS contained the following types of statistical units: legal unit, enterprise, and local unit. All the enterprises having the main activity in the section A to S - NACE Rev.2, whatever their size (number of employees) were covered.

The Romanian Business Register contained all enterprises, authorities and organisations as well as their local units in Romania that carried out any economic activity irrespective of their size or if they belong to the private or public sector. There were covered the following institutional sectors:

  • Non-financial corporate and quasi-corporate enterprises;
  • Central and local administration;
  • Social security institutions and private non-profit institutions serving households.

In respect to the budgetary institutions and public administration REGIS was the most complete register inRomania, based on Official Journal and the collaboration with a lot of administration institutions.

Reference times - There is no deviation from European concepts:

The statistics on persons employed were produced with monthly periodicity.

Classifications - There is no deviation from European concepts:

The national classification of economic activities is covered by CAEN Rev.2 fully harmonized with NACE Rev.2.

Definitions of variables -There is no deviations from European concepts:

The definitions of the variable was developed and adopted in accordance with European standards (Council Regulation no.1165/1998 concerning short-term statistics and Regulation (EC) no 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Regulation (EC) No 1165/98 concerning short-term statistics.

15.2. Comparability - over time

No major methodological changes over the last 10 years.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Confrontation is made with the annualy SBS data. Usualy the monthly data are not revised as a result of confrontation but some revision of data could be done when we change the base year as a result of confrontation with annual SBS data.   

15.4. Coherence - internal

All data are coherent at different aggregation levels of NACE.

16. Cost and Burden Top

Number of units in 2012=8107

Cost (NSI) hours per year=21712

Burden (respondents) hours per year= 16214

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Data revisions follow the Revision Policy of the NIS Romania, which represent one of the key documents of the office. The same revision policy is applied to STS data released nationally and transmitted to Eurostat. Calendar of standard revisions is being prepared together with the release calendar. (http://www.insse.ro/cms/en/content/revision-policy).

1.  Routine revisions: The revised indices are published together with the preliminary indices for the following month. Notice is given at the time the change is introduced.

2.  Major revisions: In the case of regular index rebases (as a rule every five years), the results and changes in the calculation methodology or  major changes as classification  notice are presented in detail in the Monthly Statistical Bulletin and on the NIS website well in advance of the change.

Vintage database are not available.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The data are preliminary when first released and are revised three months after the end of the reference month.

The difference between initial figures and revised figures represents about +/-3 % of the initial figures for services turnover index , gross series.

Major changes in methodology are announced in all statistical publications at the time of the change.The status of data is clearly indicated in the publications. 

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Statistical survey. The frame used for sampling is business. There is a stratified sample survey. The sample is updated annualy.

All units with 50 employees or more are included. For the remainder a sample is drawn.
4 - 49 employees: 4.3%
50 and more employees: 100%

The motor trade sample includes approximately 448 enterprises, the wholesale trade sample includes approximately 2560 enterprises, the market services sample includes approximately 1184 enterprises, the sample for services rendered mainly to enterprises includes approximately 4932 enterprises.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Data are collected monthly.

18.3. Data collection

One combined questionnaire regarding turnover, number of employees, wages and salaries, investment is used (SERV TS – Short term indicators in services in month ……, Chapter CA Turnover in retail trade according to annex D of the STS regulation). Data are collected in principal using a web questionnaire. For the rest of the respondent units paper questionnaire or electronic format by e-mail is used. The paper questionnaires are sent to the reporting units and then collected by county statistical offices. From 2010 onwards data are collected online using the eSOP portal for statistical data  collection.  

18.4. Data validation

The IT solution for Monthly survey on short-term statistics was developed to find out the measurement and processing errors occurred in different stages of the survey. The application was designed for on line data collection and validation.

The IT solution allowed to perform on line data entry and validation at unit level. Also, the IT solution allowed to perform data entry and validation for questionnaires received on paper by post/email at county level (42 counties in total – NUTS3 level).

The IT solution contained the following categories of logical tests that check:

  • the primary data from the questionnaires;
  • the logical flows among the questionnaire chapters;
  • the data integrity and correctness;
  • the data comparability with the previous month.

The logical tests have the scope:

  • to follow and check the logical flows of the questionnaire;
  • to correlate data from related chapters of the questionnaire;
  • to define and check certain limits to which the indicators should belong compared to their evolution over time and between them;
  • to find out the outliers or non-logical values.

The tests for data integrity check the identification information from the sample of units with the information from respondent files.

At central level more accurate and detailed procedures were developed using Visual Fox for checking data integrity and correctness:

  • data comparison with the previous and corresponding months;
  • non-weighted procedures;
  • data tabulation;
  • automatic transformation of final results into the STS standard format designed by Eurostat;
  • data transmission to Eurostat.

Logical tests were performed for data checking and correlation on all the indicators collected through the survey. Since the same tests were conducted at local level (unit and county) as well as at central level, the largest part of the errors found was solved from the beginning (at local level). The figures were corrected after re-contacting the corresponding enterprises by the statistical offices.

The questionnaire design, detailed explanatory notes and the IT solution developed had as result a complete and of good quality data set.

18.5. Data compilation

Non-response is imputed using the average for the cell. If non- response is due to the closure or temporary suspension of activity, no imputation is made.The sample results are grossed up using Horvitz-Thomson estimator. 

Turnover volume indices in services are of Laspeyres type and are calculated under comparable methodological conditions and prices. In order to express the values of current period in the prices of the reference period, deflators (consumer price indices) are used. The first indices obtained are at class/group level of CANE Rev. 2; by successive aggregations indices at higher levels are obtained. The weights used for aggregation are turnover based on the results of the Structural Business Survey in the reference year (2015).

18.6. Adjustment

In order to adjust the series Jdemetra + v2.2 was used (TRAMO/SEATS method) estimating the effect of the number of working days, different from one month to another and the calendar effect (orthodox Easter, leap year and other national holidays) as well as the identification and correction of outliers (occasional, transitional or permanent changes) and interpolation of missing values.
Series adjusted for the number of working days was obtained by eliminating from unadjusted series those effects by means of correction coefficients set up according to the regression model used (additive or multiplicative).
The regression models used for each series are set up at the beginning of each year involving the recalculation of adjusted series calculated in the previous year (recalculation due to the change in the adopted models, number of regressors used, number of available observations).
Aggregated levels were adjusted by the direct method namely direct adjustment of aggregated series.
The estimation of unobserved components (trend-cycle, seasonality and irregular components) is done by the SEATS program based on ARIMA models. The series adjusted for working days and seasonality is obtained by eliminating the seasonal component from the working-day adjusted series. 

Services turnover- Metadata on calendar and seasonal adjustment

19. Comment Top

Not available.

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top
CVs for September 2015
Services turnover- Metadata on calendar and seasonal adjustment