Turnover in services (sts_os_t)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Istat - Italian National Statistical Institute

Time Dimension: 2018-A0

Data Provider: IT1


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Istat - Italian National Statistical Institute
1.2. Contact organisation unit

SED - Division for short-term business statistics

1.5. Contact mail address

Via Tuscolana, 1788 00173 Rome Italy

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 18/04/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 18/04/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 18/04/2019

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The quarterly survey on turnover of the services is a sampling survey aimed to produce short term indicators for the sectors considered. The survey has realized in accordance with EU Regulation on short term statistics (n.1165/98 EC, Annex D, referring "other services" and included in Statistic National Program. A provisional index is published about 60 days from reference period and it will be revised and published as definitive one about 150 days.

The main topics observed are: Turnover of services companies

3.2. Classification system

NACE Rev. 2.

3.3. Coverage - sector
Groups 70.2, 81.2, Divisions 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 69, 71, 73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, Section J, of NACE Rev. 2.

Enterprises with more than 2 employees are covered. For groups 45.1, 49.1, 49.2 and division 52 enterprises with more than 5 employees are covered.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions
The variables collected by the questionnaires are turnover and number of persons employed, as auxiliary variable.
Turnover comprises the totals invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of good and services supplied to third parties. It is valued excluding VAT.
Employment data correspond to the total number of persons employed at the end of the reference period. This total includes all persons linked to the enterprise by a direct work contract, on the basis of which they receive a payment.
3.5. Statistical unit
3.6. Statistical population

The population of enterprises belonging to the economic activities of Groups 70.2, 81.2, Divisions 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 69, 71, 73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, Section J, of NACE Rev. 2.

The frame for identifying units for the population is the Business Register (Archivio Statistico delle Imprese Attive – ASIA).

3.7. Reference area
Italy - The whole national territory
3.8. Coverage - Time
The data are available from 1999
3.9. Base period

4. Unit of measure Top


5. Reference Period Top

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Legal basis:

National level: This is one of the compulsory surveys fixed every year by a Decree of the President of the Republic (D.P.R.).

European level:

Council Regulation No 1165/1998 Council Regulation No 1165/1998 of 19 May 1998 Introducing short-term statistics at European level;

Regulation (EC) of the European Parliament and of the Council 1158/2005  (Council Regulation No1158/2005) amending Regulation 1165/98 introducing the European sample schemes, industrial import prices, output prices for services and other changes.

Commission Regulation 1503/2006 (Commission Regulation 1503/2006) defining variables and frequency of data compilation, repealing new orders received for building construction and new orders received for civil engineering

Commission Regulation 656/2007 (Commission Regulation 656/2007 )    on the definition of main industrial groupings (MIGS) in NACE Rev. 2.

Commission Regulation 472/2008 (Commision Regulation 472/2008 ) introducing the new base year 2005 and the statistical classification of economic activities, NACE Rev. 2, into short-term statistics.
6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not available

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Several national legal acts guarantee the confidentiality of data requested for statistical purposes. According to art. 9, paragraph 1 of the Legislative Decree n. 322 of 1989, personal data can only be disseminated in aggregate form, in order to make it impossible to identify individuals, and can only be used for statistical purposes. Legislative Decree n. 322 of 1989, art. 6 bis and Legislative Decree n. 196 of 2003 Annex A3 (Code of conduct and professional practice applying to the processing of personal data for statistical and scientific research purposes within the framework of the National Statistical System), art. 8, provide that the exchange of personal data within the National Statistical System (Sistan) is possible if it is necessary to fulfil requirements provided by the National Statistical Programme or to allow the pursuit of institutional purposes. The supply of the identification data of statistical units is allowed within the framework of entities included in the National Statistical System if the requesting party declares that no identical statistical result can be obtained otherwise. Regarding subjects who do not belong to Sistan, Article. 7 of the Code of conduct (Decree n. 196/2003, Annex A3) states that it is possible to transmit individual data files without direct identifiers within the framework of specific laboratories set up by entities included in the National Statistical System, under certain conditions and only if that the data are protected by the application of statistical methods that make it highly unlikely the identification of statistical units.

Links to relevant legal acts on statistics are also listed on the website of Sistan - National Statistical System - (http://www.sistan.it/index.php?id=203).

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment
There are no confidentiality issues at the present time.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar
Every year in December Istat publishes a release calendar providing the precise release dates for the coming year. The calendar is distributed to the press and is available free of charge to interested parties. The calendar is also disseminated on Istat web site
8.2. Release calendar access


8.3. Release policy - user access
Data are released simultaneously to all interested parties by issuing the press release "Fatturato dei servizi" posted on the Italian National Institute of Statistics website http://www.istat.it.
No pre-release access is granted. Data are sent to Eurostat via Edamis within 60 days from the end of the reference quarter.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top
Quarterly press releases are disseminated as provisional at about 60 days after the end of the reference quarter. Final data are released 150 days after the end of the reference quarter.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release
Identification of ministerial commentary on the occasion of statistical releases: No comments from a Government Ministry.
10.2. Dissemination format - Publications
Fatturato dei servizi (quarterly press release) and Annuario statistico italiano (yearly).
10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Data are disseminated in I.Stat  database (I.Stat), theme Services, data set Indexes of turnover in other services

The on-line database I.Stat is open and free, statistics are organised by theme in a two-level hierarchical tree. Data are presented in aggregate form in multidimensional tables; acting on variables, reference periods and the arrangement of heads and sides users can create custom tables and graphs. Datasets can be searched by keyword, theme and region.
A wide range of standard metadata facilitates the retrieval and understanding of statistics by users.

More information available in the User Guide

User Guide 
10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available

10.5. Dissemination format - other
Not available.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The methodology and characteristics of the survey are described in the technical explanatory note attached to the press release. The document is regularly updated.

A description of methodology and sources used in preparing statistics is also contained in the Information System for Survey Documentation and Quality Control (Siqual) available on Istat Internet website http://siqual.istat.it/SIQual/lang.do?language=UK. This system manages qualitative information related to each single phase of a survey's production process.
The standard tables contain the quarterly turnover indexes (2015=100, gross data) for the economic activities listed at point 3.3. Data are provided also in unadjusted and seasonally adjusted form.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Information about procedures applied for quality management and assessment are available in the document "Quality Guidelines for Statistical Processes" - December 2012


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance
Since the 90s Istat adopted a systematic approach to ensure quality in both statistical information and service to the community. For this purpose the Institute has defined a quality policy providing itself with appropriate tools as well as management changes to carry it out. Istat quality policy is coherent with the European framework developed by Eurostat, taking up its main principles and definitions. In 2005, the European Statistics Code of Practice (revised in 2011) established the principles to follow in order to ensure and strengthen both accountability and governance of the European Statistical System and the National Statistical Systems inside it. Essential points of Istat quality policy are: Process quality: consisting in the production of accurate statistical information efficiently and effectively; Product quality: consisting in the dissemination of high-quality timely statistical data which are relevant for the users, also the potential ones; Documentation: consisting in the storage and availability of information necessary not only for a proper use of data but also to ensure transparency in all the production activities of statistical data; Respect for respondents: consisting in the reduction of response burden and in the respect of respondent's privacy; Strengthening of statistical literacy: consisting in promoting a proper use of statistical information in policy-making to better support decisions and policies; Users' orientation: consisting in making statistical information easily accessible and understandable and in satisfying user needs as much as possible. For details:


11.2. Quality management - assessment

In 2010 this survey was submitted to an audit on quality in a testing phase  https://www.istat.it/en/methods-and-tools/tools-for-data-quality/audit

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Main users turnover sales index are:

- Institutions: government departments, ECB, national central bank, international organisations, etc.
- Social actors: employers' organisations, trade unions, lobby groups, etc.
- Media
- Researchers & students
- Enterprises/businesses
- Internal users
- Eurostat

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available

12.3. Completeness

Not available

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not available

13.2. Sampling error

The sampling error for the sampled subpopulation is measured in terms of coefficient of variation and is set equal to 3% for all the estimates domain except for division 55 where is equal to 5%.

13.3. Non-sampling error
The response rate for the Divisions 50, 51 and 53 is about 90% for provisional estimates and near to 100% for final estimates. The average response rates for the other activities are around 70% for provisional estimates and 90% for final estimates. Non-responding enterprises are contacted by email reminders. The most important enterprises in terms of turnover are contacted by telephone.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness
Quarterly press releases are disseminated as provisional 60 days after the end of the reference period. Final data are released 150 days after the end of the reference period.
Data are transmitted to Eurostat 60 days after the end of the reference period as confidential until dissemination in Italy.

14.2. Punctuality

100% of releases are delivered on time, based on scheduled release dates.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Not available

15.2. Comparability - over time

Not available

15.3. Coherence - cross domain
Dissemination of information that support statistical cross-checks and provide assurance of reasonableness are not available. 
The estimated levels of turnover and number of persons employed coming from the survey are compared with those provided by Structural Business Statistics.
15.4. Coherence - internal

Not available

16. Cost and Burden Top

The cost estimate is compiled in terms of total number of hours worked (THW). It is equal to the product of three terms: (total) Annual Working Days (AWD), (total) Hours Worked per Day (HWD), Number of Persons involved in the Survey (NPS).




Cost estimate (THW)





The burden estimate is compiled in terms of total number of minutes (TNM) taken to fill in the (web) questionnaire. The burden is applied to respondent, i.e. the person who fills in the questionnaire on behalf of the enterprise. To estimate it, two elements have been taken into account. The former distinguishes between beginner and expert respondent, to point out respectively the person who fills in the web questionnaire for the first time and the one who is familiar with filling in the form. The latter, closely concerns the information that have to be monthly provided. On average, by combining these two elements, the time spent to fill in the questionnaire (just the burden) is estimated in terms of total number of minutes between a minimum and a maximum threshold.

 Type of Respondent

Burden estimate (TNM)


15 min. ≤ burden ≤ 30 min.


5 min. ≤ burden ≤ 10 min.



17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Quarterly press releases are disseminated as provisional 60 days after the end of the reference period. Final data are released 150 days after the end of the reference period.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The data are provisional at the time of the Press Release in which they are reported. Generally, major changes in methodology, sources and statistical techniques are announced in ad hoc publications.
Advance notification of methodological changes is also provided through seminars and papers disseminated throughout the scientific community. Quarterly revisions (routine revisions) are also scheduled and concern both indexes transmitted to Eurostat and indexes nationally released.

The Mean Revision (MR), the Mean Absolute Revision (MAR)  and the RMAR (Relative Mean Absolute Revision) indicators are here reported for the unadjusted FAS quarterly percentage changes and the seasonally adjusted FAS percentage changes.  These indicators refer to  20 values for quarterly data.


Unadjusted FAS












Seasonally adjusted FAS











18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The data are collected through a statistical survey. The frame on which the source is based is business register managed and yearly updated by Istat (Archivio Statistico delle Imprese Attive – ASIA).
The surveys for Divisions 50, 51, 53 and 61 are carried out on the basis of a non-random sample, selecting the enterprises in order to have a turnover coverage of about 80-90%. For other divisions a stratified sample is selected. The overall sample size is about 16,000-17,000 enterprises.
Two criteria for stratification  are taken into account: economic activity (Division or Group) and size of the enterprise (number of employees).
The threshold is given by number of persons employed classes: 2-4; 5-19; 20-99; 100 and more.
At the beginning of every year the samples of the surveys are updated to manage panel attrition.

18.2. Frequency of data collection
The data are collected quarterly.
18.3. Data collection

Self-administered data collection via electronic transmission, data are collected through a web portal called Portale Imprese https://imprese.istat.it/

Respondents need to login for insert data in the web questionnaire.

18.4. Data validation
Every questionnaire is checked during data entry; every variable is checked through a comparison with past values according to a coherence criterion. Outlier observations are identified: a) for most of the divisions according to the analysis of individual time series; b) for the other indicators, on the basis of the Hidiroglou-Berthelot method (based on quartiles of the empirical frequency distribution) and a macro-editing technique.


18.5. Data compilation

Non responses are estimated at micro-level by modelling. 
For the probabilistic sample surveys the results are grossed up using sample final weights applied to each respondent unit in each estimation domain. Final weights are obtained multiplying the inverse of inclusion probabilities by a unit non-response correction factor.
The index is calculated by Laspeyres formula with fixed base (2015=100).For all indicators a weight system is derived from the Structural Business Statistics for the base year.

18.6. Adjustment

The seasonally adjusted data (Tramo/Seats procedure) are released for the longer series available.


19. Comment Top


Related metadata Top

Annexes Top