Structural business statistics (sbs)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Statistical Finland  

Time Dimension: 2015-A0

Data Provider: FI1

Data Flow: SBS_ESMS_A

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Finland


1.2. Contact organisation unit

Business and Globalization

1.5. Contact mail address

FI-00022 Statistics Finland

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 02/12/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 30/06/2017
2.3. Metadata last update 23/04/2019

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Structural business statistics (SBS) describes the structure, conduct and performance of economic activities, down to the most detailed activity level (several hundred economic sectors).

SBS covers all activities of the non-financial business economy with the exception of agricultural activities and personal services. Limited information is available on banking, insurance and pension funds.

 Main characteristics (variables) of the SBS data category:

  • Business demographic variables (e.g. Number of enterprises)
  • "Output related" variables (e.g. Turnover, Value added)
  • "Input related" variables: labour input (e.g. Employment, Hours worked); goods and services input (e.g. Total of purchases); capital input (e.g. Material investments)
3.2. Classification system

Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE): NACE Rev.1 was used until 2001, NACE Rev. 1.1 since 2002, and NACE Rev 2 is used from 2008 onwards. Key data were double reported in NACE Rev.1.1 and NACE Rev.2 for 2008. From 2009 onwards, only NACE Rev.2 data are available.

The regional breakdown of the EU Member States is based on the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Detailed information about the consecutive NUTS Regulations can be found at Eurostat's website

The product breakdown is based on the Classification of Products by Activity (CPA) as stated in the Regulation establishing CPA 2008 and its amending  Commission Regulation (EU) No 1209/2014  (from reference year 2015 onwards)

3.3. Coverage - sector

The SBS coverage was limited to Sections C to K of NACE Rev.1.1 until 2007. Starting from the reference year 2008 data is available for Sections B to N and Division S95 of NACE Rev.2. With 2013 as the first reference year information is published on NACE codes K6411, K6419 and K65 and its breakdown.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The statistical characteristics are defined in Annex I of Commission Regulation (EC) No 250/2009

3.5. Statistical unit

The provisions of Regulation 696/93 are partly implemented in the area of SBS according to Regulation 295/2008
Most of the legal units are identical with an enterprise.
In some case enterprise is identified by grouping legal units. In these cases we put the ancillary unit to the same NACE class as its main unit. But we don’t consolidate the account data.

3.6. Statistical population

The statistical population is equal to the business register.

Branches of foreign enterprises are included in the data if the branches are registered in Finland.
Foreign activities of an enterprise in Finland are included in the data only if these activities are included in the balance sheet of the enterprise registered in Finland.

3.7. Reference area

Finland (including NUTS)

3.8. Coverage - Time

1996 – 2016
Changes to the industrial classification caused breaks in the series in years 2002 and 2008

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top
  • Number of enterprises and number of local units are expressed in units.
  • Monetary data are expressed in millions of €.
  • Employment variables are expressed in units.
  • Per head values are expressed in thousands of € per head.

Ratios are expressed in percentages.

5. Reference Period Top

The data refers to fiscal year.
The different financial years are converted to correspond to the statistical year.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Year 1995 was the first year for the implementation of the Council Regulation No 58/97 (SBS Regulation).

The Council Regulation No 58/97 has been amended three times: by Council Regulation No 410/98, Commission Regulation No 1614/2002 and European Parliament and Council Regulation No 2056/2002. As a new amendment of the basic Regulation it was decided to recast the Regulation No 58/97 in order to obtain a new "clean" legal text. The European Parliament and Council Regulation No 295/2008 was adopted on 14/02/2008 and the provisions of this Regulation are applicable from the reference year 2008. Regulation No 295/2008 has been amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 446/2014.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Confidentiality policy is based on the basic statistical law.
The statistical authority shall not disclose information that allows the statistical unit to be identified directly.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality rules
Primary: If a cell contains less than 3 observation
Secondary: Flagging cells so that the least amount of data is lost.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

We have national release calendar

8.2. Release calendar access

Structural business and financial statement statistics:

Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity:

8.3. Release policy - user access

Yes, to the public

9. Frequency of dissemination Top


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

The national on-line database have been published two times a year
Structural business and financial statement statistics:

Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity:

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Paper publications: Statistical yearbook
Electronic publications:
Structural business and financial statement statistics:

Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity:

The publications is available in Finnish, Swedish and English

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

The national on-line database have been published two times a year.

Structural business and financial statement statistics:

Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity:

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Only available for researchers with license

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Not applicable

10.7. Quality management - documentation

The following is only available in Finnish
Structural business and financial statement statistics:

Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity:

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Specific tool for validation of SBS-series

11.2. Quality management - assessment

We have comprehensive administrative data at our disposal. This is the foundation for SBS variables that we provide to Eurostat.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Main users of the data are
Internal: Other departments in our institutions (national accounts), Researchers, Enterprises/businesses, Media,
External: Eurostat
SBS data published at national level is different from the data sent to Eurostat.
Enterprise size classifications is different due to number of enterprises. KAU-level statistics are not published. Reginal level of breakdown is different, as we publish the data at more detailed regional level instead of NUTs. Special aggregates are not published (Serie 1E). Variable 12120 is not published at enterprise level but rather at local level. Variable concerning investment are publishes net investment instead of gross investment.

We provide additional variables based on balance sheet information

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

We are monitoring users visiting on our internet sites.

12.3. Completeness

We are providing all the relevant data required by SBS regulations.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The main source of errors is non-response

13.2. Sampling error

Not relevant

13.3. Non-sampling error

The influence of non-sampling error is small. The unit non-response are imputed based on nearest neighbour with distance measure.

The recorded unit non-response rate: Low

The bias of the estimate: Small bias

Coverage error: Almost none

Out of scope units: For the reference year 2015 the business Register annual Quality Control Survey covered 1666 legal units. The response rate was 55.5 percent. Based on the survey results 3 percent were found to be misclassified (5-digit level).

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

National level

data-collection deadline 11/2016

dissemination deadline 9/2016 (preliminary data)
dissemination deadline 12/2016 (final data)

14.2. Punctuality

Just on time

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Fully comparable geographically

15.2. Comparability - over time

Length of comparable time series: 2013-2016
Statistical Finland has renewed and harmonized the production of business statistics from the statistical reference year 2013 onwards. The renewal improves the uniformity of business statistics. In connection with the renewal, uniform industries defined by the Business Register were taken into use. Due to changes in industries, the time series (SBS) are not in all respects fully comparable. The definition of an enterprise to be included in the statistics has not been changed in SBS series.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

- Number of enterprises, number of persons employed, number of employees in Business register

- Number of enterprises, number of persons employed, number of employees in Business demography

- Production value of Prodcom

- Value added of national account

- Evolution of turnover and persons employed from short term statistics

- Business services (turnover in Annex VIII versus Annex I)


The inconsistencies are evaluated as part of the manual editing process of statistics


Description of coherence:

Coherence between Business register and SBS is good. Between other statistics especially short term statistics coherence is less.

Explanation of differences:

Differences are caused by differences in statistical target population

15.4. Coherence - internal

The aggregates are always consistent with their main sub-aggregates

16. Cost and Burden Top

We use administrative data for most of SBS variables.

We are going to carry out stress measuring concerning survey enterprises during 2018.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Different versions of administrative data cause revisions. In general revisions are small/moderate if compared to the known use of data.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The methodology is the same for the preliminary data as the final data. All the revisions are due to revised source data.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Type of source

For the compilation of the Structural Business Statistical are used: Business register, a direct inquiry and Tax Authority administrative data. Administrative data from Tax Administration provides financial statements data for all enterprises (main source). The BR provides information on principal activity and number of personnel.
The direct inquiry is a census which cover enterprises with more than 50 employees. Enterprises with more than 10 employees are included in sample survey. The direct inquiry data are mainly collected for the national data needs (more detailed data on certain variables/items for the calculation of national accounts)

- any possible threshold values: not applicable
- the effective sample size is 5500

- the used administrative sources: Income tax data from tax authorities and Business register
- the characteristics directly available or with good proxy in the administrative source: 11110, 11210, 11310, 12110, 12120, 12130, 12150, 12170, 13110, 13120, 13131, 13210, 13211, 13213, 13310, 13320, 13330, 13411, 15110, 15120, 15130, 15140, 15150, 15210, 15420, 15441, 16110, 16120, 16130, 16140, 16150, 18110, 18120, 18121, 18122, 18150, 18160, 18310, 18320, 20110, 23110, 23120
- the extent to which the administrative source are used?: data source
- what kind of administrative data do you access?: micro data
- how do you assess the frequency to which the used administrative data sources are updated?: good
- whether the administrative data are subject to several revisions with (increasing) degree of completeness?: yes
- the relation between the reporting unit for the survey/adminitrative data and the enterpise?: Survey/ administrative data is received from the legal unit


What is the variable used for identifying principal and secondary activities?: Personnel (first the industry level value added multipliers are calculated)
- What is the method used for identifying activities?: bottom-up
- Please comment on the frequency of updating the unit's principal activity (stability rules)?: The unit’s principal activity is updated mainly once a year. We have account stability rules so that for certain cases (near 50/50 between principal and secondary) the unit’s principal activity is more stable over time.
- Please comment on the frequency of updating the business register in your NSI: in principle the business register is updated continuously, however most of the units and characteristics are updated?: once a year
- Please indicate the frequency with which the sample is updated?: new sample is drawn every year

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual data collection

18.3. Data collection

Administrative data:
Direct access to an administrative data base

Scoring model is introduced to detect and evaluate errors.

18.4. Data validation

1. Validation of format and file structure checks.
This validation is made right after extraction the data from administrative data base. The same prosedure is applied to the survey data.

2. Intra-dataset checks.
For further information see 18.5.

3. Inter-dataset checks.
Not applicable

4. Intra-domain, intra-source checks.
This includes revision checks and time series checks by industries.

5. Plausibility or consistency checks between two domains available in the same Institution.
Short term incoming data and annual incoming data is compared (eg. turnover) by industries.
6. Plausibility or consistency checks between the data available in the Institution and the data / information available outside the Institution.
For the time being there is no comparable outside database for this type of plausibility or consistency checks. 

18.5. Data compilation

Imputation methods:
Tax data is treated automatically using mass editing and imputation techniques. The errors and outliers are edited in following order: Logical edits, Outlier detection, Small errors (<5%) from turnover are re-scaled.
Two types of imputation methods are used in the SBS data. First type is donor imputation which is applied for unit non-response in tax data. The data is imputed using nearest neighbour imputation with distance measure. Unit non-response includes those units that have not sent their accounting data to Tax Authority: Second step is item non-response. Item non-response refer to mass imputation of the variables included in direct inquiry and not received from Tax Authority. Primary method used is regression imputation with outlier detection and weighting in necessary.

Survey data is mainly checked manually. It forms the basis for imputation process.

Tax data and survey data is compiled together thus forming our structural business data.

18.6. Adjustment

The accounting year is not necessarily same as the calendar year. No corrections are made to covert accounting year data to calendar year data.

19. Comment Top


Related metadata Top

Annexes Top