Harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) (prc_hicp)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: National Institute of Statistics, Romania In Romanian: Institutul Național de Statistică, România (INS)

Time Dimension: 2020-A0

Data Provider: RO1

Data Flow: HICP_NES_A


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
 



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

National Institute of Statistics, Romania

In Romanian: Institutul Național de Statistică, România (INS)

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Directorate of Prices Statistics (R.2.1.2)

1.5. Contact mail address

B-dul Libertății 16, Sector 5, Cod Poștal 050706, România


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 09/11/2020
2.2. Metadata last posted 09/11/2020
2.3. Metadata last update 09/11/2020


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) is a consumer price index (CPI) that is calculated according to a common approach. It measures the change over time of the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. Because of the common methodology, the HICPs of the countries and European aggregates can be directly compared.

3.2. Classification system

European classification of individual consumption according to purpose (ECOICOP)

3.3. Coverage - sector

The HICP covers the final monetary consumption expenditure of the household sector.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The main statistical variables are price indices.

3.5. Statistical unit

The basic unit of statistical observation are prices for consumer products.

3.6. Statistical population

3.6.1. Statistical target population

The target statistical universe is the 'household final monetary consumption expenditure' (HFMCE) on the economic territory of the country by both resident and non-resident households... The household sector to which the definition refers includes all individuals or groups of individuals irrespective of, in particular, the type of area in which they live, their position in the income distribution and their nationality or residence status. These definitions follow the national accounts concepts in the European System of Accounts.

3.6.2. Coverage error population

Not the case

3.7. Reference area

3.7.1. Geographical coverage

The Romanian HICP covers the entire area of the country, without using any regional weights. There are no overseas territories. The sample of localities is representative for the entire territory, the stratification of the index being national. 42 urban localities (NUTS 3) compose the sample of localities.

3.7.2. Coverage error regions

All 42 counties (NUTS 3) are covered in the Romanian HICP. The 68 survey centers are  set up by the territorial offices  in  42 urban localities which have been chosen in accordance with the number of inhabitants.

The domestic concept is implemented. The compliance with the domestic concept is assured by using the national accounts data, which are compiled based on the supply use table concepts and standards.

3.8. Coverage - Time

3.8.1. Start of time series

In accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1687/98, each Member State is required to produce a harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) starting in January 1997.

3.8.2. Start of time series - national specifics

HICPs with harmonised coverage and methodology have been published since January 2001. Interim indices based largely on existing national Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) are available back to January 1996; these are adjusted to reduce differences in coverage of goods and services observed between national CPIs.

See the HICP database

 

3.9. Base period

2015=100


4. Unit of measure Top

The following units are used:

  • Index point
  • Percentage change on the same period of the previous year (rates);
  • Percentage change on the previous period (rates);
  • Percentage share of the total (weights).


5. Reference Period Top

HICP is a monthly statistics.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICPs) are harmonised inflation figures required under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Council Regulation (EC) No 2016/792 of 11 May 2016 (OJ L 135) sets the legal basis for establishing a harmonised methodology for the compilation of the HICP, the MUICP and the EICP.
The Commission has brought forward detailed Regulations establishing the specific rules governing the production of harmonised indices.

Regulations:

  • Initial implementing measures (1749/1996)
  • Sub-indices (2214/1996)
  • Weights (2454/1997)-repealed
  • Coverage of goods and services (1687/1998)
  • Geographic and population coverage (1688/1998)
  • Treatment of tariffs (2646/1998)
  • Treatment of insurance (1617/1999)
  • Revised sub-indices (1749/1999)
  • Treatment of products in the health, education and social protection sectors (2166/1999)
  • Timing of entering purchaser prices (2601/2000)
  • Treatment of price reductions (2602/2000)
  • Treatment of service charges (1920/2001)
  • Minimum standards for revisions (1921/2001)
  • Common index reference period (1708/2005)
  • Temporal coverage of price collection (701/2006)
  • Sampling (1334/2007)
  • Seasonal products (330/2009)
  • Weights (1114/2010)
  • Owner-occupied housing (93/2013)
  • Common index reference period (2015/2010)

 

All relevant regulations as well as further methodological details can be found in the HICP section on Eurostat's website under Methodology => Legislation.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

None.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

The standards defining the confidentiality of statistical data are compliant with the Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (11 March 2009), on the transmission of data subject to statistical confidentiality to the Statistical Office of the European Communities, also with Article 36 of the Law no. 226/2009 on the organisation and functioning of Official Statistics in Romania.

The article 36 in the Romanian Law on Statistics states that:

  • the statistical data are deemed confidential if they relate to a single person or legal entity or allow the identification, directly or indirectly, of the person or legal entity concerned;
  • the statistical data obtained from processing individual data should only be disseminated if after aggregation the results refer to at least 3 sources and if none of them has a weight bigger than 80%;
  • confidentiality does not extend to individual data on institutions and organisations financed from the state budget, unless such data are protected by laws and other special acts;
  • confidential statistical data collected by the producers of official statistics cannot be used as evidence in court or to establish rights and obligations for data providers to which it relates.

 

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Almost all INS statistical programs rely on voluntary respondent cooperation. Consequently, it is important to ensure that respondents are comfortable that sensitive information they give to a statistical program won’t be revealed in a way that jeopardizes their interests. If not, respondents are less likely to cooperate with that program and perhaps other statistical programs.

In the case of CPI/HICP, the price collectors request permission from the managers of the outlets to price a set of unique consumer and services surveyed items, which are specific goods and services that can be purchased by a general consumer.

Official HICP products released include:

  • HICP by 3 digits of COICOP at national level
  • HICP by 5 digits of COICOP at European level

Any decision to publish additional data below 5 digits level of COICOP is conditional on having assurance that the additional publication will not compromise INS confidentiality pledges. When a customer requests non-published information the INS evaluates the feasibility of producing a special tabulation or the feasibility of the researcher accessing micro data.

 

 


8. Release policy Top

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see point 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

8.1. Release calendar

An advance release calendar is published on the INS Romania website (http://www.insse.ro/cms/en), at the beginning of the year, containing the precise release data for press releases and monthly bulletins. The time horizon is the (rest of) current year. There is no special or pre-access to specific users.

8.2. Release calendar access

The publication dates can be found by following the links below:

Press releases calendar - INS Romania

Statistical publications calendar - INS Romania

Eurostat

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

 

 

 


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Monthly


10. Accessibility and clarity Top

The HICP is published monthly or annual in hard or electronic copy, in both Romanian and English languages.

The first release is referring only to the 12 month average rate of HICP and is available simultaneous to all users when the CPI press release is published. The CPI press release is available on the INS website at 9:00 a.m. on the day of release.

The monthly HICP sub-indices are published in the Monthly Price Statistical Bulletin and the annual HICP sub-indices are published in the Statistical Yearbook.

The HICP index levels are disseminated with 2 decimals and the rate of change with one decimal.  

10.1. Dissemination format - News release

See above (accessibility and clarity)

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

See above (accessibility and clarity)

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Detailed HICP time series for Romania are available only on the Eurostat HICP database.                                                                                                                                

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Access to confidential data (microdata) for scientific purposes is the only exception to the rule that confidential data can only be used to produce official statistics.

More about the microdata access in case of Romanian’s INS could be find at the following link: INS-microdata. However, for the time being, there is no CPI/HICP anonymized microdata.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

None.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The HICP Methodological Manual provides the reference methodology for the production of HICP. (https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-GQ-17-015)

10.6.1. Documentation on methodology - national specifics

There is no specific methodology for the HICP at the national level. A short description regarding the HICP is published together with the national CPI methodology. 

Page containing a link to the Romanian CPI methodology (in Romanian)

10.7. Quality management - documentation

INS did not compile yet any dedicated HICP quality report so far. The first quality assessment report was done in 2007, at the moment of Eurostat’s compliance monitoring visit. The next was done after the HICP monitoring visit in 2018.

See Eurostat's Compliance Monitoring Report of 2018.


11. Quality management Top

In the context of compliance monitoring and quality assurance, Eurostat reviewed the Romanian HICP system in spring 2007 and in winter 2018. The statistical practices used to compile the HICP for Romania have been reviewed against HICP methodology and other guidelines and good practices in the field of consumer price indices.

Besides of compliance monitoring visits, the article 9 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 2016/792 provides other forms of quality assurance documentations: quality reports and inventories containing details of data sources, definitions and methods used.

11.1. Quality assurance

11.1.1. Quality management - Compliance Monitoring

Compliance Monitoring

11.1.2. Quality assurance - national specifics

INS Romania has been developing its quality policy and the methods and tools of quality assessment in accordance with the standard documents of the ESS quality system. More about the quality statistical system in Romania can be found by following this link:

Quality of the Romanian Statistical System

11.2. Quality management - assessment

11.2.1. Compliance monitoring - last report and main results

Compliance Monitoring

11.2.2. Quality assessment - national specifics

There isn`t any quality assessment document for HICP/CPI prepared at national level in present. However the assessment of the HICP/CPI data in terms of accuracy is ocasionally made by the National Statistical Council (NSC) and the National Statistical System Committee (COMSTAT).


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

In addition to being a general measure of inflation, the HICP is also used in the areas of:

  • wages, social benefit and contract indexation;
  • economic forecasting and analysis;
  • measuring specific price trends;
  • accounting purposes and deflating other series;
  • inflation targeting by central banks;
  • cross-country economic comparisons.

 

The euro area (evolving composition) index is used by the European Central Bank (ECB) as the main indicator for monetary policy management. The ECB and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN) use the HICP for assessing price stability and price convergence required for entry into European Monetary Union.

Other users include: National Central Banks, financial institutions, economic analysts, the media and the public at large.

12.1.1. User Needs - national specifics

Internal beneficiaries for the statistical data from INS Romania are the following institutions: the National Bank of Romania, the Government of Romania, the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, the Parliament of Romania and the Presidential Administration.

External beneficiaries: World Bank, the European Union Statistical Office and the International Monetary Fund.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

INS Romania conducts a web opinion survey which covers all statistical domains. The  purpose of this web survey is to gather statistical information in order to help INS improve the national statistics system - so it would better fulfill the user needs. All feedback is anonymous and confidential.

The contacts between INS Romania and the main users of official statistics are established via two advisory boards. National Statistical Council (NSC) and National Statistical System Committee (COMSTAT)

12.3. Completeness

There is no missing data. INS Romania produces and delivers the full set of data for indices and weights required by the existing European standards and regulations for the consumer price statistics.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

CPI/HICP price data are routinely assessed using clear rules. First, when interviewers enter price data into their computers, the figures are checked for validity of the results. If there is a large divergence from the previous price, the interviewer is asked to confirm the new price. After the prices have been sent to the central office they are automatically checked. The exceptional price changes are verified against price collection sheets or by calling the price collector or the outlet. Centrally collected prices are checked in a similar manner.

National accounts and household budget survey data are investigated and assessed before using them to compile CPI/HICP weights.

13.2. Sampling error

No information is available on the sampling errors of component or aggregate CPI/HICP series, and there are no recent INS studies on this issue. Neither are there standard error estimates associated with the HICP expenditure weights, because these are taken from the national accounts.

13.3. Non-sampling error

The CPI/HICP system does not provide a specific report on the non-sampling errors. However, as noted above, the CPI/HICP system includes for each stage of processing validation checks, such as for coding, entry, transfer and editing (control or correction). Annually, a general assessment is made of price data collection in term of non-responses, outlets which cannot be contacted or refuse to participate in the price survey or of temporary missing prices.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

The full set of HICPs is published each month according to a pre-announced schedule, usually between 15 and 18 days after the end of the reference month. Each year, the January news release is published at the end of February to allow for the annual update of the weights of individual product groups and the relative country weights of Members States in the country-group aggregates.

The euro area flash estimate is published on the last working day of the reference month or shortly after that.

14.2. Punctuality

Since the March 1997, launch of the HICP release, the HICP for the country groups aggregates has always been published on the pre-announced release dates.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

HICPs across Member States are comparable. Any differences at all levels of detail should only reflect differences in price changes or expenditure patterns.

To this end, definitions and classifications have been harmonised in a series of legal acts. The HICP is produced according to these minimum standards that may be applied with some flexibility as long as they result in an index that is estimated to differ systematically by less than or equal to 0.1 percentage points on average over one year against the previous year from an index compiled following the minimum standards (Article 4 of Council and Parliament Regulation (EU) 2016/792).

15.2. Comparability - over time

HICP data are fully comparable over time. There have been several improvements in methodology since HICP was introduced, with the aim of improving reliability and comparability of the HICPs. These changes may have introduced breaks in the time series.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The use of different consumption concepts, data sources for the weighting system and item classification in the CPI, made that CPI indices cannot be reconciled at higher levels with corresponding national accounts series as well as with the HICP.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The HICPs are internally coherent. Higher level aggregations are derived from detailed indices according to well-defined procedures.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

The HICP series, including back data, is revisable at any point in time under the terms set in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1921/2001 of 28 September 2001. The published HICP data may be revised for corrections, and new or improved information.

17.1.1. Data revision - policy - national specifics

HICP data can always be subject to revision, even if they are published as final when first released. Revised data are always identifiable as such and are accompanied by the reasons which led to the respective revision.

17.2. Data revision - practice

As mentioned above, HICP data can be revised but this never happened in the past.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

18.1.1. Weights

Starting with January 2012, the methodology of the weights calculation is fully in line with the standards provided for by the Commission Regulation (EU) No 1114/2010.

18.1.1.1. Compilation at elementary aggregate level

The weights below sub-index level are based mainly on HBS data for the year t-2. These data are supplemented and verified using other statistical and non-statistical sources. Additional sources are used in case of energy products, pharmaceutical products, telecommunications and postal services, education, new or used cars and transport services.

The additional sources are represented by the queries sent each year to the units, like for energy products, postal services and transport services (metro, rail or fluvial transport). For education and other transport services internal statistical sources developed by the departmental statistical units are used.

For telecommunication and new or used cars sources of information are national regulators, the ministry of internal affairs or studies and reports provided by the automotive manufacturers and importer association.

For the cases of no reliable information for deriving the weights the judgmental adjustment is applied.

Neither regional nor outlets weights are compiled.

Weights are updated annually and are kept constant throughout the year.

 

 

 

18.1.1.2. Compilation of sub-index weights.

The HICP expenditure weights are based on national accounts households` consumption data from year t-2. These data are labeled as semifinal data and are obtained based on the analysis of multiple sources and using the supply use framework.

Weights are updated annually and are kept constant throughout the year.

 

18.1.1.3. Reference period higher levels

2018

18.1.1.4. Weights - plausibility checking

We check the plausibility of the weights by comparing with previous years`s data and where we notice significant variations we look for an additional data source in order to explain better such changes.

18.1.2. Prices

Currently there are two basic price collection methods used: local price collection and central price collection.

The prices collected at local level are obtained by visiting the outlets selected in the sample and located across the country.

Central price collection covers mostly the prices that are identical for the whole economic territory.

18.1.2.1. Data Source - overview  

Restricted from publication

18.1.2.2. Scanner data - general information

Not applicable.

18.1.2.3. Bulk web scraping - general information

Since 2018, we have been testing a web-scraping tool as a data source for electronic devices, electric house appliances and cars.

18.1.3. Sampling design and procedure

18.1.3.1. Sampling design: regions - general information

The Romanian HICP covers the entire area of the country, without using any regional weights. The sample of localities is representative for the entire territory, the stratification of the index being national. 42 urban localities (NUTS 3) compose the sample of localities. 

18.1.3.2. Sampling design: outlets - general information

The outlet sample comprises outlets and units providing services to the population in the 68 survey centres. The outlet sample contains approx. 7300 units, 85% of which being privately owned.

Data from the survey on 100 agro-food markets for main agricultural products (vegetables and fruit) are also used.

The main types of outlets included in the sample are: specialized stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, mini-markets and agro-food markets (farmers` markets). The cash-and-carry type stores are not taken into consideration (they sell goods only to member access card holders, namely legal persons, authorised physical persons and family associations) .

 

 

 

18.1.3.3. Sampling design: products - newly significant goods and services

New products on the market are deemed significant for the consumer basket based on the expenditure levels (from HBS), also on the market share (if available). A certain product offer is chosen by the price collector at the outlet based on information they are able to get regarding both the sales volume and the regularity of supply.

New products are usually brought in at the end of the year (December), but forced replacements may happen when a product disappears from the market. Replacement is done by choosing a well sold similar product in the same price range, from the same outlet. If necessary, quality adjustments are done, by the experts at central level.

29 new items (goods and services) were introduced into the item list in 2020: oatmeal, bio orange juice, goat`s milk yoghurt, women`s sport leggings (synthetic), hypoallergenic bed pillow, electric styling brush with hot air (non-rotating), E27 halogen light bulb, G9 halogen light bulb, liquid (no bleach) laundry disinfectant, electric guitar, Dell Inspiron 3583 laptop (Intel Core i5 - 8265U), toy car (metal/plastic), SSD (Solid State Drive - 120 GB, 2.5", SATA III), portable bluetooth speaker, 2 GB Video Card, 4G smartphone (Dual Sim, Android, RAM 3-4 GB, storage 16 - 32 GB), Ford Ecosport new car (Trend, 1.0 Ecoboost, 125 CP, M6), Skoda Scala new car (Active, 1.0 TSI, 95 CP, M5), car air suspension bag, hair treatment mask, baby wipes, car air conditioning system freon recharge, distribution kit replacement, bike standard service, bone density scan (DEXA), MRI investigation of the lumbar spine, beard trimming, professional evening make-up, small dog grooming.

 

 

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Price data is collected every month.

18.3. Data collection

18.3.1. Price collection surveys

The activity of collecting prices and tariffs is carried out by statistically trained staff (approx. 115 people at national level), doing field work - using printed questionnaires.

They are locally coordinated by survey supervisors, who also collect prices and services` tariffs from administrative sources and from the local distribution companies.

At central level, the CPI staff organise and coordinate the national CPI survey and also do the central collection of prices of certain non-food goods and services` tariffs.

Prices/tariffs are centrally collected for the following non-food goods and services: newspapers and magazines, electric energy, rent, postal services, telephone (landline and mobile), TV subscriptions, urban transport (by underground), interurban transport (by train), air transport, river passengers transport, administrative fees (passport), administrative fees (driving license), financial services, desktop computers, Compulsory Auto Insurance (RCA), Compulsory Dwelling Insurance (PAD).

The experience of the price collectors and their knowledge of the local market is used in the outlet selection, but the decision of including an outlet in the sample is taken at central level, by the experts here, who also get information from retail statistics and marker researches (via Internet, press etc.).

For most goods, the selection of products and varieties within outlets is purposive. In each outlet, collectors choose one variety ‘representative of what people buy in your area’ from all products matching the specification of each item to be priced in that outlet. To facilitate this, they ask the retailer which are the most popular brands and those stocked regularly. As it is vital that the same product is priced each month, collectors must record enough detail of the product, such as brand and model, to ensure that it is uniquely identifiable.      

 

  

18.3.2. Timing of price collection

Frequency of data collection – every ten days for food goods, tobacco, fuels and water supply, sewage collection, refuse collection. The price collectors have to collect prices/tariffs for these goods and services three times a month, 1-7, 10-17 and 20-27 being the periods of collection. For the rest of the non food goods and tariffs of services, where products are showing no sharp and no irregular price changes within the same month, price are collected at the middle of the calendar month (second decade).

18.4. Data validation

The validation of data including outlier detection, missing prices and data entry errors takes place in a number of stages from the point of price collection onwards.

There is no automatic rejection of observed prices in our validation process. Each case (problematic price) is considered individually and all modifications are done on the basis of relevant information. All collected prices are reviewed by price collectors before being entered into the computer.

The second phase of control is incorporated in the computer program for data entry and in the end all data are checked by a person (supervisor) in the unit. If there are doubts about the reliability of one or several prices, these prices are checked once again by contacting price collectors or, if necessary, checked directly on the field.

The price collector and supervisor have to verify if the price variety is unchanged: description, unit of measure, producer etc. Keeping in touch with the manager of the outlet, they identify the causes of the change: changes in mark-up or exchange rate of Euro, transport costs, wholesale price or other reasons.

The reasons for price variations are filled-in in the ‘observation’ field. Data files are transmitted to the central office after this checking.

At central level the price information collected locally is loaded into the database after integrity control. The specialized program prints out indicators related to prices and indices at the country level as follows: minimum, maximum, geometric mean, standard deviation and variation coefficients for prices and indices.

These indicators are analyzed and the outliers and replacements are identified. Questions are raised with the regions many times each month. Preliminary index results are obtained and different procedures for quality adjustment and treatment of missing prices are applied.

18.4.1. Data validation - price data

See 18.4

18.5. Data compilation

18.5.1. Index formulae

The index is calculated using a Laspeyres chain index with weights that are updated on a yearly basis.

The prices indices for the elementary aggregates are computed as an unweighted geometrical mean of the indices for the product offers. This elementary aggregate is calculated for the current month, as against the base year t-2. A single formula is used for the compilation of the elementary aggregates. Since January 2001 we`ve been using a geometric mean formula for all elementary aggregates.

Index figures are published using 2 decimal places, while the rates of change are published using 1 decimal place. 

 

 

 

18.5.2. Aggregation method

Indices for higher levels are weighted averages of the elementary aggregate indices. A statistical program performs the aggregation of elementary indices to the upper level indices (item, sub-index and total).

18.5.3. Chaining and linking method

The Romanian HICP is a chained Laspeyres-type one, the weights being updated annually. The present weights (2020) are based on the HBS data for 2018 and price-updated to December 2019. Each year, the link is done in December, when indices are computed by using the updated basket and the new weights are linked to the previous series. The reference year is 2015. (2015=100).

18.5.4. Quality adjustment

If a non-comparable replacement is made, then all products could be subject to quality adjustment.

The following quality adjustment methods dealing with quality change of products are applied:

  • annual overlap: For many of the products new samples are drawn each year during the annual revision of consumer basket. December is used as a linking month and then the dual price collection is done - the prices are collected both for the old and for the new sample. Quality differences between these two samples are then eliminated by the overlap method called 'annual overlap'.
  • direct comparison. Price collectors are instructed to measure the price for the same variety throughout the year and if the variety disappears permanently from the market, they should choose another one with the most similar quality. In these cases, direct comparison method is applied, because of the minor difference in quality between the old and the new variety.
  • implicit quality adjustment methods. In some particular cases, the second approach is not applicable, due to the fact that quality difference between old and new product is 'significant', and implicit quality adjustment methods are applied. Overlap is used when the prices of both products are available in the same time period; bridged overlap (class-mean imputation) - when prices are not available; option cost.

Quality adjustment procedures are done centrally by the staff in central office. At local level, price collectors do not make any quality adjustments; they are only instructed to report to central office for the all cases of considerable quality changes of the replacement products.

18.5.5. Seasonal items - general information

The standards of the CE No 330/2009 have been implemented into the Romanian HICP starting with January 2011.

The classes which we treat now as seasonal are 01.1.6 Fruit and 01.1.7. Vegetables.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.

 


19. Comment Top


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top