Harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) (prc_hicp)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT)

Time Dimension: 2017-A0

Data Provider: TR1

Data Flow: HICP_ESMS_A

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT)

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Consumer Price Group

1.5. Contact mail address

Yücetepe Mah. Necatibey Cad. No:114
06100 Çankaya/ANKARA

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 23/05/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 23/05/2018
2.3. Metadata last update 23/05/2018

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICPs) give comparable measures of inflation for the countries and country groups they are produced. They are economic indicators that measure the change over time of the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. In other words they are a set of consumer price indices (CPIs) calculated according to a harmonised approach and a single set of definitions.

3.2. Classification system

ECOICOP/HICP (European Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose).

3.3. Coverage - sector

HICPs cover the whole household sector, more precisely the goods and services that acquired by households

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

1) Monthly data:

•          Indices(HICP 2015=100)

•          Annual rates of change

•          Monthly rates of change

•          12-month average rate of change

2) Annual data:

•          Country weights

•           Item weights

3.5. Statistical unit

Each published index or rate of change refers to the 'final monetary consumption expenditure' of the whole household sector of the corresponding geographical entity.

3.6. Statistical population

The target statistical universe is the 'household final monetary consumption expenditure' (HFMCE) within the economic territories of the countries compiling the HICP. The household sector to which the definition refers includes all individuals or groups of individuals irrespective of, in particular, the type of area in which they live, their position in the income distribution and their nationality or residence status. These definitions follow the national account concepts in the European System of Accounts.

HICPs comprise all purchases by households within the territory of a country; those by both resident and non-resident households (i.e. 'domestic concept'). HICPs cover the prices paid for goods and services in monetary transactions. The prices measured are those actually faced by consumers. The HICPs exclude interest and credit charges, regarding them as financing costs rather than consumption expenditure.

3.7. Reference area

The HICP covers the entire area of the country. There are no overseas territories.

For the collection of prices, the country is divided into 26 statistical region. Within each region, all of the urban centers are selected and the areas around these are purposively selected.

3.8. Coverage - Time

HICPs for Turkey are available from 2004 (earlier figures are estimates based on the national CPI).

3.9. Base period

The index reference period is 2015=100.

4. Unit of measure Top

Following units are used:

  • Index (actually unitless, i.e. it is the ratio of the price of the basket in a given year to the price in the base year multiplied by 100. However, the HICP can be thought of as the amount the average consumer would have to spend in a given year to buy the same basic goods and services that one would have to pay 100 monetary units for in the base period.)
  • Percentage change on the same period of the previous year (rates)
  • Percentage change on the previous period (rates).

Percentage share of the total (weights)

5. Reference Period Top


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICPs) are harmonised inflation figures required under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Council Regulation (EC) No 2494/95 of 23 October 1995 (OJ L 257/1) sets the legal basis for establishing a harmonised methodology for the compilation of the HICPs.

All relevant regulations as well as further methodological details can be found in the HICP section on Eurostat's website under Methodology.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 11 March 2009, on the transmission of data subject to statistical confidentiality to the Statistical Office of the European Communities.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Aggregated data of national CPI is released, however prices in outlet base is not shared anyone.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

The release dates for national CPI are announced by TURKSTAT at the end of a calendar year. HICP is determined according to the dates sent by Eurostat.

8.2. Release calendar access

Eurostat's website.

8.3. Release policy - user access

Users access the data from EUROSTAT web site.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Harmonised consumer price indices are produced monthly.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

National CPI is released. HICP dissemination is not available.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

The HICP is not published. The National CPI is available and first released on the third working day of the following month, in a 'News Bulletin' and, at the same time, the data are also announced at a press conference and results are available on the internet (http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/).

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

HICP database.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not available.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

There is no published documentation concerning the methodology of Turkish HICP. However, some methodological information about Turkish CPI can be found in http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1014

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Controls on the quality of the data:

Tablets have been used in price derivation step. All collected prices are reviewed by price collectors before being entered into the tablets. The second phase of control is incorporated in the computer program for data entry and in the end all data are manually checked by a person in the unit. If there are doubts about the reliability of one or several prices, these prices are checked once again by contacting price collectors or, if necessary, checked directly in the field.

In HICP calculations there are 3 phases of data analysis:

1. Control edits in tablet Pc (digit errors, '0' prices, explanations),

2. Control in regional offices (17 different queries, like max-min, outliers etc.)

3. Central office control after all data transfer


There is no automatic rejection of observed prices in our validation process. Each case (problematic price) is considered individually and all modifications are on the basis of relevant information. In addition, each collector’s work is checked in the field 1-2 times per year to ensure that central office guidance is being followed. Sample prices are checked by data quality unit in the headquarter.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Prices of some selected good and services are checked by phone calling every month. The selection criteria are based on probability sampling rules.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Not available.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available.

12.3. Completeness

All ECOICOP indices at 5-digit level are produced.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Quality adjustment procedures are applied all of the substitution procedures like outlet, product etc.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Results of the CPI are announced to the public on the 3rd working day of the month at 10:00 with a news bulletin. HICP is determined according to Eurostat calendar.

14.2. Punctuality

Not available.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

In Turkey there are 26 regional offices. In HICP only the index of Turkey is calculated.

15.2. Comparability - over time

HICP data are fully comparable over time. There have been several improvements in methodology since HICP was introduced with the aim of improving reliability and comparability of the HICP. These changes may have introduced breaks in time series. However back calculations under the newer standards were performed when appropriate basic data was available.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Differences between the HICP and national CPI:

There are only a few differences between the HICP and the national CPI:

The HICP does not cover games of chance and obligatory earthquake insurance, while the national CPI covers games of chance and obligatory earthquake insurance. 

15.4. Coherence - internal

HICPs are internal coherent. Higher level aggregations are derived from detailed indices according to well-defined procedures.

16. Cost and Burden Top

Nearly 250 person work for compiling HICP. 

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

HICP series, including back data, are revisable under the terms set in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1921/2001 of 28 September 2001. HICP data may be revised for mistakes, new or improved information, and changes in the system of harmonised rules.

17.2. Data revision - practice

In national CPI are final when first released and are not subject to revisions. In HICP, announcements are made by Eurostat.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Sample size (reference year 2017 December):

On average, about 415 000 price quotations are collected every month in about 28 000 outlets for 895 items.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Timing of price observation:

Data on prices for representative goods and services are collected twice a month, firstly the week included 10th of the month and secondly the week included 20th of the month by price collectors. Fruits, vegetables, oil, football matches ticket, gold and selected 16 food items’ prices are observed 4 times per month. Rents are priced once a month.

18.3. Data collection

Outlet selection:

The outlet selection is carried out directly by regional offices according to rules established by TURKSTAT. The selected outlets should be representative and frequently visited by customers. The main criteria for the selection of outlets in each locality are the coverage of the available shopping areas within each location and the degree to which different types of outlets are represented. The number of outlets sampled varies depending on the size of the locality and the type of item being priced. Once a year, usually in November and December, the outlet sample is reviewed and updated.

The sample covers different types of outlets, from market stalls, craft undertakings, traditional shops, single-line retail shops, big shopping centres, restaurants, hotels and catalogues. Prices for fresh fruit and vegetables, fish are collected from market stalls as well as supermarkets and traditional shops.

Techniques of products selection and specification:

The representative products to be priced are selected judgementally at the end of every year by central price statistics staff, who also determine their specification. Product specifications are discussed and agreed the meetings with price collectors, who previously collect information about them. The products are selected on the basis of information obtained from detailed HBS data, price collectors’ suggestions, producer information, market research data and other sources.

The decision which product (reference product-offer) will be observed in a specific outlet is taken by price collectors. Price collectors are instructed to select the most adequate product available in the outlet taking into consideration its specification as well as the instructions for selecting product offers agreed in joint meetings (head office staff and price collectors) at the beginning of each year.

The specifications for individual good/service are more or less detailed, indicating size, unit, materials, brand characteristics, in some cases the quality and price levels. How tight or loose the specification will be depends on the nature of the product. If a product has many characteristics could effect its price, the specification is more exact. There are detailed specification in case of cars, technical products, medical, tobacco goods and some services. For some products such as food and some garments, specifications are looser.

18.4. Data validation

There are 19 colleagues in consumer price team in TURKSTAT and 13 each of them is responsible for 2 regions. They analyze and check all of the prices and substitutions. Experts analyse the prices, make the appropriate quality methods and calculate the indices.

18.5. Data compilation


Weights for calculating the index in a given year are based on the data from the household budget survey. These data are also supplemented and verified using other statistical (tourism survey and special survey for institutional population) and non-statistical sources.

Weights are changed every year. The present weights are based on the HBS 2013-2014-2015 (t-4, t-3, t-2) results and price-updated to December t-1. A review of critical weights is also part of the ongoing annual review of weights.


Computation of the lowest-level indices:

The price indices for elementary aggregates are calculated as a ratio of geometric mean prices.


Introduction of newly significant goods and services:

The process of identifying new goods and services is continuous throughout the year: existing products are reviewed for their continued relevance and research is undertaken to identify new goods and services. The basket of goods and services, including newly significant goods and services, is updated at the end of each year.

For identifying new and newly significant goods and services, different sources of information are used, e.g. detailed HBS, Eurostat list and, in particular, suggestions from price collectors based on their knowledge of what is being actually sold in the marketplace.


Treatment of price reductions:

Seasonal sales, other sales prices and reduced prices (e.g. special offers, discounts, etc.) are included in the index when they are available to all potential consumers with no special conditions attached.


Treatment of seasonal items:

Strict annual weight application is used for fresh fruit-vegetables and clothing-footwear groups.

18.6. Adjustment

Adjustment for quality differences:

During a year, price adjustments due to quality changes are most frequently made for cars, PCs, major household appliances, clothing, and technical products. The following methods are used:

Implicit methods:

Direct price comparison: e.g. clothing – as required

Overlap: e.g. clothing, audio-visual goods – as required

Bridge overlap: e.g. PCs – as required

Retropolation (“base-price imputation”): mainly used for all other products – as required

Package size adjustment: e.g. food and medicines

Judgmental QA: e.g. clothing, cars – as required

Mixed approaches: – as required. 

19. Comment Top


Related metadata Top

Annexes Top