Population change - Demographic balance and crude rates at national level (demo_gind)

National Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Statistics Finland

Time Dimension: 2017-A0

Data Provider: FI1

Data Flow: DEMOMIGR_BALESMS_A


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
 



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Population and Social statistics

1.5. Contact mail address

Väestö- ja oikeustilastot, PL 4B, 00022 Tilastokeskus


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 20/06/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 20/06/2018
2.3. Metadata last update 20/06/2018


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

First results on the main demographic developments in the year of reference.

3.2. Classification system

Not applicable.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions
3.4.1 Please indicate the definition of:
Population The mother's residence The data deaths
1.Usual Residence Population 2.Legal Residence Population 3.Registered Residence Population 4.Other 1.Usual Residence Population 2.Legal Residence Population 3.Registered Residence Population 4.Other 1.Usual Residence Population 2.Legal Residence Population 3.Registered Residence Population 4.Other
 x  x      x  x      x  x    

 

3.4.2 Please describe the national definition of:
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
The main source used when producing Finnish population statistics is the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. Changes in the data on the vital events of the resident population are updated into the Population Information System continuously by local population register authorities. 

Population includes those Finnish citizens and foreigners living permanently in Finland at the turn of the year even if temporarily residing abroad.

Foreign nationals are domiciled in Finland if their stay is intended to last or has lasted at least one year. The statistics do not include persons temporarily staying in Finland or asylum seekers, who have only a temporary residence permit or whose application for a residence permit is still under processing. An asylum-seeker is not granted a legal domicile and included in the statistics until his or her application has been approved.

The staff of foreign embassies, trade missions and consulates, their family members and personal employees included, are not counted among the resident population unless they are Finnish citizens. On the other hand, the Finnish staff of Finland's embassies and trade missions abroad and persons serving in the UN peacekeeping forces are counted among the resident population.

A Finnish citizen having entered the country must notify the register office if his/her intended stay in the country exceeds three months. The register office will update his/her data in the Population Information System (Act 661/2009). A foreign citizen may enter Finland provided he/she holds a required valid visa, residence permit or residence permit for an employed or self-employed person, unless he/she is an EU or EEA citizen or unless otherwise provided by an international agreement binding Finland (Aliens Act 301/2004). An EU or EEA citizen may stay in the country without a separate permit for three months, after which his/her stay in the country requires justifications and registration with the register office. The register office enters the reported information about the domicile of a foreign citizen into the Population Information System if the person receives a municipality of domicile and a permanent place of residence in it in Finland as defined in the Act on the Municipality of Domicile (201/1994). The length of employment or studying from entry into the country or the length of employment contract must be at least one year for the third country citizen to receive the right to a place of domicile.

The main source used when producing Finnish population statistics is the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. Changes in the data on the vital events of the resident population are updated into the Population Information System continuously by local population register authorities.

Only changes in the population resident in Finland on the day of the event are taken into account when compiling statistics of vital events.

’Liveborn’ is the term for a newborn who breaths or shows other signs of life after birth strictly speaking the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, which, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

Same definition as in art. 2e reg. 1260/2013.

Only liveborn children of women permanently resident in Finland are taken into account in the population statistics.

The main source used when producing Finnish population statistics is the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. Changes in the data on the vital events of the resident population are updated into the Population Information System continuously by local population register authorities. 

Only changes in the population resident in Finland on the day of the event are taken into account when compiling statistics of vital events.

A person is dead if the police or physician doesn't see any signs of life. Same definition as in art. 2f reg. 1260/2013.

Deaths have to be reported immediately either to a physician or to the police. The health care unit or the physician has to report the death to the Population Information System or its maintainer. (Act 1065/2009). A death certificate is issued by a physician.

The main source used when producing Finnish population statistics is the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. Changes in the data on the vital events of the resident population are updated into the Population Information System continuously by local population register authorities. A person's move into Finland from elsewhere is regarded as immigration only if a notation has been made into the Population Information System that he/she has received a permanent place of residence in Finland. The move is permanent if it is intended to last 12 months or more.

A Finnish citizen having entered the country must notify the register office if his/her intended stay in the country exceeds three months. The register office will update his/her data in the Population Information System (Act 661/2009). A foreign citizen may enter Finland provided he/she holds a required valid visa, residence permit or residence permit for an employed or self-employed person, unless he/she is an EU or EEA citizen or unless otherwise provided by an international agreement binding Finland (Aliens Act 301/2004). An EU or EEA citizen may stay in the country without a separate permit for three months, after which his/her stay in the country requires justifications and registration with the register office. An intend of living a year in the country is a prerequisite for EU or EEA citizens to become registered as permanent residents in Finland. After a citizen of the third countries have travelled to Finland his or her work or studies must last or he or she must have a job contract at least year before he or she can get right to the municipality of domicile in Finland. (399/2007) The register office enters the information about the domicile of a foreign citizen into the Population Information System if the person receives a municipality of domicile and a permanent place of residence in it in Finland as defined in the Act on the Municipality of Domicile (201/1994).

When a person moves from one Nordic country to Finland, he/she must report his/her move to the local register authority, which will decide on the bases of the mover's report whether or not the person is registered as resident in the country of entry.  When person reports of the move, at the same time he/she reports if the move is permanent or temporary. The move is permanent if it will last 12 months or more.

The register authority of the country of entry informs the person concerned and the register authority of the country of exit about its decision. The date when the person has been entered into the local population register of the country of entry is recorded as the date of emigration in the population register of the country of exit (Act on the Municipality of Domicile 201/1994, Decree and International Treaty 96/2006).

The main source used when producing Finnish population statistics is the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. Changes in the data on the vital events of the resident population are updated into the Population Information System continuously by local population register authorities.

Persons who move to live abroad for more than one year are primarily regarded as emigrants. An exception to this are Finnish diplomats and persons working in development co-operation, etc. (Act on the Municipality of Domicile 201/1994).  

When a Finn moves permanently to other Nordic country, he/she must report his/her move to the local register authority of the country of entry, which will decide whether or not the person is registered as resident in the country of entry. The register authority of the country of entry informs the person concerned and the register authority of the country of exit about its decision. The date when the person has been entered into the local population register of the country of entry is recorded as the date of emigration in the population register of the country of exit (Act on the Municipality of Domicile 201/1994, Decree and International Treaty 96/2006).

 

3.4.3 Please provide details of the deviations of the national definition used from the usual residence definition.
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
  A liveborn child of mother non-permanently resident but father permanently resident in Finland is not taken into account in the birth statistics. However this child is included in immigration statistics and thus in population. Not applicable  A liveborn child of mother non-permanently resident but father permanently resident in Finland is not taken into account in the birth statistics. However this child is included in immigration statistics and thus in population. Every fourth year in connection with municipal elections, returned notifications of voting sent to foreigners usually reveal around 1,000 persons who have moved from the country without giving notice and are thus still included in the Finnish population. The Population Register Centre removes them from the resident population in the Population Information System before the following turn of the year.
3.5. Statistical unit

Number of persons.

3.6. Statistical population
In case of survey as data source, please describe the target statistical population (one or more) which the data set refers to:
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
         
3.7. Reference area

Data are available at national level of geographical detail.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Individual level data

Population structure since 1990

Live births since 1990

Deaths since 1990

Immigration since 1990

Emigration since 1990

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Counts of statistical units


5. Reference Period Top

The reference date for population data is the end of the reference period (midnight of 31st December).


The reference period for vital events data is the calendar year in which the events occurred. Due to short waiting time, one month or end of January, some events are lacking from the data. This is the reason to estimate those lacking events by including data relating to the years t-4, t-3, t-2 and t-1 and reported between February year t and January year t+1. See below a table "Vital events of prior years included in the data for 2017".

 

Type of event  Year of event
Total 2016 2015 2014 2013
Live births 27 22 3 1 1
Deaths 143 134 5 3 1
Immigration 1) 230 165 58 4 3
Emigration 1) 143 104 24 10 5

1) preliminary numbers  


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Statistics Finland’s function is to compile statistics on conditions in society (Statistics Finland Act of 280/2004, ). These also include demographic statistics. Statistics Finland’s Rules of Procedure defines the Population and Social Statistics unit as the producer of demographic statistics (Statistics Finland’s Rules of Procedure, TK-00-954-18).

The compilation of statistics is governed by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on the collection and processing of data and on the obligation to supply data. Besides the Statistics Act, the processing of data for statistical purposes is also subject to the provisions of the Personal Data Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities.

In its statistics compilation Statistics Finland applies the statistical legal acts of the EU, which steer the National Statistical Institutes of all EU Member States.

See details from the following link

http://tilastokeskus.fi/meta/lait/index_en.html

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

In addition to Statistics Finland, Official Statistics of Finland are produced also by 13 other public administration organisations. See http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/tuottajat_en.html

The National Statistical Service

Statistics Finland is the general authority within the National Statistical Service whose main tasks include the direction and development of the National Statistical Service. Statistics Finland and many other agencies and institutions are included in the producers of Official Statistics of Finland. Statistics Finland compiles approximately three-quarters of the official statistics.

The Statistics Act defines four statistical authorities (the Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Statistics Finland and the Finnish Customs) that have the right to collect data for statistical purposes by virtue of the data supply obligation prescribed in law.

See also http://tilastokeskus.fi/org/tilastotoimi/index_en.html


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

523/1999 English Personal Data Act

23.4.2004/280 Statistics act

21.5.1999/621 Act on the Openness of Government Activities

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality and disclosure of data

All basic data collected for statistics are stored at Statistics Finland. Some of the data derive from Statistics Finland's own or other registers and some have been collected by Statistics Finland with inquiries or interviews. All data collected for statistical purposes are confidential. The only exceptions are the data describing the activities of central and local government authorities and the production of public services, as well as the data in the Register of Enterprises and Establishments.

Confidentiality means that data must be protected against misuse at all stages of statistics production, identification data must be erased as soon as they are no longer required, and statistics must be published so that target units cannot be identified from them.

As a rule, Statistics Finland may only release confidential data only for scientific research or statistical surveys concerning social conditions in a form from which individual persons or businesses cannot be identified. Only data on age, gender, occupation and education may be released with identification data for research and statistical purposes. Confidential data may never be released for use in an investigation, surveillance, legal proceedings, or similar purposes.

Interview surveys operate on the principle of consent based on knowledge: interviewees must be told before the interview for which purposes the collected data will be used. Collected data may only be used for the purposes interviewees have been informed about. The same principle applies when interviews are made as a subcontractor for another research institution.

The Ethics Committee operates at Statistics Finland to issue statements on principally significant cases of release and on questions relating to the application of the Statistics Act.

See link http://tilastokeskus.fi/meta/tietosuoja/index_en.html


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Population structure, usually in March.

Live births, deaths, immigration and emigration, usually in April.

8.2. Release calendar access

Link to population statistics only:

http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vrm_en.html

8.3. Release policy - user access

See link to pdf about releasing policy, chapter 4.2, starting from p. 122

http://tilastokeskus.fi/meta/qg_2ed_en.pdf


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Yearly, but preliminary data about population changes and number of population, monthly.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Premilinary statistics, in January

First annual statistics, Population structure, in March

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Premilinary statistics, in January

First annual statistics, Population structure, in March

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Go to http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vamuu/index_en.html

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Optional

10.6. Documentation on methodology
Please provide a link to national methodology reports and reference metadata files available on-line concerning the supplied data.
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants Net migration
http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vaerak/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vaerak/kas_en.html http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/synt/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/synt/kas_en.html http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/kuol/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/kuol/kas_en.html http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/kas_en.html http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/kas_en.html http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/laa_en.html, http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/muutl/kas_en.html
10.7. Quality management - documentation

Interview survey of relialibility of the quality of the data in population information system is done about every second year. The report is available if requested. (only in Finnish) 


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The Population Register Centre charges Statistics Finland with the task of conducting a sample survey on the correctness of the address information. Around 11,000 people are asked whether their address in the Population Information System is correct.  If we assume that all the unchecked data of persons in the non-response are incorrect, the final proportion of correct addresses would be 98.1 per cent.

Population development is produced from two statistical systems: population structure and population change systems. These two systems are governed two different organisations namely Population Register Centre (PRC) and National Statistical Office. Difference between population number at the beginning and at the end of the year must be the same as the population increase from the population change system. The police investigates the number of persons who leave the country illegally and the number has been observed to be small, couple of thousands.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Data quality is very good according to reliability study of the population information system.

There is no special treatments of special cases.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users: goverment offices, municipalities, private companies, researchers, media, citizens, national and international organisations.

Goverment offices, municipalities, private companies, researchers, national and international organisations: general information about population and population changes (by age, sex, area, country of birth etc.)

Municipalities, private companies, researchers, media, citizens detailed data about population and population changes. 

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Users give comments via email.

12.3. Completeness

Needed statistics are very well available. However there are some statistical areas of which we do not have much data for example international commuters. 


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall
Please report on the reasons for any unreliability of the data on:
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants Net migration
According to residence act of municipality 1994, persons moving abroad for  at least 12 months should inform local register office of their move but they always don't do this.  -  - Persons staying illegally in the country. According to residence act of municipality 1994, persons moving abroad for  at least 12 months should inform register office of their move but they always don't do this. According to residence act of municipality 1994, persons moving abroad for  at least 12 months should inform register office of their move but they always don't do this.
13.2. Sampling error
In case of survey as data source, please provide information on the part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
         
13.3. Non-sampling error
In case of survey as data source, please provide information on the error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
         


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Annual data:

Population structure: about three months

Population changes: about four months

Preliminary data:

Population structure (limited number of variables): a month

Population changes (limited number of variables): a month

14.2. Punctuality

No time lag.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Fully comparable between geographical areas since 1990.

15.2. Comparability - over time
Please provide information on the length of comparable time series (indicate the first reference year for which data are availble), reference periods at which series occur, the reasons for the breaks and treatments of them.
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
Population number: in national level since 1749, reference period is year, break: in 1811 so called The Old Finland region was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland.  In national level since 1722, reference period is year, no breaks In national level since 1722, reference period is year, break: 1939-45 deaths because of the war were included in series of death.  In national level since 1945, reference period is year, no breaks. In national level since 1945, reference period is year, no breaks.
15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Population: Population Registre Centre picks information of all persons living permanently in Finland 31 Dec at the beginning of February in next year but does not publish statistics of that material on internet. PRC asks Statistics Finland for statistics of population at the end of the year to publish it on its webpages.

Population: Statistics Finland doesn't know how it's aggregate statistics is used in other organisations or in Statistics Finland.

Births: National Institute of Health and Welfare keeps medical register of births of all deliveries in Finnish hospitals and publishes statistics of that material. The difference compared to the material of Statistics Finland is that their material also contains information of deliveries of persons (mothers)  living permanently abroad.

Deaths: Cause of death statistics of Statistics Finland also produces statistics of deaths and publishes it on webpages of Statistics Finland.   The difference compared to the material of Population statistics is that cause of deaths statistics waiting time is longer, about 11 months,  than that of Population statistics.  Population statistics takes into account late reported notifications of deaths into statistics of next statistical year.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Population structure statistics are coherent with population change statistics. This is shown by population correction. The population correction variable indicates mainly late reported notifications of immigrations/emigrations which are not included in population change statistics.


16. Cost and Burden Top

To produce population structure statistics requires around 7 to 8 work months (collecting, prosessing and releasing). There is no burden on respondents as data is totally derived from register. 

To produce population change statistics (births, deaths, migration) requires around 10 work months (collecting, prosessing and releasing). There is no burden on respondents as data is totally derived from register.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Not applicable

17.2. Data revision - practice

Not applicable


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data
Please report on the data sources used for the first reference year and inform of any changes thereto, to produce:
Population Live births Deaths Immigrants Emigrants
Register data of population information system of Population Register Centre Register data of population information system of Population Register Centre Register data of population information system of Population Register Centre Register data of population information system of Population Register Centre  Register data of population information system of Population Register Centre 
18.2. Frequency of data collection

Population structure, once a year. Preliminary statistics, collected weekly and published monthly.

Population changes, once a year. Preliminary statistics, collected weekly and published monthly.  

18.3. Data collection

Population structure: Data is ordered by Statistics Finland in December from Population Registre Centre (PRC). After the one month waiting period data is created in PRC at first week of February. Then data is transferred in electronical form to Statistics Finland.

Population change data: Every saturday PRC picks all demographic notifications that have been registered into PRC during the last calendar week. Then data is transferred in electronical form to Statistics Finland.

18.4. Data validation

Population structure: Main critical variables are logically cross-checked, e.g. age, marital status, age of mother/father. Also citizenship, country of birth, mother tongue are checked against ISO-standards.

Population change:

Births: Main critical variables are logically cross-checked, e.g. mother has a place of domicile in Finland at the time of delivery, marital status of mother at the time of delivery, extreme ages of mother/father. Also citizenship, country of birth, mother tongue are checked against ISO-standards.

Deaths: Main critical variables are logically cross-checked, e.g. dead person has a place of domicile in Finland at the time of death, marital status of dead person at the time of death, extreme ages of dead person. Also citizenship, country of birth, mother tongue are checked against ISO-standards.

Migration: Main critical variables are logically cross-checked, e.g. migrated person has a place of domicile in Finland at the time of move, marital status of migrated person at the time of move, extreme ages of migrated person. Also country of destination/departure, citizenship, country of birth, mother tongue are checked against ISO-standards. Immigration record is generated if person doesn't belong to population data in the beginning of the year when he/she moves for the first time in statistical year inside the country.

The Population Register Centre monitors the accuracy of address data recorded in the Population Information System. For this purpose a special quality survey has been carried out by Statistics Finland since 1998, last time in 2012. The proportion of people with a correct address in the register has always been high, over 98 percent of the respondents. 

18.5. Data compilation

Population structure: A total of 8,262 persons who have probably moved abroad have been removed after analyses from the population data derived from the Population Information System for the end of 2017. These persons are foreign citizens whose address is unknown and who have not received wages and salaries, capital income, entrepreneurial income, unemployment benefit, pension income, income support or compensation from sickness insurance between 2015 and 2016.

In 2017 the Population Information System included 70,500 persons without data on marital status. They are immigrants whose marital status could not be ascertained. The Population Information Act requires storing of data on marital status in the Population Information System only as concerns Finnish citizens. In the statistics childless persons were coded as unmarried and if they had children, their absent marital status was changed into divorced.

For those babies born at the end of the year, for whom no name, language and religion have been registered in the Population Information System during January, the mother’s language and religion are entered in the statistics for the end of the year.

During 2012, Statistics Finland adopted an origin classification. A similar classification is used in the other Nordic countries. The origin and background country are determined based on the country of birth data of the person's parents. Using the origin classification it is easy to distinguish between first (born abroad) and second (born in Finland) generation Finns with a foreign background.

Population changes: In all population change data record is deleted if person doesn't live permanently in Finland at the time of event.

Births: For those babies born for whom no language has been registered in the Population Information System, the mother’s language is entered in the statistics. 

Immigration: We don't do imputations for the country of departure.

A liveborn child of mother non-permanently resident but father permanently resident in Finland is not taken into account in the birth statistics. However this child is included in immigration statistics and thus in population.

Emigration: We don't do any imputations for the country of destinations. If the record of the person is taken away of the raw material of the population data then the record is included in the data of emigration.

18.6. Adjustment

Population correction (immigration/emigration):

Population correction is the difference of total change and population increase. Corrections are mainly adjustments made later to errors occurring in handling of notices of removal.

Statistical adjustments are mainly missing notifications on emigration. We would like to enhance that population structure system and population change system are independent and separate systems.

In general, the move has taken place a very long time ago, in which case changing the information by a notice of removal would not make sense, or the person is known to have moved at some point but no information has been obtained on the target domicile.

In material sent to Eurostat age is modified to mean age at the end of the year.


19. Comment Top

Optional


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top