Energy statistics - electricity prices for domestic and industrial consumers, price components

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 04/02/2011
2.2. Metadata last posted 04/02/2011
2.3. Metadata last update 08/04/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)

Average half-yearly electricity prices for households and industrial end-users.
The end-users are characterised by predefined annual consumption bands.

The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation

  • prices excluding taxes and levies;
  • prices excluding VAT and other recoverable taxes;
  • prices including all taxes, levies and VAT.

 For the disaggregated electricity prices, separate price components are available for households and industrial consumers for

  • production costs of electricity
  • network costs
  • taxes and levies

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Electricity prices for households and industrial standard consumers, valid on 1st January and on 1st July of each calendar year. Standard consumers are characterised by predefined annual consumption.

The prices include electricity/basic price, transmission, system services, meter rental, distribution and other services. The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation (see above).

For structural indicators tables, where only annual data is displayed both for new and old methodology in the same table, the prices refer to the price on 1st January of each year (until 2007) and to the first semester of each year (2008 and later).

Data on electricity prices for industrial consumers are collected according to Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast) (Text with EEA relevance).

Data for electricity prices for household end-users are collected on a voluntary basis

The data collection covers the full spectrum of the Member States of the European Union, Candidate Countries, Potential candidate countries and EFTA countries (except Switzerland).

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European System of Statistics. Therefore, they rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields while classifications proper to the Energy statistics are fully harmonised with the classifications used in other fields of the European System of Statistics

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON

Electricity price components for domestic and industrial consumers

Eurostat provides model questionnaires to all data providers that cover the following areas:

- Electricity prices for the households sector, with a separate section for disaggregated price data;

- Electricity prices for the industrial sector, with a separate section for disaggregated price data;

3.3. Coverage - sector

Prices are collected for the two following areas:

- Industrial(*) end-users;

- Household end-users.

 (*) Industrial end users might include data from other areas like offices, restaurants, services, transport etc.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The main changes that are introduced as of 2008 are the use of consumption bands instead of typical standard consumers, and the averaging over 6 months instead of fixed prices on 1st January and 1st July. The methodology was modified to cope with the liberalised energy markets.

Reference consumers are characterised (see below for the new and old methodology) by the following annual consumption bands:

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 semester 2 onwards)

Electricity households:

Band-DA (Very small): annual consumption below 1 000 kWh

Band-DB (Small): annual consumption between 1 000 and 2 500 kWh

Band-DC (Medium): annual consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh

Band-DD (Large): annual consumption between 5 000 and 15 000 kWh

Band-DE (Very large): annual consumption above 15000 kWh

Electricity industry:

Band-IA: annual consumption below 20 MWh

Band-IB: annual consumption between 20 and 500 MWh

Band-IC: annual consumption between 500 and 2 000 MWh

Band-ID: annual consumption between 2 000 and 20 000 MWh

Band-IE: annual consumption between 20 000 and 70 000 MWh

Band-IF: annual consumption between 70 000 and 150 000 MWh

Band-IG: annual consumption above 150 000 MWh (reported on a voluntary basis) 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until first semester 2007)

Electricity households:

Band-DA: annual consumption of 600 kWh (standard dwelling of 50m²)
Band-DB: annual consumption of 1 200 kWh (standard dwelling of 70m²)
Band-DC: annual consumption of 3 500 kWh among which 1 300 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 90m²)
Band-DD: annual consumption of 7 500 kWh among which 2 500 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 100m²)
Band-DE: annual consumption of 20 000 kWh among which 15 000 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 120m²)

Electricity industry:

Band-IA: annual consumption of 30 MWh, maximum demand of 30W and annual load of 1 000hours

Band-IB: annual consumption of 50 MWh, maximum demand of 50kW and annual load of 1 00hours

Band-IC: annual consumption of 160 MWh, maximum demand of 100kW and annual load of 1 600 hours

Band-ID: annual consumption of 1 250 MWh, maximum demand of 500kW and annual load of 2 500 hours

Band-IE: annual consumption of 2 000 MWh, maximum demand of 500kW and annual load of 4 000 hours

Band-IF: annual consumption of 10 000 MWh, maximum demand of 2 500kW and annual load of 4 000 hours

Band-IG: annual consumption of 24 000 MWh, maximum demand of 4 000kW and annual load of 6 000 hours

Band-IH: annual consumption of 50 000 MWh, maximum demand of 10 000kW and annual load of 5 000 hours

Band-Ii: annual consumption of 70 000 MWh, maximum demand of 10 000kW and annual load of 7 000 hours

3.5. Statistical unit

Industrial: Electricity prices for industrial consumers may include data for other non-domestic consumers (e.g. offices, services, transport etc.)

Household: A household consists of one or more persons who live in the same dwelling or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Member States must ensure that a representative share of the national market is covered by the survey.

3.7. Reference area

Electricity prices are presented at national level for EU Member States, several candidate countries (Island, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, from 2013 onwards North Macedonia), Potential candidate countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the EFTA countries Norway and Liechtenstein that started reporting price data in 2014.

Before 2005 when data was collected using the old methodology, regional data is available for several countries (Germany, France, and the United Kingdom).

3.8. Coverage - Time

ELECTRICITY PRICES

The first full set of price data that was collected with the new methodology is available from the second semester 2007 onwards.

From 1985 until 2007, price data is available that was collected with the old methodology.

As of 2007 semester 2, a break of series was introduced.

PRICE COMPONENTS

Electricity price components for domestic and industrial consumers - annual data

The disaggregated price data for electricity is available from the second semester 2007 onwards on an annual frequency.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measure Top

Euro / kWh [Euro (from 1.1.1999)/ECU (up to 31.12.1998)]

National currency / kWh for non-Euro countries

Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) / kWh


5. Reference Period Top

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 semester 2 onwards)

The published data are national average prices over a period over 6 months.
Semester 1 prices are average prices between 1st January and 30th June of each year, semester 2 prices are average prices between 1st July and 31st December of each year.

In case annual data is presented, (e.g. at the structural indicators tables), the price is representing price data for the first semester of the reference year.

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)

Price data are taken at 1st January and 1st July of each year, or in case of annual data, the price is taken at 1st January of each calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Commission Decision 2007/394/EC of 7 June 2007 amending Council Directive 90/377/EEC with regard to the methodology to be applied for the collection of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users.

Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast)

Electricity prices for household end-users are collected on a voluntary basis (applicable both for old and new methodology)

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Eurostat does not disclose data which might be by their nature subject to commercial confidentiality.

Such confidential data that is transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat shall only be accessible to Eurostat officials. The confidential price data may however be used for statistical purposes. This provision shall not prevent the publication of such data in an aggregated form, which does not enable individual commercial transaction to be identified.

In the interest of confidentiality, data relating to prices will be communicated only where there are, in the Member State concerned, at least three end-users in each of defined bands. This restriction has to be communicated by the national data provider to Eurostat.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

The precise date of data release is disseminated on Eurostat's website (select language and release calendar).

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

ELECTRICITY PRICES

Half-yearly.

Tables in structural indicators domain contain annual data.

ELECTRICITY PRICE COMPONENTS

Annual data based on second semester source data for electricity.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Electricity prices for the household sector are announced annually around the 20th May with a news release, price data for industrial end-users are announced in a similar way around the 20th November each year.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

ELECTRICITY PRICES

Data is disseminated in the form of a Statistics Explained article every 6 months for the main electricity consumer types. The full scope of all prices for all consumption bands is available from Eurobase.

Electricity price data are included in the annual pocketbook Energy, Transport and Environment Indicators.

ELECTRICITY PRICE COMPONENTS

Data is disseminated in the form of Statistics Explained articles every 12 months (covering the price data for the second semester) for the main consumer types. The full scope of all disaggregated electricity prices for all consumption bands is available from Eurobase.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

No micro data is collected or available for dissemination.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Disaggregated data for the production (1), network costs (2) and taxes and levies (3) on electricity is collected by Eurostat on an annual basis together with the semester 2 price data.

The data for these 3 components is presented together with the electricity price data for every second semester in the appropriate Statistics Explained article in May every year..

10.6. Documentation on methodology

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
The methodology for industrial end-users is described Annex II (electricity prices) of Directive 2008/92/EC.

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)

The methodology is described in Annex II of the Council Directive 90/377/EEC of 29 June 1990 concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users.

Eurostat provides model questionnaires on which the surveys are based. More information is available here

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not applicable.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

A Self-Assessment report on the process of the gas and electricity price collection was drafted in 2008.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

As the methodology for the data collection of the electricity prices is well defined, the data set provides price information that is comparable between countries.

However, users should be aware, that whenever electricity prices in Euro for non-Euro countries are compared in time, the effects of differences in exchange rates are also taken into account. Whenever prices are calculated and/or presented in Euro, the average exchange rates of the 2 quarters of the appropriate semester are taken as a reference.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Electricity prices are of vital importance for the society and the economy. Prices for the industry have a significant impact on production costs and also affect energy efficiency. Similarly, prices for households affect the cost of living in a country. They are influenced by the cost of the energy sources and the efficiency of the electricity markets. The expansion of the European Single Market has accelerated the process of market liberalisation. The aim is to boost market supply, bring down prices for consumers, and encourage an increase in competition, investment and productivity leading to a rise in economic efficiency.

The main users of energy price data are other units within Eurostat, other Directorates General of the European Commission [DG ENER, DG MOVE, DG SANCO, DG ECFIN etc.], other European Institutions [European Parliament] and Agencies [European Environment Agency, the Energy Community Secretariat], international organisations [the International Energy Agency – IEA, Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries –OPEC, etc.], national authorities, businesses, professional associations [Eurogas, Eurelectric, etc.], news agencies [Reuters, Bloomberg], researchers/academics and other users.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user satisfaction survey has been carried out for this dataset.

12.3. Completeness

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 semester 2 onwards)

Electricity industry:

For large industrial end-users (band IF), prices are not applicable for Malta and Luxembourg, and not available for Ireland (confidential). Prices for Band IG (annual consumption above 150 000 MWh) are only available for a few countries (the price data for Band IG is declared on a voluntary basis).

Electricity households:

Data sets are complete with the exception of Italian electricity prices for 2008.Dutch electricity prices for household consumer band DA (consumption band below 1000 kWh/year) are not applicable, as a special annual refund per connection would result in negative national prices for this band.

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)


Data sets for standard consumers are complete with the exception of:

Electricity industry:

  • Denmark: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers IF/IG/IH/II;
  • France: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers IH + II;
  • Slovenia: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers IH + II;
  • Luxembourg: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers IF/IG/IH/II (confidential)

Electricity households:

  • Italy: household electricity prices not available for standard consumer band DE.

There was no data collection of price components before 2007 semester 2 under the old methodology!

NEW METHODOLOGY FOR ELECTRICITY PRICE COMPONENTS (from 2007 onwards)
Disaggregated Electricity prices

Data sets are complete with the exception of French data before 2011. Dutch disaggregated electricity prices for household consumer band Da (consumption band below 1000 kWh/year) are not applicable, as a special annual refund per connection would result in unrealistic national prices for this band.

For large industrial end-users (band If), disaggregated prices are not applicable for Malta and Luxembourg, and not available for Ireland (confidential). Prices for Band Ig (annual consumption above 150 000 MWh) are not available for a few countries, as the price data for this band is declared on a voluntary basis.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The data collection has been extended on a gentlemen’s agreement basis to cover also households. As the new methodology is significantly different, users should pay attention when comparing old with new methodology.

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 semester 2 onwards)
The published prices are based on real invoiced prices that are paid by end-users

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
The published prices are based on tariffs

FOR ELECTRICITY PRICE COMPONENTS (from 2007 onwards)

The published disaggregated prices are based on real invoiced prices that are paid by end-users. Before 2007, data on price components was not collected.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Price data is generally delivered to Eurostat between 2 and 4 months after the reference period.

14.2. Punctuality

About 50% of the price data arrives within 2 months after the reference period.

Another 40% arrives between 3 and 4 months after the reference period.

Remaining 10% of data arrives 5 months after the reference period.

The price data is available within 3 working days in the New Cronos database, and the statistics explained section is updated about 6 months after the reference period.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Good comparability as a unique methodology is in place that describes the collection of gas and electricity prices.

15.2. Comparability - over time

From 2007 second semester onwards, prices are reported with a new methodology as defined in Commission Decision 2007/394/EC. For prices that were collected before this time a different methodology was in place. Comparing the new methodology prices with old methodology prices is possible, but the reader should be aware, that not only standard reference consumers were replaced with standard bands, but also that the data collection with the new methodology is done on real price data while the old methodology was often performed on tariff price data.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable

15.4. Coherence - internal

Not applicable


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

In case, only provisional national price data is available, this data is marked with a "p" (provisional). This provisional data is used for calculating (provisional) EU aggregates. As soon as definitive data is available, both the final national data as well as final corrected aggregated data is introduced in the New Cronos database. The EU aggregated prices are updated twice per year, on the first Wednesday after the 15th of May and on the first Wednesday after the 15th of November.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Incoming data is validated by Eurostat, by checking the price data on consistency and completeness. In case of abnormal increases or decreases, the reporting organisation will be requested to reconfirm the data. In practice, between 2-5 Member States report price-corrections (per dataset). These corrections might be due to the availability of final data instead of provisional data, or due to corrective measures. The prices are not seasonally adjusted.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

ELECTRICITY PRICE

Electricity price data is reported by National Statistical Institutes, Ministries, Energy Agencies, or in case of monopolies by single electricity companies. The prices include electricity basic price, transmission, system services, distribution and other services. EU aggregates are calculated by Eurostat by weighting the national prices with the latest available national consumption for either the household sector or the industrial sector.

FOR ELECTRICITY PRICE COMPONENTS

Disaggregated electricity price data is reported by National Statistical Institutes, Ministries, Energy Agencies, or in case of monopolies by single electricity companies. Questionnaires in standardized electronic format are filled in by the national competent authorities. The files have to be transmitted by the reporting authorities to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System - : https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/edamis).

18.2. Frequency of data collection

For electricity prices: half yearly

For electricity price components: yearly

18.3. Data collection

Eurostat provides model questionnaires (currently in excel format) to all data providers that cover the following areas:

  • Electricity prices for the households sector with a separate section for disaggregated price data;
  • Electricity prices for the industrial sector, with a separate section for disaggregated price data;

Price Data for electricity is collected by the reporting authorities of the States from suppliers. This micro data is then aggregated by the reporting authorities to national average prices. States must ensure that the sample is sufficient large to ensure that a representative national price is achieved. The coverage varies from country to country and can be 100% for small countries where only one supplier for electricity dominates the national market to a significant lower coverage for those countries were many suppliers are on the market.

18.4. Data validation

National input data is validated by Eurostat for consistency and completeness.

In case of inconsistent price data, the data providers are contacted to request a reconfirmation of the data.

18.5. Data compilation

Member states must report national prices that are representative for the whole country.
These national prices will represent weighted average prices, using the market shares of electricity supply undertakings surveyed as weighting factors. Arithmetic average prices will be provided only when weighted figures cannot be calculated.

EU aggregates are calculated by Eurostat, once the price data set is complete.

In case of missing or delayed data, the HICP indicator (more information are available here) for the given field is used to estimate the missing prices applying the HICP coefficient to the latest available price. These national estimated prices are however not published as national electricity prices and are only used for the calculation of the aggregates.

18.6. Adjustment

Adjustments are made twice per year for the EU aggregates in order to use updated consumption data for weighting the price data and to take on board all updates of the price data that had been reported by the reporting authorities. These adjustments are applied each year on the first Wednesday after the 15th of May (e.g. in May 2011, the consumption data is available for 2009, and the final EU aggregates will be recalculated with the final consumption data for 2009).

Datasets that were collected with the old methodology (pre 2007) are not subject to any corrections anymore.


19. Comment Top

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 second semester 2  onwards)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rate for quarter 1 and 2 (for semester 1 price data) and as the average rate for quarter 3 and 4 (for semester 2 data).

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rates for January and July of the reference year.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Methodology