Bunkers include all dutiable petroleum products loaded aboard a vessel for consumption by that vessel. International maritime bunkers describe the quantities of fuel oil delivered to ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. It is the fuel used to power these ships. International navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. International maritime bunkers do not include fuel oil consumption by: ships engaged in domestic navigation; whether a vessel is engaged in domestic or international navigation is determined only by the ship's port of departure and port of arrival - not by the flag or nationality of the ship; fishing vessels; military forces.

Combined heat and power

Combined heat and power describes the simultaneous production of both useful heat (that can be used, for example, in industrial processes or city heating schemes) and electricity in a single process or unit.

Derived heat

Derived heat is used for warming spaces and for industrial processes and is obtained by burning combustible fuels like coal, natural gas, oil, renewables (biofuels) and wastes, or also by transforming electricity to heat in electric boilers or heat pumps.

Energy dependency rate

The energy dependency rate shows the proportion of energy that an economy must import. It is defined as net energy imports (imports minus exports) divided by gross inland energy consumption plus fuel supplied to international maritime bunkers, expressed as a percentage. A negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter of energy while a dependency rate in excess of 100 % indicates that energy products have been stocked.

Energy intensity

Energy intensity measures the energy consumption of an economy and its energy efficiency. It is the ratio between gross inland consumption of energy and gross domestic product (GDP). Gross inland consumption of energy is calculated as the sum of gross inland consumption of five energy types: coal, electricity, oil, natural gas and renewable energy sources. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation. Since gross inland consumption is measured in kilograms of oil equivalent and GDP in EUR 1 000, this ratio is measured in kgoe per EUR 1 000.

Final energy consumption

Final energy consumption is the total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry and agriculture. It is the energy which reaches the final consumer's door and excludes that which is used by the energy sector itself. Final energy consumption excludes energy used by the energy sector, including for deliveries, and transformation. It also excludes fuel transformed in the electrical power stations of industrial auto-producers and coke transformed into blast-furnace gas where this is not part of overall industrial consumption but of the transformation sector. Final energy consumption in "households, services, etc." covers quantities consumed by private households, commerce, public administration, services, agriculture and fisheries.

Energy end user categories

Energy end user categories include private households, agriculture, industry, road transport, air transport (aviation), other transport (rail, inland navigation) and services.


Electricity denotes the set of physical phenomena related to electrical charges. It allows to store and transfer energy, or to consume it through electrical appliances. It has a very wide range of applications in almost all kinds of human activities ranging from industrial production, household use, agriculture or commerce and it is normally used for running machines, lighting and heating.

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuel is a generic term for non-renewable natural energy sources such as coal, natural gas and oil that were formed from plants and animals (biomass) that existed in the geological past (for example, hundreds of millions of years ago). Fossil fuels are carbon-based and currently supply most human energy requirements.


Gas includes mostly natural gas and derived gases.


A gigajoule, abbreviated as GJ, is a unit of measurement of energy consumption: a gigajoule is equal to one thousand million joules.

Gigawatt hours

Gigawatt hours, abbreviated as GWh, is a unit of energy representing one billion (1 000 000 000) watt hours and is equivalent to one million kilowatt hours. Gigawatt hours are often used as a measure of the output of large electricity power stations.

Greenhouse gas (GHG)

Greenhouse gases constitute a group of gases contributing to global warming and climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1997 to curb global warming, covers six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Converting them to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming.

Gross inland energy consumption

Gross inland energy consumption, sometimes abbreviated as gross inland consumption, is the total energy available of a country or region. It represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. Gross inland energy consumption covers consumption by the energy sector itself; distribution and transformation losses; final energy consumption by end users; 'statistical differences' (not already captured in the figures on primary energy consumption and final energy consumption). Gross inland consumption does not include energy (fuel oil) provided to international maritime bunkers. It is calculated as follows: primary production + recovered products + net imports + variations of stocks – bunkers.

Gross electricity generation

Gross electricity generation or gross electricity production refers to the process of producing electrical energy. It is the total amount of electrical energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, for example nuclear or wind power. It is commonly expressed in gigawatt hours (GWh). Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. including the amount of electricity used in the plant auxiliaries and in the transformers.

District heating

City heating, also known as district heating, is the distribution of heat through a network to one or several buildings using hot water or steam produced centrally, often from co-generation plants, from waste heat from industry, or from dedicated heating systems.

Kilogram of oil equivalent

Kilogram(s) of oil equivalent, usually abbreviated as kgoe, is a normalized unit of energy. By convention it is equivalent to the approximate amount of energy that can be extracted from one kilogram of crude oil. It is a standardized unit, assigned a net calorific value of 41 868 kilojoules/kg and may be used to compare the energy from different sources.

Kilowatt hours

Kilowatt hours, abbreviated as KWh, is a unit of energy representing one thousand watt hours. Kilowatt hours are often used as a measure of domestic energy consumption.

Net electricity generation

Net electricity generation or net electricity production is equal to gross electricity generation minus the consumption of power stations' auxiliary services.

Nuclear heat

Nuclear heat is the thermal energy produced in a nuclear power plant (nuclear energy). It is obtained from the nuclear fission of atoms, usually of uranium and plutonium.

Primary production of energy

Primary production of energy is any extraction of energy products in a useable form from natural sources. This occurs either when natural sources are exploited (for example, in coal mines, crude oil fields, hydro power plants) or in the fabrication of biofuels. Transforming energy from one form into another, such as electricity or heat generation in thermal power plants (where primary energy sources are burned), or coke production in coke ovens, is not primary production.

Renewable energy sources

Renewable energy sources, also called renewables, are energy sources that replenish (or renew) themselves naturally. Renewable energy sources include the following: Biomass (solid biofuels): organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. It includes: charcoal; wood and wood waste; black liquor, bagasse, animal waste and other vegetal materials and residuals.

Biogases: gases composed principally of methane and carbon dioxide produced by anaerobic fermentation of biomass, or by thermal processes. It includes: landfill gas; sewage sludge gas; other biogases from anaerobic digestion; bio gases from thermal processes.

Liquid biofuels are liquid fuels from a non-fossil biological origin and a renewable energy source, to be distinguished from fossil fuels. Biofuels can be split up into four categories: bio gasoline, biodiesel, bio jet kerosene (aviation fuel) and other liquid biofuels.

Renewable waste: portion of waste produced by households, industry, hospitals and the tertiary sector which is biological material collected by local authorities and incinerated at specific installations.

Hydropower: the electricity generated from the potential and kinetic energy of water in hydroelectric plants (the electricity generated in pumped storage plants is not included).

Geothermal energy: the energy available as heat from within the earth’s crust, usually in the form of hot water or steam.

Wind energy: the kinetic energy of wind converted into electricity in wind turbines.

Solar energy: solar radiation exploited for solar heat (hot water) and electricity production.

Tide, wave, ocean: mechanical energy derived from tidal movement, wave motion or ocean current and exploited for electricity generation.

Share of renewable energy in energy consumption

Renewable energy sources cover solar thermal and photovoltaic energy, hydro (including tide, wave and ocean energy), wind, geothermal energy and all forms of biomass (including biological waste and liquid biofuels). The contribution of renewable energy from heat pumps is also covered for the Member States for which this information was reported. The renewable energy delivered to final consumers (industry, transport, households, services including public services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries) is the numerator of this indicator. The denominator, the gross final energy consumption of all energy sources, covers total energy delivered for energy purposes to final consumers as well as the transmission and distribution losses for electricity and heat. It should be noted that exports/imports of electricity are not considered as renewable energy unless a specific intergovernmental agreement has been signed. For more information: The national shares of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy are calculated according to specific calculation provisions of Directive 2009/28/EC ( ).

Solid fuels

Solid fuels are fossil fuels covering various types of coals and solid products derived from coals. They consist of carbonised vegetable matter and usually have the physical appearance of a black or brown rock.

Tonnes of oil equivalent

Tonne(s) of oil equivalent, abbreviated as toe, is a normalized unit of energy. By convention it is equivalent to the approximate amount of energy that can be extracted from one tonne of crude oil.

Total fuels

Total fuels is the sum of all energy products and is composed of the following fuel families: Solid fuels (coal), total petroleum products (crude oil and derived petroleum products), gas, nuclear heat, derived heat, renewable energies, electricity and waste (non-renewable).

Total petroleum products

Total petroleum products are fossil fuels (usually in liquid state) and include crude oil and all products derived from it (e.g. when processed in oil refineries), including motor gasoline, diesel oil, fuel oil, etc.

Waste (non-renewable)

Waste (non-renewable) consists of materials coming from combustible industrial, institutional, hospital and household wastes such as rubber, plastics, waste fossil oils and other similar types of wastes, which can be either solid or liquid.