Between 2004-2010, the EU has been an important player in PSD thanks to the €2.4bn contracted. Most of the results have been achieved at macro- and meso-levels. The main weaknesses are on lack of strategy to maximise impact, expertise not commensurate to financial weight, lack of information on results. Recommendations are made on these issues, on the necessary adaptation of PSD support to middle income countries and on improving communication on EU PSD support. Ref. 1317.