Since 1994, Rwanda has made progress in restoring peace and security, fostering national reconciliation, establishing the foundations for democracy and reforming its institutions. However, dominated by agriculture, the economy lacks diversification. Annual growth rates are particularly vulnerable to changing weather patterns and fluctuating commodity prices.

As a landlocked country, Rwanda’s export potential is restricted and is dependent on aid to deal with its balance of payments deficit and finance much-needed investment. EU cooperation is improving pro-poor services, and is assisting national reconciliation and rural economic development.

The National Indicative Programme for Rwanda outlines the main focal sectors of the EU cooperation with the country during the period 2014-20 under the 11th European Development Fund.

The Country Strategy Paper for Rwanda (2008-13)  and a multi-annual indicative programme detail the areas for €294.4 million of assistance under the 10th European Development Fund (EDF). After the Mid Term Review, the programme was increased by 88 additional million.

Funding is being channelled to:

  • basic services,
  • pro-poor growth,
  • rural economic development and
  • national reconciliation and justice.

General budget support is improving basic services, particularly in education, health and water. Rural development – improved food security and agricultural productivity – and infrastructure are financed via EU sector budget support and through individual programmes.

EU support is also available to strengthen good governance and the rule of law, improve economic and financial management, boost trade and regional integration and develop the private sector.


Key country statistics

  • Total population (2015): 11 610 000
  • Life expectancy (at birth) (2015): 60 years (male), 66 years (female)
  • Human Development Index - Low human development (2014): 0.483
  • Population living below $1.90 a day (2010): 60.3%
  • Income share held by lowest 40% of income distribution (2010): 13.4%
  • Low income country - Gross National Income per capita (2014): 437 US$ (constant 2005 US$)
  • Average Gross Domestic Product growth over 5 years (2010-2014): 6.8%

Selected results achieved with EU support through projects and programmes completed between mid-2014 and mid-2015

Good Governance and Human Rights

  • 700 new corruption and embezzlement cases have been processed by the National Public Prosecution Authority within the fiscal year 2014 to 2015
  • 85 124 of court cases have been processed by the courts in civil, penal (excl. genocide) and commercial law within the fiscal year July 2013 to June 2014; this is an increase of 35 084 compared with the previous year
  • 2 700 "Abunzis" - local mediators in resolving land disputes – were trained in all 27 districts outside of Kigali
  • In 2012 the prison population density represented 105% of prison capacity (down from 130% in 2010)


  • 1.8 megawatt of power have been installed in a mini hydropower plant
  • 150 schools have been equipped with phovoltaic solar generators

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