An agrarian transition in northern Laos characterized by:
- Rapid changes in farming systems in line with an increased access to markets and an increased vulnerability of village communities to climatic and economic fluctuations.
- Significant impacts on natural resources (e.g. reduced forest cover, land degradation, biodiversity losses) and on village communities (e.g. overall poverty reduction but increased inequality and indebtedness).
- Low adoption of agro-ecological innovations promoted by research and extension institutions (e.g. organic farming, conservation agriculture, agroforestry).