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Romania - National Level

Short overview of the labour market


According to data provided by the National Institute of Statistics, Romania has 19.4 million inhabitants.

According to the Labour Force Ledger as at 1 January 2019, the active civilian population amounted to 8 696 400 persons, representing 44.8% of the resident population. Of the total active civilian population, the percentage of women is slightly lower than the percentage of men (47.1% women and 56.2% men)

The employed civilian population amounted to 8 407 5000 people, of whom 5 426 200 were salaried employees. Most of the employees were working in the services sector (3 409 600 people), while 1 887 300 persons were employed in industry and the construction sector. The number of employees in agriculture, forestry and fisheries was 129 300. In 2019, the employment rate of the active population was 68.7%, with a higher rate for men (74.5%, compared to 56.2 % for women).

Two different sets of data concerning the unemployment rate are calculated in Romania. The ILO unemployment rate is calculated by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) using the definition provided by the International Labour Office. In March 2020, this rate was 5.6%.

The rate of registered unemployment, determined by the National Employment Agency (ANOFM), is calculated on the basis of the number of unemployed persons registered in the ANOFM database. At the end of March 2020, this rate was 2.9%, corresponding to 250 900 registered unemployed persons.

Romania is divided into eight administrative regions: North-West, Centre, North-East, South-East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South-West Oltenia and West. Each region has certain specific features with regard to its economic structure, which is why certain sectors play a predominant role in the development of each region. In the North-East and South-West regions, a large share of the population is engaged in agricultural activities. The civilian population is employed mainly in industry and the construction sector in the West and Centre regions, and in the services sector in the Centre, West and Bucharest-Ilfov regions.

There are also several areas which have significant tourism potential (Bucovina in the North-East region, the Black Sea coast and the Danube Delta in the South-East region, etc.), and the economic development of these areas is influenced also by the use of this potential.

At the end of March 2020, the highest rates of registered unemployment were recorded in the South-West region (4.9%) and the North-East region (4.3%). The lowest rates of registered unemployment were recorded in Bucharest (0.8%) and the West region (2.0%).

Main types of businesses on the labour market: companies (limited liability companies (SRL), joint-stock companies (SA), partnerships (SNC), simple partnerships (SCS), joint-stock partnerships (SCA), sole traders (PFA) and family associations).

The main types of employers are multinational companies, profit/non-profit state-owned companies, private companies and NGOs. According to the 2019 Coface 'CEE Top 500 Companies' study, the largest companies in Romania in terms of turnover are: Automobile Dacia SA, OMV Petrom Marketing SRL, OMV Petrom SA, Rompetrol Rafinare SA, Kaufland România SCS, Ford Romania SA, British American Tobacco Trading SRL, Lidl Discount SA, Carrefour România SA, Star Assembly SRL, Dedeman SRL.

Main types of employment contracts: employment contracts may be fixed-term or permanent, with full-time or part-time working hours. Certain jobs require specific qualifications and/or experience. For further details, see chapter 3.3 of ‘Living and Working in Romania’.

Sources: National Employment Agency, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, National Institute of Statistics.


Text last edited on: 07/2020

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