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Romania - National Level

Short overview of the labour market


According to data provided by the National Institute of Statistics, Romania has 19.64 million inhabitants. 

According to the Labour Ledger as at 1 January 2017, the active civilian population amounted to 8735.8 thousand persons, representing 44.5 % of the resident population. Out of the total active population, 54.6 % were men and 45.4 % were women.

The employed civilian population amounted to 8317.6 thousand people, of whom 5223.8 thousand were salaried employees. Most of the employees were working in the services sector (3241.7 thousand people), while 1857.7 thousand persons were employed in the industrial and construction sectors. The number of employees in agriculture, forestry and fisheries was 124.4 thousand. In the third quarter of 2017, the employment rate of the working age population (15-64 years) was 65.3 % with higher rates for men (73.3 % versus 57.2 % for women).

Two different sets of data concerning the unemployment rate are calculated in Romania. The ILO unemployment rate is calculated by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) using the definition provided by the International Labour Organisation. In December 2017, this rate was 4.6 %, according to the March 2018 Statistical Bulletin of the National Institute of Statistics. 

The rate of registered unemployment, determined by the National Employment Agency (ANOFM), is calculated on the basis of the number of unemployed people registered in the ANOFM database. At the end of December 2017, this rate was 4 %, corresponding to 351.1 thousand registered unemployed persons.

Romania is divided into eight administrative regions: North-West, Centre, North-East, South-East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South-West Oltenia and West. Each region has certain specific features with regard to its economic structure, which is why certain sectors play a predominant role in the development of each region. In the North-East and South-West regions, a large share of the population is engaged in agricultural activities. The civilian population is employed mainly in industry and the construction sector in the West and Centre regions, and in the services sector in the Centre, West and Bucharest-Ilfov regions. 

There are also several areas which have significant tourism potential (Bucovina in the North-East region, the Black Sea coast and the Danube Delta in the South-East region, etc.), and the economic development of these areas is influenced also by the use of this potential. 

At the end of December 2017, the statistical regions with the highest unemployment rates were South-West (7.2 %) and Northeast (5.8 %). The lowest unemployment rates were recorded in Bucharest (1.1 %) and the West region (2.6 %). 

The main types of enterprise present on the labour market are: companies (limited liability companies (SRL), joint-stock companies (SA), partnerships (SNC), simple partnerships (SCS), joint-stock partnerships (SCA), sole traders (PFA) and family associations).

The main categories of employers are multinational companies, profit/non-profit state-owned companies, private companies and NGOs. According to the 2017 edition of the study by Coface “Top 500 Company in Central and Eastern Europe”, the most important Romanian companies in terms of turnover are: Automobile Dacia SA, OMV Petrom Marketing SRL, OMV Petrom SA, Kaufland România SCS, Rompetrol Rafinare SA, Rompetrol Downstream SRL, British American Tobacco Trading SRL, Carrefour România SA, Lidl Discount SA, and Lukoil România SRL. 

Main types of employment contracts: employment contracts may be fixed-term or permanent, with full-time or part-time working hours. Certain jobs require specific qualifications and/or experience. For further details, see chapter 3.3 of ‘Living and Working in Romania’.

Sources: National Employment Agency, Ministry of Labour and Social Justice, National Institute of Statistics. 

Text last edited on: 09/2018

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