Science and engineering professionals

ISCO-08 code

21

Description

Science and engineering professionals conduct research; improve or develop concepts, theories and operational methods; or apply scientific knowledge relating to fields such as physics, astronomy, meteorology, chemistry, geophysics, geology, biology, ecology, pharmacology, medicine, mathematics, statistics, architecture, engineering, design and technology.  Competent performance in most occupations in this sub-major group requires skills at the fourth ISCO skill level.
Tasks performed by workers in this sub-major group usually include: conducting research, enlarging, advising on or applying scientific knowledge obtained through the study of structures and properties of physical matter and phenomena, chemical characteristics and processes of various substances, materials and products, all forms of human, animal and plant life and of mathematical and statistical concepts and methods; advising on, designing and directing construction of buildings, towns and traffic systems, or civil engineering and industrial  structures, as well as machines and other equipment; advising on and applying mining methods and ensuring their optimum use; surveying land and sea and making maps; studying and advising on technological aspects of particular materials, products and processes, and on efficiency of production and work organization; preparing scientific papers and reports. Supervision of other workers may be included.
Occupations in this sub-major group are classified into the following minor groups:
211 Physical and Earth Science Professionals
212 Mathematicians, Actuaries and Statisticians
213 Life Science Professionals 
214 Engineering Professionals (excluding Electrotechnology)
215 Electrotechnology Engineers
216 Architects, Planners, Surveyors and Designers

Hierarchy

Narrower ISCO groups

Concept URI

http://data.europa.eu/esco/isco/C21