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The breeding population in individual countries

Breeding 2006Breeding 2012Breeding countries

For each of 23 countries, a short summary is given about the status and recent trend of the breeding populations. Each summary is followed by relevant references and links. No cormorants were recorded breeding in Portugal, Luxembourg and Slovenia in 2012.

AustriaFinlandNorway
BelarusGermanyPoland
BelgiumGreeceRussian part of the Gulf of Finland
Bosnia and HerzegovinaIcelandSerbia
BulgariaItalySpain
CroatiaLatviaSweden
DenmarkLithuaniaSwitzerland
EstoniaMontenegro 



Austria

The Great Cormorant started to breed successfully in 2001 and 2003 after a period of absence due to a variety of factors, including strong human persecution. In the summer of 2012, Austria had 65 nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in three colonies. For the second year in a row, this was a decrease in the number of occupied nests compared to 2011 (85 nests) and 2010 (170-180 nests).

Summary based on Parz-Gollner et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Nemeth, E. & Dvorak, M. 2012: Bestandsentwicklung der Zwergscharbe (Phalacrocorax pygmeus) 2007-2011 und erster Brutnachweis des Kormorans (Phalacrocorax carbo) am Neusiedler See. – Vogelkundl. Nachrichten aus Ostösterreich 23: 14-15.

Niederer, W. 2012: Der Kormoran im Naturschutzgebiet Rheindelta. – Jahresbericht 2012. Naturschutzverein Rheindelta.

Parz-Gollner, R., Zuna-Kratky, T., Niederer, W. & Nemeth, E. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Austria in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 10-13.

Zuna-Kratky, T. & Pöhacker, J., 2012: Die Situation der Fischfresser-Kolonien in den March-Thaya-Auen im Jahr 2012. – Bericht des AURING - Biolog. Station Hohenau - Ringelsdorf, Wien.

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Belarus

In 2012, the breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Belarus was estimated at 3,250 occupied nests in a total of 20 colonies. This is an increase of approximately 20% compared to 2005. Current estimates are based on almost full coverage in the 2012 count, where the majority of breeders were surveyed in known breeding areas.

Summary based on Samusenko (2013).

Selected references and links

Samusenko, I.E., 2012: Current status and population dynamics of Great Cormorant in Belarus – Proc. of II int. Conf. “The problems of biodiversity conservation and use of biological resources”, Minsk, 22-26 October 2012. Minsk. P. 216-219. (In Russian).

Samusenko, I., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Belarus in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 14-18.

https://www.birdwatch.by/news/5249

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Belgium

The breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrorcorax carbo sinensis) re-established itself in 1992 and a rapid increase in breeding numbers was seen between 1992 and 2005. Since 2006, the numbers have remained stable. In 2012, Belgium had 1,584 occupied nests in a total of 28 colonies.

Summary based on Devos and Paquet (2013).

Selected references and links

Devos K. 2011. Populatieontwikkeling van Aalscholvers in Vlaanderen, periode 2009-2011. Vogelnieuws INBO 16: 4-9.

Devos, K. & Paquet, J-Y. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Belgium in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 19-22/a>.

Jenard, P., Moncousin, M., Pourignaux, F. & Paquet J.Y. (2010): Grand Cormoran, Phalacrocorax carbo. in Jacob, J.P., Dehem, C., Burnel, A., Dambiermont, J.L., Fasol, M., Kinet, T., Van der Elst, D.& Paquet, J.Y.: Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs de Wallonie 2001-2007. Série "Faune - Flore - Habitat" n°5. Aves et Région Wallonne, Gembloux: 156-157.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) began breeding in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1970s, but these nesting sites quickly disappeared. The species was declared nationally extinct by the end of the 20th century, but it returned and the breeding sites have been surveyed regularly since 2005. In 2011, Bosnia and Herzegovina had an estimated 154 occupied nests in two colonies.

Summary based on Sjeničić and Kotrošan (2013).

Selected references and links

Kotrošan, D., Šimić E., Sjeničić, J. & Topić, G. 2011: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population status in Bosnia and Herzegovina - report for the period 2005-2011. – Wetlands International, Cormorant Research Group Bulletin 7: 33-38.

Kotrošan, D., Dervović, I., Hatibović& E., Kulijer, D. 2012: New findings on the breeding habitats of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. – Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja Bosne i Hercegovine, PN (NS) 33: 39-46.

Milanović, Đ. & Kotrošan, D., 2012: Ptice i šaševi Livanjskog polja. priručnik za praćenje stanja šaševa (Carex sp.) i indikatorskih vrsta ptica u širem području Ždralovca. Centra mladih Livno i Ornitološko društvo „Naše ptice“, interna publikacija projekta “Monitoring populacije ptica i biljnih zajednica u Livanjskom polju”. Contact kotrosan@bih.net.ba to obtain a copy of the report.

Sjeničić, J. &Kotrošan, D. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2011. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 23-25.

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Bulgaria

In 2012, Bulgaria had an estimated 2,775 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 15 colonies. The 2012 census showed an increase of ca. 700 nests (approx. 35%) compared to the last complete national survey of breeding cormorants in 2006. The number of colonies has also increased: from 10 in 2006 to 15 in 2012.

Summary based on Nikolov et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Nikolov, I., Shurulinkov, P. & Borisov, B., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Bulgaria in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 26-29.

Shurulinkov, P., Nikolov, I., Demerdzhiev, D., Bedev, K., Dinkov, H., Daskalova, G., Stoychev, S., Hristov, I. & Ralev, A., 2007: Die aktuelle Brutverbreitung und die Bestände koloniebrütender Reiher und Kormorane in Bulgarien. – Ornithol. Mitt. 59 (11): 370-378.

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Croatia

In the summer of 2012, Croatia had 1,331 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in two colonies. This is a decrease of over 800 nests compared to 2008 (2,156 nests). This is primarily a result of the decrease of breeding numbers in the main colony at Kopacki rit.

Great Cormorants began breeding in Kopacki rit in the late 19th century, and regular censuses in this area started in 1963. The lowest breeding numbers were reached during the 1960s and the mid-1970s, with 23-133 pairs breeding irregularly each year. The population expanded from 1977, peaking in 1988 and declining in 1990. Numbers have fluctuated between 1,000 and 2,000 nests since 1999, but there has been a constant decline since 2007.

At the other colony, at Lonjsko polje Nature Park, breeding has taken place since 2007. Numbers in this colony have fluctuated from 350 to 600 pairs during 2006-2011. Historically, two other colonies existed and were recorded from 1986; one holding 124 and 181 nests in 1986 and 1987, respectively, and the other holding 182 nests in 1987.

Summary based on Mikuska et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Mikuska J. & Lakatos J., 1977: Data on the distribution and ecology of the Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo (L. 1758) in Yugoslavia. – Larus 29-30: 141-151.

Mikuska J. & Mikuska T., 1994: Ptice Dunava na području Hrvatske. – Anali Zavoda za znanstveni rad u Osijeku 10: 109-175.

Mikuska T., Rožac V., Šetina N., Šetina M. & Hima V., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Croatia in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 30-33.

Schneider M., 1989: Endangered and rare birds in the alluvial wetlands of the Sava river on the Posavina/Croatia. – Larus 40: 167-178.

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Denmark

Breeding numbers of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) were relatively stable in Denmark during 1993-2006 with nest numbers ranging between 36,700 and 42,500 nests. But numbers began to decline in 2007 and reached 25,600 nests in 2011. A slight increase to 27,237 nests was recorded in 2012, but numbers declined again in 2013. In the summer of 2013, cormorants occupied 25,486 nests in a total of 65 breeding colonies. This is close to the highest number of colonies recorded in Denmark to date (66 in 2010). The breeding population in Denmark has gradually become more and more evenly dispersed over the last 30 years. Previously, large colonies have had up to 7,500 nests, but the largest colony in 2013 contained 1,858 nests.

Summary partly based on Bregnballe et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Bregnballe, T., Hansen, R. & Therkildsen, O.R., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Denmark in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 34-37.

Bregnballe, T. & Therkildsen, O.R., 2012: Danmarks ynglebestand af skarver i 2012. – Notat fra DCE - Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi, Aarhus University.

Bregnballe, T., Hyldgaard, A.M. & Therkildsen, O.R., 2013: Danmarks ynglebestand af skarver i 2013. – Technical Report no. 26 from DCE - Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi, Aarhus University.

https://www.dmu.dk/dyrplanter/dyr/skarv_-_udvikling_i_bestande/

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Estonia

In 2012, Estonia had an estimated 13,000 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 18 colonies. A total of 12,880 nests were counted during the breeding season. This is a slight underestimate as storms prevented complete counts to take place on two dates. A total of 12,930 nests were recorded in 2011, so there was no change in breeding numbers from 2011 to 2012.

Summary based on Rattiste (2013).

Selected references and links

Ojaste, I., Rattiste, K., Lilleleht, V., Mägi, E. & Leito, A., 2012: Kormorani (Phalacrocorax carbo) eestiasurkonnakujunemine. (Population development of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Estonia) – Hirundo 25: 1-33.
Available in Estonian
Available in English

Rattiste, K., 2012: Kormorani levik ja arvukus Eestis 2012.

Rattiste, K., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Estonia in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 38-41.

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Finland

The Finnish breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) fluctuated between approximately 14,400 and 17,700 nests during 2009-2012. In 2012, there were 17,208 occupied nests, which was a decrease of ca. 500 nests (3%) compared to 2011. Cormorants established colonies at 40 locations in 2012, including eight new sites. This is the third highest number of colonies recorded in Finland (50 in 2009 and 41 in 2008) since breeding started in 1996.

Summary based on Rusanen (2013).

Selected references and links

Lehikoinen, A., Heikinheimo, O. & Lappalainen, A., 2011: Temporal changes in the diet of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) on the southern coast of Finland – comparison with available fish data. – Boreal Environment Research 16 (suppl. B): 61–70. Available at https://www.borenv.net/BER/pdfs/ber16/ber16B-61.pdf

Rusanen, P., Mikkola-Roos, M. & Ryttäri, T., 2012: Merimetsokannan kehitys ja vaikutuksia. – Linnut-vuosikirja 2011:116-123. (Summary: Population development of cormorant and effects in Finland.) Available at https://www.birdlife.fi/suojelu/lajit/ladattavat/merimetso-vuosikirja-2011.pdf

Rusanen, P., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Finland in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 42-46.

Ryttäri, T., 2011: Merimetson kasvistovaikutukset Suomenlahden saaristossa 1998-2010. – Suomen ympäristö 20/2011. (Summary: The Impact of the Great Cormorant on Flora in the Archipelago in the Gulf of Finland 1998-2010). Available af https://www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=128562&lan=fi

Information on cormorants from the Finnish Environmental Institute. Available here

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Germany

After a period with strong increase, the number of breeding pairs of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Germany reached a peak in 2008 (25,100 pairs), decreased in 2011 (less than 19,500 pairs) and increased again in 2012. In 2012, Germany had 22,550 occupied nests in 150 colonies.

Summary based on Kieckbusch (2013).

Selected references and links

Kieckbusch, J., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Germany in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 47-50.

Cormorant counts in Germany (website of DDA):

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Greece

In 2012, Greece had 6,978 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 13 colonies. This is the highest breeding population of cormorants recorded in Greece since recording began. Breeding numbers increased by ca. 2,400 nests compared to 2006.

Summary based on Kazantzidis (2013).

Selected references and links

Kazantzidis, S., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Greece in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 51-54.

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Iceland

The breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo carbo) in Iceland has been censused since 1975. Over the first series of years thereafter, numbers appeared to be stable (approximately 3,000 nests counted at irregular intervals). After 1990 there were indications of a decline. Annual monitoring began in 1994. From then on, the total population increased with an average of 3.7% per year, reaching a maximum (5,520 nests) in 2010 and numbers declined slightly from 2010 to 2012. In the summer of 2012, Iceland had 4,772 occupied nests of cormorants in 49 colonies.

Summary based on Gardarsson and Jónsson (2013).

Selected references and links

Gardarsson, A. 2008: Dílaskarfsbyggðir 1994–2008. (Distribution and numbers of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Iceland in 1994-2008). (In Icelandic with English summary). – Bliki 29: 1-10.

Gardarsson, A. & Jónsson, J.E. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Iceland in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 55-58.

https://hs.hi.is/en/cormorant_population_dynamics

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Italy

In 2012, the breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Italy was estimated at 3,914 occupied nests in a total of 48 colonies. This was an increase of approximately 750 nests (24%) compared to breeding numbers in 2011 (3,170 nests) and an increase of approximately 1,770 nests (82%) compared to 2006 (2,142 nests).

Summary based on Volponi and CORMONET.IT (2013).

Selected references and links

Bregnballe T., Volponi S. van Eerden M., van Rijn S. & Lorentsen S-H. 2011: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in the Western Palearctic in 2006. Pp. 8-20 in Van Eerden, M.R., van Rijn, S. and Keller, V. (eds.), Proceedings 7th International Conference on Cormorants, Villeneuve, Switzerland 23-26 November 205, Wetlands International-IUCN Cormorant Research Group, Lelystad.

Carpegna, F., Grieco, F., Grussu, M., Volponi, S. & Veronesi, E. 1997: The Italian breeding population of Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). – Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina 26: 81–87.

Serra L. & Brichetti P. 2002: Uccelli acquatici nidificanti: 2000. – Avocetta 26: 123-129.

Spina, F., Bolognesi, F., Frugis, S., & Piacentini, D. 1986: Il Cormorano, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, torna a riprodursi nell'Italia continentale: accertata nidificazione in Val Campotto (Ferrara). – Riv. ital. Orn, 56: 127-129.

Volponi, S. & CORMONET.IT 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Italy in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 59-64.

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Latvia

In 2012, Latvia had 3,106 nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in nine colonies. This was an increase of approximately 600 nests compared to 2011.

Summary based on Millers (2013).

Selected references and links

Millers, K. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Latvia in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 65-68.

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Lithuania

In the summer of 2012, Lithuania had an estimated 3,200 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in six colonies. A small number of colonies located in the Nemunas River delta could not be surveyed due to limited access. Despite this, it is estimated that the count resulted in an almost complete coverage (>90%) of all breeding cormorants in Lithuania. There were approximately 1,000 fewer nests in 2012 than in 2011.

Summary based on Dagys and Zarankaitė (2013).

Selected references and links

Dagys, M. & Zarankaitė, J. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Lithuania in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 69-71.

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Montenegro

A total of 1,156 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) were recorded in Montenegro in 2012. Between 2006 and 2012, the breeding population in Montenegro decreased by 2%. All previously known breeding locations of cormorants in Montenegro were visited during the breeding season in 2012. The only active colony of cormorants was located on the Skadar Lake, near the Albanian border.

Summary based on Vizi (2013).

Selected references and links

Vizi, A., 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Montenegro in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 72-74.

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Norway

The subspecies Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis is breeding along the coast of southern Norway. In 2012, Norway had an estimated 2,500 occupied nests of this subspecies in 14 colonies. This is an increase of approximately 600 nests (32%) since 2010. Since the establishment of a breeding population of P. c. sinensis in southern Norway in 1996/97 (45 nests) there has been a steady population growth up to 2012. Only some of the breeding colonies of the subspecies P. c. carbo were counted in 2012.

Summary based on Lorentsen (2013).

Selected references and links

Barrett, R. T., Lorentsen, S.-H. & Anker-Nilssen, T. 2006: The status of breeding seabirds in mainland Norway. – Atlantic Seabirds 8(3): 97-126.

Lorentsen, S.-H. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Norway in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 75-78.

www.seapop.no

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Poland

In 2012, Poland had an estimated 26,600 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 54 colonies. This was a negligible decrease from approximately 27,100 nests in 2010. During 2012 it was not possible to count the breeding numbers in five small colonies. For these colonies, numbers from 2010 were used to estimate total breeding numbers in 2012.

Summary based on Bzoma et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Bzoma, S. Krzywosz, T., Betleja, J., Orłowska, B., Antczak, J., Traczuk, P. & Witkowski, J. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Poland in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 79-81.

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Russian part of the Gulf of Finland

There were 4,605 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in seven colonies in the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland in 2012. This was an increase of approximately 18% (706 nests) over a period of six years (3,899 nests recorded in 2006). Breeding colonies were found on 15 out of 23 islands. It is judged that a complete coverage of all breeders was obtained during the 2012 count.

Summary based on Gaginskaya et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Gaginskaya, A., Starikov, D. & Kouzov, S. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 82-85.

Kouzov, S. & Kravchuk, A. 2012: Cormorant on Kurgalsky peninsula and its role in local ecosystems – Materials VII regional youth environmental conference "Environmental School in Peterhof - the city of science of the Russian Federation." Ecological problems of the Baltic Region ".SPb. P 42─47 (In Russian). Report can be obtained by contacting anna.gaginskaya@gmail.com

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Serbia

In 2012, Serbia had an estimated 2,000 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 15 colonies. This was an increase of approximately 1,300 nests compared to breeding records from 1998 when there were 700-760 breeding pairs. The 2012 count was the most complete census of breeding cormorants carried out in Serbia within the last 20 years or more. It is believed that almost complete coverage of the breeding population was obtained.

Summary based on Šćiban et al. (2013).

Selected references and links

Puzović S, Gergelj J. & Lukač Š. 1999: Heron and Cormorant Colonies in Serbia 1998. – Ciconia 8: 11-114.

Šćiban, M., Đorđević, I., Stanković, D., Ham, I., Dučić, N., Rudić, B., Grujić, D., Sekereš, O., Manasijević, Z., Rajković, D., Grubač, B. & Balog, I. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Serbia in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 86-89.

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Spain

In 2012, Spain had 1,605 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 21 colonies. This is over a threefold increase since the last national count of breeders in 2007 (532 nests). A total of 239 sites were visited during the 2012 count and the focus was on reservoirs, dams, reed beds and rivers. It is believed that a complete coverage of all breeders was obtained during the 2012 breeding counts.

Summary based on Molina (2013).

Selected references and links

Molina, B. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Spain in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 90-93.

Palomino, D. & Molina, B., 2009: Aves acuáticas reproductoras en España. Población en 2007 y método de censo. SEO/BirdLife. Madrid. https://www.seo.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/26_acuatrepcom.pdf

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Sweden

The breeding population of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Sweden appeared to reach a maximum around 2006 when a total of 43,706 nests were recorded. Results from the 2012 count showed that numbers had decreased by 7% compared to the last complete count in 2006. A total of 40,598 occupied nests were recorded in 2012, distributed across 169 colonies. For 20 of these colonies results from a count in a recent year had to be used due to incomplete coverage in 2012.

Summary based on Engström and Wirdheim (2013).

Selected references and links

Engström, H. & Pettersson, C. 2003: Management plan of Great Cormorant in Sweden. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. (In Swedish with English summary).

Engström, H. & Wirdheim, A. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Sweden in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 94-100.

Ljunggren, L., Sandström, A., Bergström, U., Mattila, J., Lappalainen,A., Johansson, G., Sundblad, G., Casini, M., Kaljuste, O. & Eriksson, B.K. 2010: Recruitment failure of coastal predatory fish in the Baltic Sea coincident with an offshore ecosystem regime shift. – ICES J. Mar. Sci. 67(8): 1587–1595.

Wirdheim, A. & Engström, H., 2013: Inventory of breeding Great Cormorants (ssp. sinensis) in Sweden in 2012. (in Swedish).

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Switzerland

In the summer of 2012, Switzerland had 1,037 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in 13 colonies. The overall number of nests almost doubled between 2010 (560 nests) and 2012. Cormorant numbers have been monitored in Switzerland since the establishment of a breeding population in 2001.

Summary based on Keller and Müller (2013).

Selected references and links

Keller, V., Antoniazza, M., Mosimann-Kampe, P. & Rapin, P. 2012: Dix ans de reproduction du Grand Cormoran Phalacrocorax carbo en Suisse (2001-2010). – Nos Oiseaux 59: 3–10.

Keller, V. & Müller, C. 2012: Breeding colonies of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Switzerland 2012. Swiss Ornithological Institute, Sempach. A pdf of the publication can be obtained by writing to Verena Keller verena.keller@vogelwarte.ch

Keller V. & Müller C. 2013: Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Switzerland in 2012. – In: Bregnballe, T., Lynch, J., Parz-Gollner, R., Marion, L., Volponi, S., Paquet, J-Y. & van Eerden, M.R. (eds.) 2013. National reports from the 2012 breeding census of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in parts of the Western Palearctic. IUCN-Wetlands International Cormorant Research Group Report. Technical Report from DCE, Aarhus University No. 22: 101-104.