At the European regional level, 13% of bird species are threatened, with 2% Critically Endangered, 3% Endangered, and 7% Vulnerable. A further 6% are Near Threatened. Within the EU 27, 18% of bird species are threatened, with 2% Critically Endangered, 4% Endangered, and 12% Vulnerable, and a further 6% are Near Threatened.
The countries with the largest numbers of bird species are Russia and Turkey. Russia and Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caucasus regions show a higher species richness than northwest Europe. Russia and Turkey have the highest richness of threatened species. Important numbers of threatened species can also be found in the Caucasus region, the Iberian Peninsula and France, as well as in some regions in the Baltic States and Eastern Europe. Threatened species, mainly marine birds, are found in north and northwest Europe.
There are 91 bird species endemic or near-endemic to Europe, found mainly in temperate and central Europe. The Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands have many endemic bird species, as does the Caucasus region.
‘Biological resource use’, and ‘agriculture and aquaculture’ are Europe’s top threats to bird species, followed by ‘climate change and severe weather’, ‘pollution’, ‘invasive and other problematic species, genes and diseases’ and ‘natural system modifications’.
Across Europe, many governments, NGOs and other parties are showing increasing commitment to conserving wild birds and their habitats and thanks to these efforts some species are showing signs of recovery. However, the proportion of threatened species in this assessment is comparable to that in the previous assessment a decade ago. Bird species continue to decline as a result of various threats, including illegal hunting, changing agricultural practices, invasive and alien species and habitat loss and degradation. It is evident that much more needs to be done to save threatened European bird species from extinction and to safeguard the bird populations of Europe.