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Banner Regional Platforms on People & Large Carnivores

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Information on the regional platform on people and large carnivores in Grosseto (Tuscany), Italy. Find general information on the regional platforms as well as the ones in Germany, Romania, Finland/Sweden, France and Spain here.

A platform has been established in Grosseto focusing on the conflicts among different interest groups over the presence of wolves in the province and their impact on human activities.

Map Regional Platform on People & Large Carnivores Italy

Geography and large carnivore populations [1,2]

Italy, in southern Europe is one of the European Union’s EU’s founding members (1957). The 301,044km2 terrestrial area is highly varied, differentiated by mountains, valleys and the coastline. Regarding the climate, Italy can be divided into a Mediterranean and a temperate part. Agriculture is the dominant land use (50%) followed by forestry (25%) [1]. The Italian wolf population can be subdivided into the Alpine population shared with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the Central Italian population in the Apennine regions [2]. Despite fragmentation of suitable habitat for large carnivores, the wolf population has been growing and expanding its range since the 1990s.

Impacts of large carnivore populations [2-4]

Conflicts on large carnivores arise around economic, social and cultural concerns. Bears impact both livestock and beekeeping activities and there have even been attacks on humans. Wolves, however have a particular impact on traditional husbandry involving free ranging livestock. This is leading to an increasing conflict, particularly in areas where wolves have returned recently. Compensation schemes exist as well as damage prevention schemes (funded through national or EU financing). These vary between the different Italian regions (see below).

Management of large carnivore populations [2, 5-6]

All three large carnivore species (wolf, bear, lynx) are fully protected in Italy under Annex IV of the Habitats Directive. While conservation of large carnivores is a national responsibility, management is decentralized so that responsibilities lie with the regional and provincial governments.

A Bear Management Plan has been elaborated for the Environmental Ministry. A national wolf management plan has been in place since 2002, but no measures implemented. An updated wolf Conservation and Management Plan has been in preparation since 2015, however has not yet been agreed.

A wolf looks through the fence that delimits a pasture, while the breeder with the herd is not far away.

A courios wolf approaches a camera-trap.

Livestock protection measures in Grosseto
Livestock protection measures in Grosseto
Livestock protection measures in Grosseto
Livestock protection measures in Grosseto

Figures [7,8]

  • Area: 4,503 km²
  • Human population: 222,175 (2018)
  • Grosseto is one of 9 provinces in southern Tuscany, and is subdivided into 28 municipalities

Geography [9]

Grosseto province’s landscape is a composition of various ecosystems: Mediterranean vegetation such as pine trees shapes the coastline. Hilly and mountainous parts are characterized by forests of different tree species. Almost half of its territory is included in one of numerous protected areas such as regional parks or nature and wildlife reserves.

Governance [8]

Grosseto province is one of nine provinces in the Tuscany regional administration. It is governed by a provincial president, and administered by a council. Since 2016, environmental matters, including nature conservation activities such as protected areas, as well as agricultural subjects of the province are within the responsibilities of the regional administration in Tuscany.

Main economic activities [10-15]

With its high share of agro-forestry-pastoral activities Grosseto has a strong rural character. Agricultural activities make up approximately 6% of the provincial gross domestic product, triple that of the national level. Services, industry and the construction sector made up a share of approximately 81%, 8% and 5% respectively. [10]. The agricultural character of Grosseto also brings a broad range of opportunities for agricultural tourists. While Grosseto attracted 1,2 million visitors in 2017 especially along the coastline, the province is not yet a destination as popular among foreigners as other parts of Tuscany [11].

Local agricultural production has a long tradition. Grosseto has the second highest share of agricultural businesses (17%) among provinces in the region, and its agriculturally used territory makes up more than 61% of the provincial territory. In terms of animal husbandry, almost one fifth of farms in Tuscany are in Grosseto. Compared to the other provinces, these also have a higher number of livestock. [12].

Impacts of wolves (including wolf x dog hybrids) on

  • Traditional, open range livestock farming of well-known high quality products (mostly sheep depredations)
  • Fears for human safety
  • Tourism (fear of wolves, fear of guarding dogs)

Estimated wolf population (2017): 86-115 individuals grouped into 22-24 packs across all parts of Grosseto province [16]. Due to a higher presence of both, wolves and agricultural activities, in the southeastern part, damages were higher in these communities (especially Arcidosso, Roccalbegna, Manciano) [13]. While frustrations about the damage compensation system and need for individual insurances were numerous [14, 15], the situation has improved since changes to the system in 2014. In the Province of Grosseto the LIFE MEDWOLF project was implemented in the period 2013-2017 with the aim of mitigating impacts of wolf on free ranging husbandry [13].

Livestock protection measures in Grosseto
Livestock protection measures in Grosseto
Livestock protection measures in Grosseto

The Platform builds on activities of the LIFE MEDWOLF project (2014-2017) [13] which promoted the use of damage prevention measures and established a trustful relationship with farmers. Data on wolf presence is robust.

Participating stakeholders

  • Livestock breeders and their representative associations (individual farmers, DifesAttiva, CIA, COLDIRETTI, CONFAGRICOLTURA Grosseto)
  • Government Administration (Region of Tuscany)
  • Hunters
  • Nature protection NGOs (WWF, Circolo Festambiente)
  • Tourism, production and outdoor organizations (Caseificio Sociale Manciano, Terramare UISP)
  • Animal welfare (Iriducibili Liberazione Animale, Lega Anti Vivisezione)
  • Environmental guides
  • Other institutions (State Forestry Corp)
  • Mayors
  • Research and science (biologists, Università di Roma)
  • Cheese factory (Caseificio Sociale di Manciano)

Platform activities

Step 1: Scoping

The project team carried out a visit and a stakeholder mapping in the Grosseto area. The platform would aim to build upon and expand the stakeholder engagement processes established under the LIFE Medwolf project.

Step 2: Establishing a process

In the first two meetings, participants agreed their willingness to take part in the process, discussed the previous participatory process in the region, and the mission of the platform.

Step 3: Implementation

During a third workshop, participants exchanged perspectives and viewpoints on wolf-management. This will provide a basis for their joint work.

The fourth and fifth workshop were used to identify common points and interests to identify options for "mutual gain".

The platform agreed the following press release describing their work to date:

The sixth workshop aimed at selecting options for common activities out of proposed actions by ranking them according to commonly chosen criteria.

On 8 May 2019, the platform organized a joint regional workshop with the EU Platform. The platform press release (also available in IT) highlights the importance of dialogue between the stakeholders involved and their mutual recognition of each other’s interests, especially the importance of supporting livestock breeders. Access the workshop report (also available in IT) for further details of the meeting.

Sheep in Italy
Difes Attiva
Gate to a farm in Italy

These resources give some background information on the wolf population in Tuscany based on a range of scientific and management projects carried out in the region.

Depredation on livestock by canids in the north - eastern apennine (PDF) A. Gazzola et al. (4th European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference, Parma) 2003 Talk at European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference, Parma. Analysis of wolf damage in the Province of Arezzo between 1998 and 2001.
Does the insurance system enhance mitigation of predator-livestock conflicts? Experiences from the Province of Grosseto S. Ricci et al. (IX Congresso Italiano di Teriologia, Civitella Alfedena Hystrix, It. J. Mamm. 25 (suppl.):5) 2014 Within the LIFE MEDWOLF project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/069; 2012-2017) we analysed the functionality of the regional legislation (Law 26/2005) which introduced an insurance policy in order to obtain compensation for damage caused by predators.
The evolution of wolves presence in Tuscany and the occurrence of wolf/dog hybrids - Simposio Ibriwolf (PDF) M. Apollonio & M. Scandura (CIRSeMAF) 2014 The intervention of Prof. Apollonio during the final symposium LIFE Hybrids on presence of pure and hybrid wolves in the Tuscan territory.
Spreading threat, enhanced diagnostics, and benign neglect management: perspectives on wolf-dog hybridization in the northern Apennines. W. Reggioni et al. (X Congresso Italiano di Teriologia Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 27 (supplement).) 2016 Anthropogenic hybridization (AH), the intermixing of individuals of two or more genetically distinct populations as a consequence of human interference, has long been recognized as an emerging threat for many plant and animal taxa. Our aim is to provide a first assessment of WDH in the Tosco- Emiliano National Park (PNATE, Northern Apennines) and adjacent areas as an ex-ante evaluation phase conducted within the EU-Life project “Mirco” (LIFE13NAT/IT/000728; 2015– 2020).
Esperienze di monitoraggio e gestione dei conflitti nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna - Convegno ISPRA Verso un piano nazionale di monitoraggio del lupo, Roma (IT) C. Pedrazzoli (Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi) 2018 Intervention of Dr. Pedrazzoli during the convention organized by ISPRA on December 6, 2018 "Towards a national plan for wolf monitoring". The situation in the National Park of Casentino forests is described.
L'ecosistema lupo: un approccio community based- Convegno ISPRA Verso un piano nazionale di monitoraggio del lupo, Roma (IT) A. Massolo (Parco Regionale Alpi Apuane) 2018 Intervention of Prof. Massolo during the conference organized by ISPRA on 6 December 2018 "Towards a national plan for wolf monitoring". The distribution of the wolf in the Regional Park of the Apuan Alps and the scheduled projects.
Risultati della gestione dell'ibridazione e dei conflitti in provicnia di Grosseto: ibriwolf e medwolf - Convegno ISPRA Verso un piano nazionale di monitoraggio del lupo, Roma (IT) V. Salvatori (Istituto Ecologia Applicata) 2018 Intervention of Dr. Salvatori during the convention organized by ISPRA on December 6, 2018 "Towards a national plan for wolf monitoring." The results of the Life Ibriwolf and Life Medwolf projects are described.
Esperienze di monitoraggio e conservazione del lupo in Toscana - Convegno ISPRA Verso un piano nazionale di monitoraggio del lupo, Roma (IT) M. Apollonio et al. (RegioneToscana) 2018 The intervention of Prof. Apollonio during the convention organized by ISPRA on 6-12-2018 "Towards a national plan for monitoring the wolf". Presentation of the results of wolf monitoring in Tuscany from 2013-2016.
La situazione del lupo a Grosseto - XIII Workshop Regionale della Piattaforma Europea sui Grandi Carnivori e le Attività Umane (IT) M. Machetti (RegioneToscana) 2019 Speech by Dr. Machetti, Regional Office for Hunting and Fishing, in Florence on 8-5-2019 on occasion of a meeting, to present the proposals developed by the platform of different stakeholders who work together to find solutions to the management of the conflict over the wolf in the Grosseto area. The actions carried out under two LIFE projects and the regional health initiatives to address the problem of hybrids by acting on feral and stray dogs are described.
Il lupo in Toscana - XIII Workshop Regionale della Piattaforma Europea sui Grandi Carnivori e le Attività Umane (IT) Romeo (RegioneToscana) 2019 Speech by Dr. Romeo, Regional Office for Hunting and Fishing, in Florence on 8-5-2019 on occasion of a meeting, to present the proposals developed by the platform of different stakeholders who work together to find solutions for the management of the conflict over the wolf in the Grosseto area. A description of the monitoring activities carried out by the Tuscany Region and the recorded predation events, in addition to the communication activities.
Ungulati e lupo - Vertebrati del Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi (IT) S. Gualazzi & L. Cicognani (DREAM) 2001 This document contains some data collected over the years on eco-ethological aspects of ungulate and wolf population in the Casentino Forests National Park. This information, together with the personal knowledge of the authors, has allowed to outline some management and conservation proposals, which can be taken into account in the land use planning of the Park itself.
Il lupo è vicino. Il lupo nella provincia di Firenze. Storia, distribuzione ed aspetti dell’ecologia del mitico predatore. (IT) D. Berzi & G. Valdrè (Provincia Firenze - Assessorato Agricoltura, Caccia e Pesca) 2002 The wolf in the province of Florence. History, distribution and ecological aspects of the mythical predator. This little book summarizes the results of a scientific research in order to contribute to the correct knowledge of the species, so that it can be given greater consideration and respect.
La predazione sui domestici da parte di canidi in provincia di Arezzo (IT) (PDF) A. Gazzola, C. Capitani, E. Avanzinelli, L. Mattioli, M. Apollonio (Ufficio Caccia e Pesca. Provincia di Arezzo) 2003 This report deepens two aspects: the distribution and the intensity of the predatory impact by canids on the domestic ones in the entire province of Arezzo for the period 1998-2001, and the prey-systempredator, a multivariate analysis carried out in four sample areas of the province where the wolf is present.
Progetto lupo Firenze - Sintesi delle attività svolte al primo anno di attività (IT) D. Berzi (Provincia Firenze - Assessorato Agricoltura, Caccia e Pesca) 2004 A study on wolves in the municipalities north of Florence, with the aim of verifying the actual presence and consistency of the predator species following repeated cases of predation by sheep and goats in an emergency situation (end 2004). As part of the project, a collaboration with the affected farms started in order to minimize the conflict and to test prevention measures.
Indagine sulla presenza storica ed attuale del lupo (Canis lupus) in Toscana (IT) (PDF) A. Gazzola, V. Viviani, M. Apollonio (Regione Toscana) 2006 This project stems from the need of the Tuscany Region to equip itself with an updated tool that allows you to know the current distribution of the wolf on a regional scale. In fact, the objective was exceeded with the aim of providing both a historical vision of the distribution dynamics of the species in the different sectors of the Region and a document that can be updated continuously according to the adoption of precise criteria. We believe that this investigation could be a starting point for an initiative which we believe is urgently needed, namely the establishment of a regional monitoring programme for this important predator; that starts from the group of researchers who have generously collaborated with us in the drafting of this document based on all the information available to the state and derived from investigations carried out to date. It is precisely the cooperation we have met that leads us to be optimistic about the possibility of setting up a fixed wolf-field monitoring network in the Region of Tuscany, which currently plays a key role in both the conservation of this mammal at national level, thanks to the wide distribution and consistent local needs, both for the experimentation of new practices of management of damage caused by its presence.
Il lupo in Provincia di Arezzo (IT) M. Apollonio & L. Mattioli (Provincia di Arezzo) 2006 A document summarizing some studies conducted on the wolf species in the province of Arezzo taken from the Casa Stabbi Study Centre. Aspects of ecology, ethology and space utilization of the wolf as well as genetic characterization of the population.
Il lupo sul Monte Amiata progetto sui grandi canidi (lupo, cane) nel territorio dell'amiata grossetana e senese (IT) S. Lovari & A. San Giuliano (Comunità Montana Amiata Grossetana) 2006 This volume is intended to be a first substantial contribution to the knowledge of the population of big canids in the Amiata area, thus the province of Grosseto and neighboring provinces in agreement with public administrations.
La prevenzione dei danni da predatori al patrimonio zootecnico: strumenti tradizionali e innovativi per la difesa delle produzioni e la conservazione delle specie protette (IT) F. Sorbetti Guerri, D. Berzi, S. Innocenti & L. Conti (Quaderni dei Georgofili) 2009 This document, developed by the Centre for the Study and Documentation on the Wolf, summarizes the stages of a study aimed at characterizing the various prevention techniques for predator damage to livestock, considering the costs of purchase, installation and maintenance, functionality and availability in both standard works and new treatments recently introduced on the market.
Linee guida per le misure di prevenzione delle predazioni da lupo e mitigazione del conflitto con le attività zootecniche in contesto appenninico (PDF in IT) AAVV (LIFE Wolfnet) 2010 Technical document that shows, in codified way, all the phases of the decisional process that from the analysis of the ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the phenomenon leads to the choice of targeted participations of prevention and management of the conflict
Tecniche, strategie e strumenti per la prevenzione dei danni da predatori al patrimonio zootecnico (IT) D. Berzi (Provincia di Firenze) 2010 This text illustrates the techniques and methods to enable the coexistence of zootechnical activities and predators. From electrified fences and the use of electronic deterrent devices, to the use of guard dogs, all the tips and suggestions to prevent predator damage and protect livestock.
Ricerca e monitoraggio del lupo (Canis lupus) nel Parco Regionale della Maremma L. Manghi, P. Ciucci & L. Boitani (Regione Toscana) 2010 This research is part of the activities of the BIOSFER Project Biodiversity specification and functionality of the Relevant Ecosystems", financed by the Region of Tuscany with the contribution of the Maremma Regional Park Authority. The study represents the monitoring of the wolf conducted without interruption since February 2006.
Azioni A3- A4 - Relazione tecnica L. Mangi, E. Tosoni & M. Masi (LIFE Ibriwolf) 2012 The document summarizes the monitoring activities of the presence of wolves/dogs/hybrides in two sample areas as well as in the whole Province of Grosseto within the LIFE project "IBRIWOLF" (Pilot actions for the reduction of the loss of genetic patrimony of the wolf in central Iltaly). The monitoring activities were carried out through the application of two complementary techniques, namely the collection of genetic samples and photographic monitoring.
Allegato al "Piano di Gestione degli Ungulati-Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane" (2012) M. Lucchesi, P. Fazzi & I. Di Vittorio (Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane) 2012 First objective data on presence of the wolfs in the Apuan Alps Regional Park. Surveys carried out in the context of the sampling through phototraps images on the species of Ungulates.
Azione A2 - Ibridazione con il cane come minaccia per la conservazione del lupo: status delle conoscenze e criteri per l'identificazione degli ibridi P. Ciucci (ibriwolf) 2012 Report taking stock of the critical criteria and technical elements for a description, reliable quantification and monitoring of the hybridization between wolf and dog and contextualizes this information within a conservation ethic that is a stimulus and reference for management strategies
Relazione tecnica A3-A4 L. Mangi, E. Tosoni, M. Masi (ibriwolf) 2012 Life Ibriwolf project has included a preliminary phase of monitoring the presence of wolves/dogs/hybrids in two sample areas (Action A3), as well as the entire Province of Grosseto (Action A4), through the application of two complementary techniques, the collection of genetic samples and photographic monitoring. The information obtained during the monitoring phase is the knowledge base to set the activity of capturing hybrids and free ranging dogs within the study area
C1 e C2 – Interventi di rimozione degli ibridi lupo cane in Maremma e sul Monte Amiata Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie “Charles Darwin” Università di Roma “La Sapienza” (LIFE Ibriwolf) 2013 The document summarizes the activities of capture and maintenance in captivity of dog-wolf hybrids, carried out by the Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin" of the University of Rome La Sapienza, in two sample areas of Tuscany (Maremma area and Mount Amiata), study areas of the LIFE project "IBRIWOLF" (Pilot actions for the reduction of the loss of genetic heritage of the wolf in central Iltaly).
Azione A3 – risultati delle analisi genetiche LIFE Ibriwolf C. Braschi & L. Boitani (LIFE Ibriwolf) 2013 A document, which integates the "Technical Report of Actions A3 and A4" of the LIFE Project "IBRIWOLF" completed in July 2012. The results presented are a summary of the genetic analysis carried out on a sample of 110 excrements and 25 biological remains of canid specimens.
Indagine conoscitiva sulla presenza del lupo nell'area del monte amiata tramite la tecnica dell'ululato indotto A. Gazzola, M. Zingaro, M. Gandolfi (ibriwolf) 2013 Report on wolf-Howling activities carried out under the Life Ibriwolf project. The study area is represented by the area of Monte Amiata. The activity of wolf-Howling was carried out between 5/8/2013 and 5/09/2013.
Azione A3 – Caratterizzazione genetica e morfologica degli ibridi Risultati delle analisi genetiche - Relazione finale C. Braschi, L. Boitani (ibriwolf) 2013 The results presented are a summary of the genetic analyses carried out by two different testing laboratories on a sample of 110 excrement and 25 biological remains of canine specimens. All the excrements were collected in the territory of the Province of Grosseto between January 2012 and April 2013.
Azione A12 “Indagine ex-ante sul livello di conoscenza e gli atteggiamenti verso la presenza del lupo in Italia” A. Marino, A. Pollutri & D. Tamagnini (LIFE Medwolf) 2014 Document related to Action A. 12 of the Life Medwolf project "Best conservation practices of the wolf in Mediterranean areas" (September 2013 - February 2014). The objective of the action was to verify through focus groups the existing problems between zootechnical activity and wolf presence as well as the necessary actions to mitigate the conflict with local economic activities including preventing measures of damage.
Danni alla zootecnia da animali predatori: inquadramento del fenomeno ed esperienze di prevenzione D. Berzi (Atti dei Gergofili 2014) 2014 An analasys of the predating phenomena by the wolf on the zootechnical activities with particular attention to the impacts on sheep farms and prevention systems that can be put in place of the realities of the Tuscany region.
Progetto di Monitoraggio dei Chirotteri, dell’avifauna nidificante e svernante e del lupo nel territorio della Provincia di Pistoia - 2014 G. Dondini, S. Vergari, A. Bartolini & F. Ciuti (Provincia di Pistoia) 2014
Ricerca e monitoraggio sulla presenza del Lupo (Canis lupus l.) nella Riserva Naturale di Berignone-Tatti con metodi non invasivi L. Lazzeri 2014 This document illustrates a work, carried out in the Berignone-Tatti Nature Reserve (Tuscany), to identify the presence of wolf by implementing a standard investigation system: identification of standard transepts repeated several times a month, search for signs of predator presence and intensive monitoring through digital video-phototraps.
Azione A10 - Caratterizzazione degli eventi di predazione da canidi su bestiame in provincia di Grosseto V. Salvatori, A. Argenio, A. Di Pascasio, D. Petrucci & C. Galli (LIFE Medwolf) 2015 Made in the framework of the LIFE MEDWOLF project, this document summarizes the steps of a survey carried out to collect the data contained in the official archives of the bodies involved in the predation management. The survey is the first step to evaluate the real feasibility and the types of prevention measures to be applied in the provincial territory for the reduction of predation on the domestic beast.
Azion E2 - valutazione ex post degli ibridi vaganti D. Gallo, D. Pagliaroli, M. Zingaro (ibriwolf) 2015 The document describing the study on the presence of stray canids in the province of Grosseto, within the LIFE Ibriwolf project, obtained through the integrated analysis of the different methods of investigation (technique of induced howling, phototrapping activity, genetic analysis of organic samples).
Linee guida per la gestione dell'ibridazione tra lupo e cane A. Bocci et al. (ibriwolf) 2015 Guidelines, drawn up as part of the Life Ibriwolf project, constitute a starting point for all administrations (regions and protected areas) that intend to address the control and possibly the solution of the threat to the integrity of the wolf in Italy due to hybridisation.
Progetto di Monitoraggio dei Chirotteri, dell’avifauna nidificante e svernante e del lupo nel territorio della Provincia di Pistoia. Prosecuzione progetto nel 2015 - Relazione finale 2016 G. Dondini, S. Vergari, A. Bartolini & F. Ciuti (Provincia di Pistoia) 2016 Final report of a monitoring project on bats and wolves carried out within the natural area Palude di Fucecchio (Pistoia, Tuscany) by examining two types of environments: the wetlands of the "Piana" - Valdinievole and the Apennine forest areas.
Strategia per contrastare l’ uso illegale del veleno e le cause di mortalita’ del lupo in provincia di Grosseto G. Papitto et al. (LIFE Medwolf) 2017 Document created within the Life Medwolf project counts for analyzing what hapened in the past in the Province of Grosseto with the ultimate goal of creating a protocol to structure coordination that will allow to improve and increase the surveillance and repression of illegal activities against the fauna through a constant presence on the territory and an immediate response to illegal events of criminal importance.
Layman's report Medwolf LIFE Medwolf 2017 Document describing the activities carried out and the results obtained during the Life Medwolf project.
Piano di conservazione e gestione del lupo in Italia a cura dell'Unione Zoologica Italiana (MATTM) 2017 The Wolf Conservation Plan, not approved so far. Its main purpose is to guide the conservation and management of the wolf in Italy through the coordination of actions to be taken at different institutional levels (community, national, regional) to ensure the persistence of the wolf and minimize conflicts with human activities. This plan has been drawn up on behalf of the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (MATTM).
Progetto cani da guardiania nel Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi AAVV (Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi) 2017 The use of protection dogs, is one of the most effective methods to reduce damage from predators and has always been a constant practice in the realities in which breeding coexists with the great predators.
Attività di “Monitoraggio del lupo in aree critiche della Toscana nell’ambito del progetto Misura C.2.2 azione A “Contributi per la realizzazione di iniziative e attività di monitoraggio faunistico” del PRAF REGIONE TOSCANA 2012 –2015 F. Morimando et al. (Regione Toscana) 2017 This document explains the monitoring activities carried out as part of a project promoted by the Region of Tuscany for the verification of the constant presence of wolf packs and or hybrids in critical areas, i.e. areas characterized by a constant and high frequency of attacks on livestock farms with significant damage.
Indagine conoscitiva: La proliferazione del lupo in Toscana - Relazione finale R. Salvini (Regione Toscana) 2017 A report drawn up by the Second Council Committee of the Region of Tuscany invited to carry out a fact-finding survey on the proliferation of the wolf in Tuscany with particular reference to the causes that determine the phenomenon and its effects on human activities and environmental balance.
Azione D7 – indagine sulla frequenza degli eventi di predazione riportati dai media locali in provincia di Grosseto P. Fazzi & V. Salvatori (LIFE Medwolf) 2018 This survey has attempted to analyse predatory events as a result of which farmers have turned to newspapers to denounce discontent, comparing them with the attacks reported to the ASL and confirmed through inspections of veterinarians, so to check if there was a correspondence. It is known that in certain situations the predations are not denounced, making it difficult to understand the real performance over the years, and any management strategies that can properly address the phenomenon.
Azione D4 – indagine sulla presenza del lupo in Provincia di Grosseto S. Ricci, V. Salvatori & P. Ciucci (LIFE Medwolf) 2018 As part of the project LIFE MEDWOLF the monitoring of the presence of the wolf in the province of Grosseto has set the following objectives: 1) Presence and distribution of the species on the provincial territory; 2) Social and spatial organisation: estimation of the number of flocks and their composition 3) Estimation of the wolf population and analysis of the prevalence of hybrid individuals. This report is a summary of all the activities carried out.
A4 Ex-ante evaluation of livestock depredations in the province of Grosseto S. Ricci (LIFE Medwolf) 2018 This document is the report of Action A4 of the LIFE Medwolf project, which included realization of a survey to quantify the damage to domestic livestock caused by predators in the Province of Grosseto, and the realization of 150 interviews with local breeders to analyze how to manage domestic livestock.
Final report Medwolf Medwolf 2018 Final descriptive document of the activities carried out and the results obtained during the Life Medwolf project.
Monitoraggio del nucleo di lupo (Canis lupus) nella Riserva statale di Duna Feniglia M. Lucchesi, P. Fazzi, V. Salvatori & P. Ciucci (Carabienieri Forestale- Istituto Ecologia Applicata) 2018 This document reports the data obtained from the wolf monitoring carried out at the Duna della Feniglia State Reserve by the Biodiversity Protection Department of the CC.FF. of Follonica. During the Life MedWolf Project (LIFE11NAT/IT/069), in 2017, a pack of wolves never yet sighted was detected in the Reserve. The novelty of the event, as well as the frequency of sightings of these specimens also outside the Reserve, and in particular near the villages of Porto Ercole and Ansedonia, have stimulated the managing body of the protected area to proceed with an in-depth study on the presence of wolves in the area.
The revival of wolves and other large predators and its impact on farmers and their livelihood in rural regions of Europe - Research for AGRI Committee The revival of wolves and other large predators and its impact on farmers and their livelihood in rural regions of Europe - Research for AGRI Committee J. D. C. Linnell & B. Cretois (Parlamento europeo - Policy Department for Agriculture and Rural Development Directorate-General for Internal Policies) 2018 This study examines the current status of large carnivores in Europe and assesses their impact on livestock based on available data of compensation payments and field research. Recommendations are provided on livestock protection measures and their integration into locally adapted management systems.
Conflitto interspecifico tra cane e lupo per il controllo del territorio e delle risorse trofiche. Indagine di campo nel comprensorio teramano: preliminare di un quadriennio di osservazioni e studi A. Gallizia, G. Pennacchioni , F. Trenta & F.Bava (Centro Studi per l’Ecologia e la Biodiversità degli Appennini Project Wolf Ethology) 2018 The document reports the data after four years of observations and collection of information on wolf (Canis lupus italicus) and "wild" dog (Canis familiaris) species both present in the same suburban unprotected area located south-west of the city of Teramo. The project has made it possible to carry out a mapping of areas at risk of predation and strategic plans useful to provide concrete support to the livestock sector.
Revisione del Piano di Gestione della Fauna (Sez. I: Artiodattili e Canidi) Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane - Relazione tecnica anno 2018 P. Fazzi & M. Lucchesi (Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane) 2018 Technical report of the Fauna Management Plan 2018 in the Apuan Alps Regional Park. The species covered by the plan are Deer (Cervus elpahus), Fallow deer (Dama dama), Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), Wild boar (Sus scrofa). There is a reference section for the wolf (Canis lupus italicus).
Piano d'azione integrato per la gestione delle attività allevatoriali e la biodiversità Il caso del lupo (Canis lupus) a cura di Istituto di Ecologia Applicata (Piattaforma sul lupo a Grosseto) 2019 This document, prepared by the Work Group called "A Platform on Wolf in Grosseto" and supported by the European Commission, describes the activities to be carried out to improve the management of the wolf in the provincial territory in full consideration of the economic and productive activities related to the breeding sector.
Report: XIII Workshop Regionale della Piattaforma Europea sui Grandi Carnivori e le Attività Umane EC (Piattaforma sul lupo a Grosseto) 2019 This document reports the proceedings of the 8th Regional Workshop on Large Carnivores, the European Platform on the Coexistence between Large Carnivores and Human Population, which twice a year organizes meetings in areas where conflict situations between people and large carnivores are ongoing. In this case the workshop was focused on the work carried out by the individual representatives of the Large Carnivores Platform of Grosseto.
Artiodattili e Lupo (Canis lupus italicus) Parametri demografici e strutturali delle popolazioni Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane Relazione tecnica anno 2019 P. Fazzi & M. Lucchesi (Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane) 2019 Technical report on monitoring carried out for the population of ungulates and wolf in the Regional Park of the Apuan Alps in the year 2019.
Manuale di campo per le aziende zootencihe: le migliori soluzioni antipredatorie - Piattaforma sul lupo a Grosseto. L. Vielmi & P. Fazzi (Istituto Ecologia Applicata) 2020 Field manual describing the best anti-predatory strategies. It is divided into 3 sections: one on fences and night shelters, the second on guard dogs and the last one provides an evaluation of the cases of predation that may occur.
Dynamics of a wolf (Canis lupus) population in eastern-central apennines (PDF in IT) C. Capitani (University of Sassari - XVIII course of doctorate in environmental biology) 2005 This thesis examines factors affecting the distribution and dynamics of a wolf (Canis lupus) population in eastern Tuscany, Italy. This study concerns wolves inhabiting an area characterized by both a rich wild ungulate community and a widespread human presence, thus it provides insights about the relationship.
Ecologia trofica del lupo (Canis lupus): revisione degli studi effettuati in Europa nell’ultimo trentennio, con particolare riferimento a un'area dell'Appennino centro-orientale S. Marsili (Università di Pisa - Scienze naturali) 2006 This study collects and analyzes data obtained from studies on eating behavior of the wolf in Europe published from 1980, with particular reference to an area in the Tuscan Apennines, where research projects focused on the trophic ecology of the wolf have been underway since 1989.
The trophic ecology of wolves (Canis lupus) and their predatory role in the ungulate community of two mountainous areas of Italy (PDF) A. Gazzola (Department of Zoology and Biological Anthropology University of Sassari) This thesis examines the trophy ecology of wolves (Canis lupus) and their role in the wild ungulates community. Moreover livestock-wolf conflict were analysed and some suggestionson management issues for the conservation of wolf were discussed. The thesis contains results based on long term studies conducted in two mountainous areas of Italy. One study area is located in western Alps (Alta Valle di Susa, Turin Province, Piemonte Region). Here the wolf, was exterminated in last decade of 19th century and has recently (1994) reappeared. Domestic ungulates are present only during summer. The second study area is situated in central Italy, Northern eastern Apennines (Arezzo Province, Tuscany).Domestic ungulates are always in the pastures.
Analisi della consistenza numerica e della distribuzione spaziale dei branchi di lupo (Canis lupus) nella provincia di Arezzo (IT) (PDF) S. Occhipinti (Università degli studi di Milano - Corso di laurea in biodiversità e evoluzione biologica) 2008 This study analyses some aspects of the biology of the wolf (Canis lupus), such as the determination of the numerical consistency and the spatial distribution of the species in the province of Arezzo, from 1998 to 2007. This study was conducted with non-invasive methods such as: trasects on the provincial territory; snow-tracking, to evaluate the number of individuals present and to collect signs of presence (scats, urine, and biological samples) and wolf-Howling, for the identification of rendez-vous sites and to ascertain the reproduction in the packs. Finally, were collected the locations of wolf sightings and findings of dead animals. The study found that the number of packs in the province varies from 8 to 14 and that the average density of wolf pack is 0.5 0.03 pack/100 sq km.
Indagine preliminare e piano di gestione della specie Canis lupus italicus nella provincia di Livorno (PDF in IT) S. Vincis (Università degli studi di Parma - Master Gestione e conservazione dell’ambiente e della fauna) 2011 Action plan for the management of the wolf in the Province of Livorno and framing of the past and current situation of the species.
Metodi di cattura e radiocollaraggio di esemplari di Canis lupus nel Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi - wolfnet A. Boscherini (Università di Bologna) 2012 The purpose of the thesis is to explain the techniques and methods of capture and radiocollaring of wolf specimens (Canis lupus) within the European project Life WOLFNET; the attention falls in particular on the methodologies used within the National Park of Casentino Forests, partner of the project.
Il D.A.F. (Dissuasore Acustico Faunistico) come strumento di difesa del patrimonio zootecnico da attacchi di predatori: indagine sull’efficacia e valutazione del grado di soddisfazione degli allevatori nella provincia di Grosseto. (PDF in IT) M. Poggini (Università Studi di Firenze - Scienze e gestione delle risorse faunistico-ambientali) 2012 This study reports the data obtained from a survey on the effectiveness of acoustic bollards installed in some companies in the Province of Grosseto. The Provincial Administration of Grosseto has promoted a series of projects, with both regional and European funding, aimed at mitigating the conflict between canids and animal husbandry. Among these there is also the one that has allowed to finance the purchase of about 80 bollards and deliver them to the companies subject for study.
L’uso delle fototrappole e della telemetria GPS nel monitoraggio del lupo. L. Lazzeri (Università Studi di Firenze - Scienze e gestione delle risorse faunistico-ambientali) 2016 This work began with the capture of a male wolf on 24 July 2016 and his subsequent release after being fitted with a GPS radio-collar. The captured animal is the alpha male of a mixed couple, in which the companion is a hybrid. The wolf was followed for 352 days, getting over 1200 fixes ( referring to a location every 3 hours), the data analysis reported here is only preliminary (since the monitoring is still continuing and it is hoped will continue for several months), but highlights useful information however putting it in context, like that of Tuscany, little studied with this technique and probably close to regional saturation with wolf packs.
Exploring the importance of the ecological context in wolf-livestock interaction management: the case of Grosseto province M. Zingaro (Facoltá di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturali - Dottorato Di Ricerca in Biologia Ambientale ed Evoluzionistica XXIX Ciclo) 2016 This research was carried out within the territory of Grosseto province, where, following the recent expansion of the wolf population, livestock activities and predator range have overlapped again leading to a situation of great conflict. Although wolf-livestock conflict is a complex issue, its mitigation is partially fostered by damages reduction. This research shows how the analysis of the ecological context helps in preventing livestock losses.
Il lupo nel Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna: uno studio delle dinamiche di branco con approccio multidisciplinare (PDF in IT) A. Dissegna (Università degli Studi di Padova - Dipartimento di Biologia - Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Biologia Evoluzionistica) 2017 Monitoring of the wolf in the National Park of the Casentino Forests, through three techniques: non-invasive genetics, wolf Howling and camera trapping.
Analisi della distribuzione del lupo (Canis lupus l.) attraverso modelli di massima entropia: caso di studio nel territorio di Pistoia S. Lacobelli ("Università di Firenze - Dottorato Di Ricerca In Gestione Sostenibile Delle Risorse Agrarie E Forestali) 2017 This research is aimed at defining the potential distribution of the wolf in the territory of the Province of Pistoia, as well as the discrimination of factors that may affect this distribution. The survey was conducted through the elaboration of models with different degrees of complexity and for different resolutions of investigation in order to better understand the spatial behavior of the wolf in the territory and the combination of factors that determine an occupation of the stable area.
Valutazione comportamentale di Cani da Pastore Abruzzesi utilizzati come strumento di conservazione della biodiversità e mitigazione del conflitto zootecnico in Toscana C. A. Petrulli (Università di Bologna, PHD Scienze Veterinarie) 2018 Analysis of prevention systems (fences and guard dogs) in Provicnia of Grosseto.
I cani da guardiania nel Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi: situazione attuale e proposte tecnico-gestionali (PDF in IT) G. Bianchi (Università Studi di Firenze - Scienze e gestione delle risorse faunistico-ambientali) 2019 The objectives of this survey were mainly two: 1) To analyse the current situation regarding the use of guardian dogs within the project started by the Park in 2016 (project called Il cane da guardiania nel Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi). 2) To obtain elements to make technical-management proposals.
Who doesn’t like pups?: surveying the apennine wolf (Canis lupus italicus) population reproduction and tourist. Attitudes towards its natural recovery in Foreste Casentinesi National Park (PDF in EN) F. Roseo (Anglia Ruskin University - Faculty of Science and Technology - Master of science) 2019 This project, carried out in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, aimed to assess wolves’ reproduction by using different techniques: wolf howling survey to detect rendezvous sites and bioacoustics analysis, carried on alongside camera trap survey, to estimate the number of pups per pack. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was used to assess attitudes of tourists towards the presence of wolves in the National Park.
Caratterizzazione dei siti di predazione del lupo (Canis lupus) all’interno della Tenuta di San Rossore S. Sara (Università Studi di Firenze - Scienze e faunistiche) 2019 This study, is carried out in the Tenuta di San Rossore, included in the Parco Regionale Migliarino San Rossore Massaciuccoli, in which there is a population of ungulates , fallow deer, with very high density values associated with wild boar. For some years a wolf has appeared in the protected area and has settled in the Estate and has identified in these abundant wild communities a source of food easily available. The dynamics of the prey-predator relationship that have been established are very peculiar and have been the subject of targeted studies. This research, carried out in parallel with other investigations, aims to highlight the environmental characteristics of the predation sites used by the wolf. In particular, thanks to the implementation of standardized and repeated transects in the monitoring months, in a monitoring period between March and July 2019, The preys killed by this canid have been identified and a series of variables have been detected, using the data collected since the summer of 2017.
Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in central Italy P. Ciucci & L. Boitani, in: Wildlife Society Bulletin 1998 We investigated wolf (Canis lupus)- and dog-livestock conflicts (1992-1995) and costs of compensation (1991-1995) in the Tuscany region of central Italy. The regional indemnity program cost US $345,000 (± 93,000 SD) annually. Most depredations (95.2%) involved sheep, with a mean (± SD) annual loss of 2,550 ± 730 sheep, or 0.35% of the regional stock. Sheep lost to predators by province were correlated with sheep density within areas containing wolves ($r_{s}=0.88,\ n=9,\ P=0.0015$), but marked geographical and temporal fluctuations were reported in compensation costs. Highest levels of conflict were observed in the provinces at the border of the regional wolf range, where livestock was left unattended most of the year and sheep density reached its highest regional levels.
Dew-claws in wolves as evidence of admixed ancestry with dogs P. Ciucci., V. Lucchini, L. Boitani, E. Randi, in: Canadian Journal of Zoology 2003 Vestigial first toes (dewclaws) on the hind legs are common in large dog (Canis lupus familiaris) breeds but are absent in wild canids, including wolves (Canis lupus). Based on observational criteria, dewclaws in wolves have been generally regarded as a clue of hybridization with dogs, although this was not substantiated by molecular evidence. By means of population assignment and genetic admixture analysis, we investigated individual genotypes of three dewclawed wolves from Tuscany (central Italy, 1993–2001).
Winter habitat and travel route selection by wolves in the northern Apennines, Italy P. Ciucci, M. Masi & L. Boitani, in: Ecography 2003 To assess the wolf-habitat relationship on the home range scale (i.e., third order selection), we developed a resource selection probability function (RSPF) through a multiple logistic regression model based on the winter travel routes of a wolf pack in the northern Apennines, Italy (1991–95). Although wolves are generally considered habitat generalists, this study shows that patterns of habitat selection are disclosed at finer scales of analysis.
Predation by wolves (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in north-eastern Apennine, Italy L. Mattioli et al., in: Journal of Zoology 2004 A study on wolf predation activity on wildlife and in particular on roe deer (Capreolus Capreolus) through the analysis of excrement in five areas of the Province of Arezzo (north-eastern Tuscany, Italy).
Wolves in the Casentinesi Forests: insights for wolf conservation in Italy from a protected area with a rich wild prey community M. Apollonio et al., in: Biological Conservation 2004 The Casentinesi Forests, in the northern Apennines, harbour a rich community of wild ungulates, with the wolf representing the largest predator in the area. Between 1993 and 2000, wolf pack distribution in the area was monitored and estimates of pack size were obtained by wolf-howling surveys, snow-tracking, and occasional observations.
Occurrence of black wolves in the Northern Apennines, Italy M. Apollonio, L. Mattioli, M. Scandura in: Acta Theriologica 2004 The occurrence of black-coated individuals in wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 populations is not surprising itself, but their presence in populations recovering from a severe numerical decline has been considered a possible sign of crossbreeding with the domestic dog. One ‘black’ wolf belonging to the studied population was analysed by a set of microsatellite loci, and no trace of hybridization was found in its ancestry. This result induced us to consider the occurrence of a black phenotype in this area possibly derived from a natural combination of wolf alleles in coat colour determining genes, and not necessarily as the result of crossbreeding with the domestic form.
Selection of rendezvous sites and reuse of pup raising areas among wolves Canis lupus of north-eastern Apennines, Italy C. Capitani et al., in: Acta Theriologica 2006 The wolf is a very adaptable mammal, capable of colonizing different habitats and is able to tolerate a certain level of anthropogenic disturbance. From 1993 to 2004, 44 rendesvous sites were identified in an area in the northeastern Apennines, considering the aspects of factors tha affect the selection of the site of encounter, reproduction and breeding of wolf cubs.
Livestock damage and wolf presence A. Gazzola, C. Capitani, L. Mattioli & M. Apollonio in: Acta Theriologica 2007 A study carried out in the province of Arezzo (Tuscany) relative to livestock predation and wolf distribution from 1998 to 2001. The aim is to provide detailed information on damage to livestock related to the presence of wolves, and illustrate how proper small-scale management can play a role in a large-scale wolf conservation policy.
Prey selection and dietary response by wolves in a high-density multi-species ungulate community L. Mattioli, C. Capitani, A. Gazzola, M. Scandura & M. Apollonio in: European Journal of Wildlife Research 2010 A wolf diet study carried out in the Casentino Forests to highlight the food preferences of the predator based on the presence and density of wild prey. The survey was carried out on a community of ungulates (wild boar, deer, roe deer, fallow deer) with high density and multispecies over a period of 11 years.
The acoustic structure of wolf howls in some eastern tuscany (central italy) free ranging packs D. Passilongo et al. in: Bioacoustics 2010 Italian wolf howls are described for the first time from observations between 2003–2008 of a population living in eastern Tuscany, central Italy. A sample of 37 howls selected among single responses and 128 howls included in the choruses of 7 free ranging packs was recorded and analysed.
Le pecore e il lupo: indagine sul punto di vista degli allevatori nella provincia di Pisa S. Mattiello, T. Bresciani, G. Gaggero, V.Mazzarone & C. Russo in: Large animals review 2010 From a survey carried out on breeders in Val di Cecina (Tuscany), the wolf is perceived as a problem by 86.3% of the interviewed individuals, who attribute to it the responsibility for predation events in 91% of the cases reported, despite the fact that this has been ascertained in only 31%. The survey shows the wolf's perception by the breeders and collects suggestions about possible solutions, evaluating the level of knowledge and judgement of the breeders themselves of current regulations.
Temporal changes of howling in south European wolf packs A. Gazzola, E. Avanzinelli, L. Mauri, M. Scandura, M. Apollonio in: Italian Journal of Zoology, 2010 Howling was elicited in three wolf packs, monitored on the Italian Apennines, between 1996 and 2000. To test their attitude to reply to extraneous individuals, wolves were stimulated by playback of tape‐recorded howls emitted from prominent sites. Responses were recorded and processed by sonographic analysis, discriminating between choral and single replies, and evaluating the presence/absence of cubs. The overall reply rate was 12.6%. Responsiveness was high during late summer‐early fall, a period coinciding with abandonment of the den and translocation of the litter to rendezvous sites. At this time, chorus howling represented the majority of total replies, and the quickness of responses suggests a higher bent to vocalize. Throughout the year, late evening and dawn were the parts of the day at which wolves showed the maximum tendency to respond.
Accertamento della presenza del lupo (Canis lupus) nel Parco Regionale delle Alpi Apuane tramite la tecnica del fototrappolaggio F. Viviani, M. Lucchesi, I. Di Vittorio & P. Fazzi in: Acta Apuana 2011 In the Apunane Alps Regional Park, century after extinction, the wolf comes back to live in these places. This document summarizes the steps of a study carried out in 2008 through fecal genetic analysis. In the following years the discovery of other excrements suggested a recurrent presence of the wolf in the territory, confirmed in September and December 2011 by photo trap images.
The importance of wild and domestic ungulates in wolf diet in North Apennine, Italy G. Rizzardini, M. Zenari, P Bongi & A. Gazzola in: Annual Zoological Congress of “Grigore Antipa” Museum, Bucharest, Romania 2013 A study carried out by analyzing the diet of wolves by examining two distinct packs in a mountainous area in the province of Massa Carrara (Tuscany). After a year of activity, 256 samples of excrement were collected, which showed how much the presence of domestic livestock strongly influences the wolf diet, and yet the wolf prefers wild game meat, wild boar in particular.
Multilocus Detection of Wolf x Dog Hybridization in Italy, and Guidelines for Marker Selection E. Randi et al. in: Plos one 2014 This document explains how hybridization and introgression can influence the evolution of natural populations. Several species of wild canids hybridize in nature, sometimes originate new taxa. In the case of the wolf, hybridization with the dog is threatening the genetic integrity of populations and in some cases the survival of some endangered species (e.g. the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis).
Impact of wolf (Canis lupus) on animal husbandry in an Apennine province C. Russp et al. in: Italian Journal of Animal Science 2014 The present research has been carried out in Lucca Province (between the Orecchiella Natural Reserve and the medium Serchio Valley), in order to obtain more complete information on the location of the wolf (with transects, wolfhowling and snow-tracking), and to verify the real impact and risk factors of predation on livestock (by means of on-farm surveys carried out in 42 semi-extensive farms) in this area.
Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy E. Bassi, S. G. Willis, D. Passilongo, L. Mattioli & M. Apollonio in: Italian Journal of Animal Science 2015 The wolf is classified as a vulnerable species to IUCN, although its presence and distribution in Europe has increased in recent decades. This document reports a study carried out in 17 years of monitoring, from 1993 to 2010, collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany). The study highlights the importance of the current network of protected areas to make the recolonization of wolves easier.
Lupo, casi di predazione su animali di affezione nell' alto casentino: valutazioni e indicazioni E. Mencucci et al. in: Convegno Fauna Problematica 2016 In the National Park of the Casentino Forests, the Territorial Coordination for the Environment of the State Forestry Corps, CTA CFS, carries out since 2002 the monitoring of the wolf, including the systematic recording of the presence data, from sightings to predations on domestic and wild and, until 2016, there were never any cases of attack on dogs locally.
Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy A. Marino, C. Braschi, S. Ricci, V. Salvatori & P. Ciucci in: European Journal of Wildlife Research volume 2016 Range expansion by large carnivores in semi-agricultural landscapes represents a serious challenge for managing human-carnivore conflicts. By focusing on an area of recent re-colonization by wolves in central Italy, where livestock owners lost traditional husbandry practices to cope with wolves, we assessed an ex post and a subsequent insurance-based compensation program implemented from 1999 to 2013.
Are the livestock guarding dogs where they are supposed to be? M. Zingaro, V. Salvatori, L. Vielmi & L. Boitani in: Hystryx 2017 This document reports the study conducted on guard dogs in order to understand their movements during periods when they are not guarded and do not supervise the flock. Guard dogs are in fact considered among the most important prevention tools to reduce the demage caused by the predator, but if left unattended they can cause harm to other breeders and people.
Assessing wild canid depredation risk using a new three step method: the case of Grosseto province (Tuscany, Italy) M. Zingaro & L. Boitani in: Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2017 This paper outlines a study method to forcast the risk of predation from wild canine on farms. The return of large carnivores to man-dominated landscapes can cause controversy and concern for livestock farmers, particularly where populations of wild predators and farmland overlap. This is the case in the province of Grosseto, located in the southern part of Tuscany, Italy.
Carnivore damage prevention - CDPnews Issue 15 S. Ribeiro in: CDP 2017 This issue of the CDP News magazine, also edited by the Lobo group in the LIFE Medwolf project, a focus is made on the use of livestock guard dogs in Italy.
Carnivore damage prevention - CDPnews Issue 16 S. Ribeiro in: CDP 2017 This issue of the CDP News magazine, also edited by the Lobo group in the LIFE Medwolf project, has carried out detailed information on: Difesattiva - a breeders' association to promote networking and support damage prevention.
Trophic overlap between wolves and free-ranging wolf × dog hybrids in the Apennine Mountains, Italy E. Bassi et al. in: Global Ecology and Conservation 2017 Hybridization between wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs (Canis Familiaris) can pose a threat to wild population through genetic introgression and ecological competition. This document illustrates the activities of a study carried out to acquire knowledge on the ecological role of wolf-dog hybrid free-ranging by investigating their winter eating habits in comparison with wolves in a mountainous area of Central Italy.
Video-scats': Combining camera trapping and non-invasive genotyping to assess individual identity and hybrid status in gray wolf A. Canu, L. Mattioli, A. Santini, M. Apollonio & M. Scandurain: Wildlife Biology 2017 This document shows the results derived from the combined use of motor activated cameras and non-invasive genetic sampling during monitoring of rare or elusive wild carnivore populations. The two approaches are usually implemented separately, but are occasionally integrated at the population level, mostly in order to estimate population size. The study identifies the advantages obtained by using the two sampling methods in a monitored Italian wolf population affected byintrogression from domestic dogs.
Singing in a wolf chorus: structure and complexity of a multicomponent acoustic behaviour D. Passilongo, M. Marchetto & M. Apollonio: Hystrix It. J. Mamm 2017 In this study, we investigate the structure of the wolf chorus by means of the analysis and the quantification of the different components, taking advantage both of the digital sound recording and analysis, and of the modern statistical methodologies. The study area was the province of Arezzo (3230 km2) in Eastern Tuscany, Italy.
I no longer feel alone”: introducing a decision modelling approach to addressing wolf conflicts in Italy S. Ribeiro in: CDP 2017 This issue of the CDP News magazine, also edited by the Lobo group in the LIFE Medwolf project, has carried out detailed information on a decision modelling approach to addrressing wolf conflict in Italy.
Estimation of pack density in grey wolf (Canis lupus) by applying spatially explicit capture-recapture models to camera trap data by genetic monitoring L. Mattioli, A. Canu, D. Passilongo, M. Scandura & M. Apollonio in: Frontiers in Zoology 2018 Estimating the density of a species is a key issue in wildlife management. This study illustrates an innovative approach based on phototrapping of wolves, providing a first significant estimate of wolf pack density in a given area and laying the foundation for future ecological studies of the species.
Food habits of wolves and selection of wild ungulates in a prey-rich Mediterranean coastal area F. Ferretti, S. Lovari, V. Mancino, L. Burrini & M. Rossa in: Mammalian Biology 2019 In this study the eating habits and the selection of the main prey by wolves in a protected coastal area of the Mediterranean (Uccellina Hills in the Maremma Regional Park - May 2016- April 2018) were studied. Potential prey included both wild and domestic species but the study showed that wild ungulates represent the majority of the wolf diet.
High levels of recent wolf x dog introgressive hybridization in agricultural landscapes of Central Italy. V. Salvatori , R. Godinho, C. Braschi, L. Boitani,& P. Ciucci in: European Journal of Wildlife Research 2019 In this paper the extent of wolf–dog hybridization in Grosseto Province (Italy) has been assessed. Based on a total of 72 genotypes, the minimum proportion of admixed individuals in our sample was 30.6%, comprising 8 out of the 13 surveyed packs; however, we suspect the rate of recent admixture could be closer to 50%.This high level of admixture raises serious wolf conservation concerns and exemplifies the expected dynamics of wolf–dog hybridization if left unmanaged in human-dominated landscapes.
Acoustic analysis of wolf howls recorded in Apennine areas with different vegetation covers C. Russo, F. Cecchi, M. Zaccaroni, C. Facchini & P. Bongi in: Ethology Ecology & Evolution 2020 In animal communication, acoustic signals can be used to census individuals as well as groups of individuals of the same species. The wolf (Canis lupus) is a protected species in Europe, and the study of its vocalizations may furnish information about its spatial distribution, reproductive success, and social behaviour. This study was conducted in seven locations of the Tuscan Apennines over 2 years. Seven different freeranging wolf-packs, from different environmental habitats, were recorded. The minimum wolf number of each pack was ascertained along with the presence of pups. Different acoustic characteristics were found among packs, confirming that the groupspecific vocal signature is a useful method to recognize packs in the wild.
Relative impact of human harvest and wolf predation on two ungulate species in Central Italy E. Bassi, A. Gazzola, P. Bongi, M. Scandura, M. Apollonio in: Ecol. Res. 2020 Data collected from 2000 to 2010 on a predator–prey system in eastern Tuscany (central Italy) were used to investigate the relative impact of human harvest and natural predation by wolves (Canis lupus) on the local populations of their main prey: wild boar (Sus scrofa) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). We estimated the percent composition of wolf diet from scat analysis (n = 2,150) and converted it into ingested biomass and number of killed individuals by quantifying the energy requirement of the resident wolf pack based on the field metabolic rate formula. Moreover, we collected data on hunting bags, and investigating the age/weight class preferences of both wolves and hunters compared their impacts on the two ungulate populations.

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Further LIFE projects on large carnivores in Italy