LIFE-PSLOOP - Polystyrene Loop

LIFE16 ENV/NL/000271

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Contact details:

Contact person: Jan NOORDEGRAAF
Email: jnoordegraaf@polystyreneloop.eu

Project description:


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam is used extensively throughout Europe as an insulation material. Currently, the amount of EPS construction waste equals 200 kilotonnes per year in Europe and may reach up to 1 000 ktonnes per year in the decades to come. Some 52.5% of this waste is incinerated and the energy recovered, while only 7.5% of EPS waste is recycled. The rest is landfilled or incinerated without energy recovery.

EPS that was produced before 2015 contains the flame retardant Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which has been listed since then as a persistent organic pollutant. A product is no longer allowed to contain more than 100 parts per million of HBCD. Recycling of EPS construction waste is already challenging because of the pollutants (glue, cement residues, etc.) contained within it. It has now become even more so because HBCD must be removed.


The objective of the PSLoop project is to recycle both EPS construction waste and extruded polystyrene (XPS) and to demonstrate an economically viable alternative to incineration. The recycling process is based on the dissolution of PS foam and the removal of the HBCD. The process delivers a PS gel ready for use as a raw material for EPS or XPS. Furthermore, bromine is recovered from the HBCD and recycled.

The project will construct a recycling plant to demonstrate the process on an industrial scale; the process will have already been tested in a pilot plant. The process has been designed to deal with different qualities of input material to maximise internal recycling of the solvent used and to obtain optimised polymers that are in line with virgin quality PS. In addition, the project aims to create a value chain for EPS/XPS with recycling and collection companies by demonstrating a standard collection and pre-treatment system.

The project will have significant climate action implication, given that the PSLoop value chain is much more energy and resource efficient than the production of PS from virgin raw materials. Furthermore, the project contributes to the Circular Economy Action Plan, the Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe and the Waste Framework Directive, as it is creating a value chain for EPS/XPS. It also contributes to implementation of the REACH regulation by reducing the impact of chemicals on the environment or human health through their substitution with safer substances.

Expected results:

  • Construction of a demonstration plant able to recycle 3 000 tonnes of EPS/XPS waste per year;
  • Establishment of a collection system able to supply the required EPS/XPS waste quantities to the demonstration plant;
  • Production of 2 100 tonnes/year of PS gel and 43 tonnes/year of bromine;
  • Avoidance of the emission of 210 tonnes/year of carbon monoxide, 25 tonnes/year of aromatic hydrocarbons and 10 tonnes/yearof aliphatic hydrocarbons;
  • Reduction by 12 000 tonnes/year of greenhouse gas emissions (78%) compared to the baseline scenario; and
  • Saving of 150 000 GJ of energy.



Environmental issues addressed:


Waste - Waste recycling
Waste - Hazardous waste


chemical industry‚  hazardous substance‚  resource conservation‚  building waste‚  waste recycling

Target EU Legislation

  • Chemicals & Hazardous substances
  • "Regulation 1272/2008 - Classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (amend ...
  • Waste
  • COM(2015)614 - "Closing the loop - An EU action plan for the Circular Economy" (02.12.2015)
  • Directive 2008/98 - Waste and repealing certain Directives (Waste Framework Directive) (19.11.200 ...

Natura 2000 sites

Not applicable



Coordinator PolystyreneLoop Coperatief UA (PSLoop UA)
Type of organisation Large enterprise
Description Synbra BV is specialised in the production of expanded polystyrene (EPS) and other foams for technical and thermal insulation systems. Synbra Technology BV, based in Etten-Leur, will be directly involved in the project; it is a technology centre and also produces raw materials for the company’s downstream processing plants.
Partners ICL Europe Coöperatief U.A., The Netherlands Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., Germany


Project reference LIFE16 ENV/NL/000271
Duration 01-JUL-2017 to 01-JUL -2023
Total budget 8,412,884.00 €
EU contribution 2,699,977.00 €
Project location Noord-Brabant(Nederland)


Read more:

Brochure "The circular economy in action: Closed-loop recovery of polystyrene foam and bromine" (1.27 MB)
Brochure "Oběhová ekonomika v akci: Uzavřený okruh zpětného získávání polystyrenové pěny a bromu" (1.58 MB)
Brochure "Circular Economy – Kreislaufwirtschaft in der Praxis: Rückgewinnung Von Polystyrolschaumstoff Und Brom Im Geschlossenen Kreislauf" (954 KB)
Newsletter "Welcome to the PolystyreneLoop Foundation Newslet ...
Newsletter "In the loop: Update PolyStyreneLoop - March 2018" ...
Newsletter "In the loop: Update PolyStyreneLoop December 2017 ...
Newsletter "Welcome to the PolyStyreneLoop Newsletter" (651 K ...
Poster "The circular economy in action: Closed-Loop recov ...
Poster "The circular economy in action closed-loop recove ...
Poster "PolyStyreneLoop: Circular Economy in action: Clos ...
Project web site Project's website
Slides Presentation "Introduction PolyStyreneLoop Cooperative U.A" (5. ...
Slides Presentation "The feasibility of a demo plant for PolyStyrene D ...
Slides Presentation "EPR schemes in a circular economy: 22nd May 2018" ...
Slides Presentation "PolyStyreneLoop: une solution unique de recyclage ...


Project description   Environmental issues   Beneficiaries   Administrative data   Read more   Print   PDF version