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MEDETOX - Innovative Methods of Monitoring of Diesel Engine Exhaust Toxicity in Real Urban Traffic

LIFE10 ENV/CZ/000651


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Contact details:

Contact person: Jan TOPINKA
Tel: +420 241062675
Fax: +420 241062785
Email: jtopinka@biomed.cas.cz



Project description:

Background

Diesel exhaust emitted by internal combustion engines is a key source of urban air pollution. It is not just the traditionally-regulated total mass of particulate matter that is of public concern, but also ultrafine particles of pollution. These can readily penetrate deep into the lungs and pass through cell membranes into the bloodstream. Engine exhaust has adverse effect on many key bodily functions (respiratory, circulation and nervous system) and proximity to its source has been correlated with increased risk of tumours, asthma, various chronic respiratory ailments, heart attack, and other illnesses.


Objectives

The main objective of the MEDETOX project was to demonstrate innovative methods for assessing the possible health risks connected with exposure to diesel exhaust particles under real-life traffic conditions in the city of Prague (Czech Republic). Specific objectives included identifying health risks related to emerging fuels and fuel additives; demonstrating standardised toxicity tests as an appropriate tool for regulatory decisions; building an effective interdisciplinary network targeted at the overall assessment of the health risk potential of engine exhaust during the real-time operation of road vehicles; and monitoring the effects of various policy decisions. The project comprised a team of experts in the areas of engines and emissions, toxicity assessment, and public policy


Results

The MEDETOX project demonstrated innovative methods for monitoring the toxicity of diesel engine exhaust emissions under real urban driving conditions, with a detailed focus on the effects of congested traffic on the ring road of Prague, Czech Republic. The project constructed and validated several monitoring and/or sampling systems for the assessment of roadside emissions; and it prepared and validated simplified toxicity assays that can be carried out on the samples. It collected data on emissions and the toxicity of particle-bound organic compounds during real-world operation, and during laboratory simulations, and also compared these with engines running on various candidate replacement fuels. The project’s findings could have a big influence on both policies and technical approaches to traffic emissions.

During the project, a range of key technologies and methods were demonstrated:

  • Miniature and low-cost portable on-board systems for vehicle emissions monitoring;
  • Miniature ultra-low-cost detector of particle length, used for vehicle emissions monitoring, and also tested within the European Metrology Programme as a novel tool for periodic emissions inspections of motor vehicles;
  • Portable FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectrometer for measurement of unregulated pollutants of interest, such as nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methane and nitrous oxide;
  • Particle size distributions and particle counts that measured vehicle exhaust and ambient air near roads using instruments mounted on hand carts;
  • Acellular tests of DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage that, relative to the toxicological tests in general, are relatively easy, fast, inexpensive screening tests, requiring small amounts of material; and
  • Standardised protocols for sampling and toxicity testing of diesel emissions under various real-traffic conditions, as tools for hazard identification and risk assessment.

These tests are described in details on www.medetox.cz/methods and include sampling, analysis of cytotoxicity, analysis of DNA adducts, micronucleus test, oxidative stress, and comet assay.

The project’s results confirmed the initial hypotheses that there were gaps between measuring emissions under laboratory conditions and in real-traffic conditions. The monitoring prototype was successfully tested in real traffic, and this received much attention from national and international experts, and also the media, general public and local authorities. This raised awareness of the health risks from diesel pollutants.

Although its policy implications can only be assessed in the long term, the project contributed important evidence and arguments for further policy consultations. Its activities have already contributed to the advancement of real driving emissions (RDE) legislation set forth in the European Commission regulations no. 2016/427 and no. 2016/646. It is expected that the results may also contribute, through the demonstration of enabling technologies, to an expansion of RDE legislation on motorcycles and other L-category vehicles, small non-road engines, and the measurement of ammonia (a secondary particle precursor), methane and nitrous oxide (greenhouse gases). MEDETOX findings and information gathered during the project have been used in citizen actions against land-use choices that have likely resulted in a deterioration of air quality, including the construction of a large shopping centre that brings large amounts of traffic into the historical city centre. In the long term, by contributing to reductions in emissions and related health effects, the project should lead to air quality improvements and a reduction in adverse health effects.

There are possible economic benefits from reduced external costs associated with air pollution, and the adoption of less expensive measurement techniques.

Further information on the project can be found in the project's layman report and After-LIFE Communication Plan (see "Read more" section).


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Environmental issues addressed:

Themes

Risk management - Human health protection
Air & Noise - Air pollutants


Keywords

public health‚  monitoring‚  urban area‚  emission reduction‚  exhaust gas‚  air pollution


Target EU Legislation

  • Air
  • COM (2013/0918) - A Clean Air Programme for Europe (18.12.2013)

Natura 2000 sites

Not applicable


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Beneficiaries:

Coordinator Ústav experimentální medicíny AVČR, v.v.i.(Institute of ExperimentalMedicine AS CR, v.v.i.)
Type of organisation Research institution
Description The Institute of Experimental Medicine (Academy of Sciences), Prague, analyses the toxic and health effects of environmental pollution, cell biology, developmental toxicology, molecular epidemiology, cancer research, stem cells and nervous tissue regeneration. Research in the department of genetic ecotoxicology (DGE) concentrates mostly on the effects of air pollution on genetic material, on the mechanisms of changes induced by environmental factors as well as modelling the relationships between individual factors (e.g. air pollution vs. lifestyle), and the genetic damage caused by the air pollutants from traffic and industrial emissions.
Partners Technical University Liberec (TUL), Czech Republic Ministerstvo životního prostředí (Ministry of Environment), Czech Republic

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Project reference LIFE10 ENV/CZ/000651
Duration 01-SEP-2011 to 31-AUG -2016
Total budget 1,223,524.00 €
EU contribution 611,762.00 €
Project location Praha(Czech Cesko)

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Read more:

Project web site Project's website
Publication: After-LIFE Communication Plan After-LIFE Communication Plan
Publication: Book "Innovative Methods of Monitoring of Diesel Engine ...
Publication: Case study "Pojednání o výfukových emisích ze spalovacích mot ...
Publication: Layman report Layman report
Publication: Technical report "Final Report: Covering the project activities fro ...
Slides Presentation "Proč jsou emise v reálném provozu vyšší než během ...
Slides Presentation "Biopaliva ve spalovacích motorech a jejich vliv n ...
Slides Presentation "Vliv biopaliv na emise částic ze vznětových motor ...
Slides Presentation "Biological tests for evaluation of toxicity of no ...
Slides Presentation "Spalovacími motory jako hlavní zdroj nanočástic v ...

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Project description   Environmental issues   Beneficiaries   Administrative data   Read more   Print   PDF version