Judges in the domestic courts of member states are at the same time European judges. They not only apply domestic law but also European Union law. However, the final word on the interpretation of European Union law lies with the Court of Justice of the European Union. It cooperates with domestic courts in the framework of the preliminary ruling procedure. An additional source for the interpretation of European Union law can be found in judgments delivered as a result of infringement procedures, in particular in the field of the environment.
Developed by the Academy of European Law (ERA)