The Eco-Innovation Scoreboard (Eco-IS) and the Eco-Innovation Index  illustrate eco-innovation performance across the EU Member States. They aim at capturing the different aspects of eco-innovation by applying 16 indicators grouped into five dimensions: eco-innovation inputs, eco-innovation activities, eco-innovation outputs, resource efficiency and socio-economic outcomes. The Eco-Innovation Index shows how well individual Member States perform in different dimensions of eco-innovation compared to the EU average and presents their strengths and weaknesses. The Eco-IS and the Eco-Innovation Index complements other measurement approaches of innovativeness of EU countries and aims to promote a holistic view on economic, environmental and social performance.

In this Brief you can see the overview of the trends across EU28 shown by the 2016 Index.

If you want to learn more about the technical implementation of the Eco-Innovation Scoreboard, please download the Technical note.


Check eco-innovation performance of the EU Members States in various indicators.

Select countries for comparison:


Eco-innovation Inputs

Eco-innovation inputs comprise investments (financial or human resources) aiming to trigger eco-innovation activities.

The indicators in the Eco-IS include:
- Governments environmental and energy R&D appropriations and outlays (% of GDP)
- Total R&D personnel and researchers (% of total employment)
- Total value of green early stage investments (USD/capita)

Eco-innovation Activities

Eco-innovation activities includes indicators to monitor the scope and scale of eco-innovation activities undertaken by companies. The component focuses on efforts and activities rather than on actual results of innovation activity.

The indicators in the Eco-IS include:
- Implementation of resource efficiency actions among SMEs (Score)
- Implementation of sustainable products among SMEs (% of surveyed firms)
- Number of ISO 14001 certificates (per mln population)


Eco-innovation Outputs

Eco-innovation outputs describe the immediate results of eco-innovation activities. Indicators in this component are used to monitor the extent to which knowledge outputs generated by businesses and researchers relate to eco-innovation.

The indicators in the Eco-IS include:
- Eco-innovation related patents (per mln population)
- Eco-innovation related academic publications (per mln population)
- Eco-innovation related media coverage (per mln population)

Eco-innovation Socio-economic outcomes

Socio-economic outcomes of eco-innovation depict wider effects of eco-innovation activities for society and the economy. This includes changes in employment, turnover or exports that can be related to broadly understood eco-innovation activities.

The indicators in the Eco-IS include:
- Exports of products from eco-industries (% of total exports)
- Employment in environmental protection and resource management activities (% of workforce)
- Value added in environmental protection and resource management activities (% of GDP)


Eco-innovation Resource efficiency outcomes

Resource efficiency outcomes relate to wider effects of eco-innovation on improved resource productivity. Eco-innovation can have a twofold positive impact on resource efficiency: it can increase the generated economic value, while at the same time decrease pressures on the natural environment.

The indicators in the Eco-IS include:
- Material productivity (GDP/Domestic Material Consumption)
- Water productivity (GDP/total fresh water abstraction)
- Energy productivity (GDP/gross inland energy consumption)
- GHG emissions intensity (CO2e/GDP)