Access to Information
Final Report (and annexes) of a study on the interaction between the Birds and Habitats Directives and provisions on active dissemination of information found in the Access to Information Directive, 2003/4/EC, and on the management of spatial information found in the INSPIRE Directive, 2007/2/EC.
Access to justice
EC commissioned studies
In 2018 the Commission contracted an external contractor to prepare a study on the EU’s implementation of the Aarhus Convention in the area of access to justice in environmental matters. It assessed the redress possibilities in environmental matters which are available both directly before the CJEU and via the courts of the Member States. The study evaluated the system of administrative and judicial review, identified any shortcomings, examined options for addressing them and assessed their impact.
Background to the study is that the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee found that the EU does not comply with the access to justice provisions of the Convention because of insufficient mechanisms to ensure review of EU acts (ACCC/C/2008/32). The findings have not yet been endorsed by a meeting of the parties (MOP).
The Council as a follow-up adopted on 18 June 2018 Decision (EU) 2018/881, based on Article 241 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It requested the Commission to submit, by 30 September 2019, a study on the Union's options for addressing the findings.
The following documents are available:
Cooperation with judges programme
In 2006, the European Commission presented a Communication to the European Parliament and the Council on judicial training in the European Union.
2008 saw the adoption of a Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States meeting within the Council on the training of judges, prosecutors and judicial staff in the European Union.
In 2009, the European Parliament published a study on strengthening judicial
training in the European Union, which is available through the link below.
The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009 provides a legal basis for European judicial training activities. Articles 81 and 82 list "support for the training of the judiciary and judicial staff" as one of the measures required to strengthen judicial cooperation in civil and commercial matters, and in criminal matters.
In December 2009, the Council adopted the Stockholm Programme, focusing on issues of European judicial training for all legal professionals.
Recognising the need to reinforce the co-operation with the national judges, Environment Directorate-General launched in 2008 a special programme for this purpose. Click here for details.
Studies prepared by stakeholders
The Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union (ACA) and the European Commission has jointly organised a Seminar in Brussels on 23 November 2012 on the topic of "Access to justice and organisation of jurisdictions in environmental litigation: national specificities and influences of European Union law". A number of national reports and a synthesis report were prepared that are also available on the ACA website.