Energy

National energy and climate plans (NECPs)

To meet the EU’s energy and climate targets for 2030, EU Member States need to establish a 10-year integrated national energy and climate plan (NECP) for the period from 2021 to 2030. Introduced under the Regulation on the governance of the energy union and climate action (EU/2018/1999), the rules required the final NECP to be submitted to the Commission by the end of 2019.

Areas covered by the NECPs

The national plans outline how the EU Member States intend to address

  • energy efficiency
  • renewables
  • greenhouse gas emissions reductions
  • interconnections
  • research and innovation

This approach requires a coordination of purpose across all government departments. It also provides a level of planning that will ease public and private investment. The fact that all EU Member States are using a similar template means that they can work together to make efficiency gains across borders.

The process

The governance regulation required that all EU countries submit their draft plans for the period 2021-2030 to the Commission by the end of 2018 and the final plans by the end of 2019, taking account of the Commission's assessment and recommendations on the draft plans.

Each country must then submit a progress report every two years.

The Commission will, as part of the energy union report, monitor EU progress as a whole towards achieving these targets.

To better develop and implement the plans, the Member States were required to consult citizens, businesses and regional authorities in the drafting and finalisation process.

The Commission published a Communication assessing the 28 draft NECPs in June 2019 (COM/2019/285), together with specific recommendations and a detailed "Staff Working Document" for each Member State. They are available in the table below. The Commission also published detailed annexes on methodology (SWD/2019/212) and national forestry accounting plans (SWD/2019/213).

Commission analysis and recommendations on draft NECPs submitted (in early 2019)

Open or close table

Member State

Commission analysis of draft NECPs

 

Draft NECPs, as submitted

Recommendations

Report

Factsheet

 

National language

EN

National website

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Austria

C/2019/4420

EN

EN

 

DE

EN *

Austria

Belgium

C/2019/4401

EN

EN

 

Belgium’s draft NECP

EN *

Belgium (FR) (NL)

Bulgaria

C/2019/4402

EN

EN

 

BG

EN *

Bulgaria

Croatia

C/2019/4411

EN

EN

 

HR

EN

Croatia (HR) (EN)

Cyprus

C/2019/4413

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Cyprus (EN)

Czechia

C/2019/4403

EN

EN

 

CS

EN *

Czech

Denmark

C/2019/4404

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

n/a

Estonia

C/2019/4406

EN

EN

 

ET

EN *

Estonia

Finland

C/2019/4426

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Finland (EN)

France

C/2019/4410

EN

EN

 

FR

n/a

France

Germany

C/2019/4405

EN

EN

 

DE | EN

EN *

Germany

Greece

C/2019/4408

EN

EN

 

EL

EN *

Greece

Hungary

C/2019/4417

EN

EN

 

HU

EN *

n/a

Ireland

C/2019/4407

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Ireland

Italy

C/2019/4412

EN

EN

 

IT

EN *

Italy

Latvia

C/2019/4414

EN

EN

 

LV

EN *

Latvia

Lithuania

C/2019/4415

EN

EN

 

LT

EN

Lithuania

Luxembourg

C/2019/4416

EN

EN

 

DE

EN *

Luxembourg

Malta

C/2019/4418

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

n/a

Netherlands

C/2019/4419

EN

EN

 

NL

EN

Netherlands

Poland

C/2019/4421

EN

EN

 

Part 1 | Part 2 
| Part 3

Part 1

Poland

Portugal

C/2019/4422

EN

EN

 

PT

EN *

Portugal

Romania

C/2019/4423

EN

EN

 

RO

EN

Romania (RO ) (EN)

Slovakia

C/2019/4425

EN

EN

 

SK

EN

n/a

Slovenia

C/2019/4424

EN

EN

 

SI

EN *

Slovenia

Spain

C/2019/4409

EN

EN

 

ES

EN *

n/a

Sweden

C/2019/4427

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Sweden

UK

C/2019/4428

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

UK

*Courtesy translation provided by European Commission services

Final NECPs

The table below links to the final integrated national energy and climate plans for the period from 2021 to 2030, as submitted by Member States. 

 

Final NECPs received (as of 17 September 2020)

Original version

English version

National website

Austria

DE

EN

Austria

Belgium

FR (Part A | Part B)

NL (Part A | Part B)

EN (Part A | Part B)

Belgium (FR) (NL)

Bulgaria

BG

EN

 

Croatia

HR

EN

Croatia

Cyprus

EN

EN

Cyprus

Czechia

CS

EN

n/a

Denmark

EN

EN

n/a

Estonia

ET

EN

Estonia

Finland

EN

EN

Finland

France

FR

EN

 

Germany

DE

EN

Germany

Greece

EL

EN

Greece

Hungary

HU

EN

Hungary

Ireland

EN

 

 

Italy

IT

EN

Italy

Latvia

LV

EN

n/a

Lithuania

LT

EN

n/a

Luxembourg

DE | FR

EN

Luxembourg

Malta

EN

EN

n/a

Netherlands

NL

EN

n/a

Poland

PL

EN (Part 1-3 | Part 4 | Part 5)

Summary

Poland

Portugal

PT

EN

Portugal

Romania

RO

EN

 

Slovakia

SK

EN

Slovakia

Slovenia

SL

EN

Slovenia

Spain

ES

EN

 

Sweden

SE

EN

n/a

       

*Until now, the UK has not complied with its obligation to submit a national energy and climate plan, as required under Withdrawal Agreement between UK and the EU

Commission assessment of the final NECPs

The Commission published its assessment of the cumulative impact of the 27 NECPs (COM(2020) 564 final) at EU-level on 17 September, in parallel with the proposals for a new 2030 Climate Target Plan.

The 2020 energy union report, published on 14 October 2020, included 27 staff working documents with the Commission’s assessment of each individual NECP, together with a 2-page summary for each assessment.

The overall assessment shows that for renewable energy, the combined commitment by EU countries is estimated at 33.1%-33.7% - above the existing renewable energy target of at least 32%. It proves that renewables are becoming cost-effective and that more potential can be tapped through more equal efforts amongst countries. To this end, and to meet the higher 2030 climate target of at least 55% greenhouse gas emissions reduction, the Commission will revise existing legislation.

For energy efficiency, the cumulative impact of the different NECPs provide net savings of 29.4%-29.7%. Although this is better than what was estimated in the draft NECPs, this still falls short of the existing energy efficiency target of 32.5%. The Commission intends to help close this gap through various upcoming initiatives and revisions of existing legislation.  

Taken together, the assessment concludes that the EU is on track to surpass its current 2030 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 40% - with a combined impact of roughly 41%. 

The provisions relating to internal energy market and energy security lead the Commission to conclude that energy security in the traditional energy sense is not at risk, but there is room for greater flexibility on the market side to accommodate higher shares of renewables through smart technologies and more storage. 

On research, innovation and competitiveness, the assessment regrets the lack of detail and underlines the importance of linking research and innovation policies to match the energy and climate ambitions. Some progress is noted in terms of regional cooperation and by linking energy and climate policies to environment policies, though there is still space for improvement.

Public consultation on NECPs

When preparing the NECPs, Member States were required to give the public early and effective opportunities to participate, in line with article 10 of the governance regulation. This included setting reasonable timeframes to allow the public to be informed, participate and express its views. A summary of the public's views had to be attached to the NECP.

Further to this obligation, it is important to remember that all Member States are parties, in their own right, to the “Aarhus Convention” of 25 June 1998, which establishes a number of rights of the public with regard to decision-making on environment matters.

The Aarhus Compliance Committee issued, on 28 May 2019, an Advice to Member States on the public consultation process of the final NECPs. Member States were therefore advised to make sure that

  • the arrangements are transparent and fair
  • within the arrangements, the necessary information is provided to the public
  • the requirements of article 6(3), (4) and (8) of the Aarhus Convention are met, including reasonable timeframes and ensuring that due account is taken of the outcomes of public participation
  • Member States ensure that all options, which were open at the time of the preparation of the draft 2021-2030 NECPs, are open at the time of the public participation procedure

National long-term strategies

Under the governance regulation, EU countries were also required to develop national long-term strategies by 1 January 2020 and ensure consistency between long-term-strategies and the 10-year NECPs.

Documents

Related links