This report sums up the work done in the scope of the Building Stock Observatory project from February 1, 2015 to June 31, 2016.
The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) requires, subject to certain conditions, the introduction of individual metering and consumption based billing - also known as "sub-metering" - of heating, cooling and hot water in multi-apartment buildings with collective supply systems. Where meters or heat cost allocators are in place, there are different ways of using the measurements to allocate the costs to individual occupants. This report – prepared by the Commission's Joint Research Center for DG ENER- provides an overview of the existing thermal cost allocation rules in Member States, characterising them in terms of key features.
This report was commissioned to gather comprehensive information on, and to provide systematic analysis of the latest available scientific research and the latest available scientific evidence on indirect land use change (ILUC) greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of biofuels and bioliquids.
The study concludes that ILUC factors identified in the literature vary significantly across biofuel pathways, studies, or even within studies. Studies that have investigated parametric uncertainty conclude that parametric uncertainty has a significant effect on the outcomes. As a consequence of all the uncertainties in the components of ILUC emissions, it is very difficult to narrow them down.
This study aims to measure the flexibility needs arising from a higher penetration of variable renewable electricity, and to identify and select options for increasing the flexibility of the electricity system. A first report by the Oeko-Institut presents a historical assessment of progress made in the integration of variable renewable electricity in Europe, and develops first-tier indicators for flexibility. A second report by Artelys proposes a methodology for designing and optimising flexibility portfolios at Member State-level, and presents the results of an optimisation based on Artelys' Crystal model. The study is the last task of a broader project ("Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) and is intended as an input in Member States' preparation of their National Energy and Climate Plans under the proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union (COM(2016) 759 final).
This report covers work performed in the context of the Impact Assessment of the Market Design Initiative, consisting of two parts. The first part focuses on electricity market operation and evaluates a number of policy options. The second part examines the behaviour of investors and assesses the ability of markets to sustain adequate levels of investments in future years. The study used modelling techniques based on the PRIMES model and electricity markets sub-models developed for the scope of the impact assessment.
Following-up the IEA’s authoritative work ‘Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency’, this study is a first attempt to apply this framework to make a comprehensive quantitative assessment of such multiple benefits and their trade-offs. It shows that enhanced energy efficiency in Europe beyond a 27% target for 2030 could led to substantial social, economic and environmental effects.
This study examines the impact of diverging transmission tariff structures in EU member States. It explores some of the key issues in relation to transmission tariffs and outlines potential policy options for the Commission to consider. It also provide a summary of congestion income spending in EU Member States in recent years.
The present report describes and evaluates scenarios fostering the full integration of the Baltic electricity system within the EU power and market framework. Towards this goal, the de-synchronisation of the Baltic electricity grids from the Russia/Belarus system crucially represents a key-necessary requirement.